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Full text of "The story of the exposition; being the official history of the international celebration held at San Francisco in 1915 to commemorate the discovery of the Pacific Ocean and the construction of the Panama Canal"

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Printed  in  the  United  States  oj  America 

























XXVI  "many  inventions" 











1 1 1 













XXXV  THE    DAY    OF    STEEL        .... 









XLIV  "down    TO    THE    SEA    IN    SHIPS"      . 




XLVIII  MACHINE    FARMING  .  .  .  .  • 

XLIX  PRIDE    OF   THE    STATES  .... 


LI  FOREIGN    FARMING  .  .  .  .  • 


LIV       SALMON,    CLAMS,    AND    WINE 


LVI  UNCLE    SAm's    FISH 

LIX       PRESERVING    A    NATIOn's    FOOD 






























frontispiece:  "wind  and  sPRAy"  (color) 

Facing  Title  Page 


"AMERICAN   bison"         ..... 

"the  duck  babv"    ..... 

in  the  gallery  of  the  new  art 

"river  fro.vt"  ...... 

in  the  swedish  .section,  palace  ok  fine  arts 

japanese  porcelain  and  cloisonne 

in  the  american  section 

in  the  norwegia.v  section 

chinese  cloisonne,  and  screen 

in  the  french  section 

"young  pan"  (color) 

an  entrance  to  the  palace  of  education  . 

general  view  in  the  palace  of  education  the  human  breed 

japan's   red  CROSS  EXHIBIT  .... 






















filipino  craftsmen 

bureau  of  standards  exhibit 

american  red  cross  exhibit 

red  cross  relief  camp 

argentine  exhibit  in  liberal  arts 

chinese  sacred  musical  instruments 

Uruguay's  exhibit  in  liberal  arts 

JAPANESE  liberal  ARTS  EXHIBIT     . 

world's  variety  of  money. 

coins  of  the  exposition 

"the  fountain"  (color) 

electrical  research  apparatus 

japan  exhibits  her  manufactures 

english  pottery 

french  manufactures 

florentine  furniture 

italian  marbles 

some  leading  executives 

entrance  to  the  palace  of  varied  industries 

netherlands  pottery  exhibit 

east  indian  section    .  .  .  . 

tapestries  and  furniture 

Uruguay's  exhibit  in  varied  industries 

silverware  and  art  jewelry 

italian  silk  spinning  machinery 

central  aisle,  palace  of  machinery  . 





1 10 



"primitive  fire"  (color)    . 

one  of  the  diesel  engines 

gas  engines 

a  large  valve    . 

the  great  color  press 

abrasives  and  their  work. 

expert  boxers 

the  20,000-horse-power  turbine 

storage-battery  trucks 

conveyer  system  for  a  modern  factory 

holes  at  wholesale  . 

the  thordarson  transformer 

battleship  in  dry-dock 

the  mermaid  fountain 

doubled  splendors 

a  government  mine  rescue  tru 

DOWN  IN   "the   mine" 

























new  york.  harbor,  and  hellgate  bridge 

the  globe 

a  bit  of  alaska 

international  mercantile  marine  exhibit 

motor  cycles  in  i915 

automobile  assembling  plant 

chinese  railway  development 

ancient  japanese  warships 

original  mccormick  reaper 

farm  tractors    . 

harvester  company's  model  farm 

caterpillar  and  trailers 

a  real  cornucopia 

grain, cotton, tobacco 

kansas  sorghums 

illinois  corn  products 

Wisconsin's  variety   . 

Louisiana's  luxuriance 

Idaho's  fertility 

out  of  ARKANSAS 

from  one  VIRGINIA    farm 

from  one  oregon  farm 

illumination  of  the  court  of  palms  (colo 


products  of  argentine  forestry 

japanese  forestry  exhibit 

the  model  flour  mill 

in  days  of  old    . 

chinese  restaurant  . 

Havana's  choicest 

the  tea  pickers 

Argentina's  food  products 

pond  LILIES      .      .      .      .      ■ 


■  238 

.  246 

•  254 

■  254 

•  258 

•  258 
.   262 


.  266 

.  266 



•  274 

■  274 

.   282 

.  286 



•  194 

•  302 

•  302 
.  306 
.  306 
.  310 

•  314 









THE  SPRING   FLOWER  SHOW       .... 








SHIRE  HORSES  ...... 

THE   HOG  MOTOR  ..... 

A  HUMBOLDT  COUNTY  LOG         .... 




FROM  MONTEREY  BAY      ..... 


MEDAL  OF  AWARD  ..... 







J  26 





A  MAN  thought  he  had  a  pretty  good  device  for  timing  boiled  eggs, 
and  inasmuch  as,  in  1915,  there  were  still  people  that  could  afford 
to  eat  eggs,  he  took  a  small  booth  in  the  Palace  of  Food  Products, 
and  began  to  exhibit  his  invention.  It  consisted  of  a  sort  of  one-armed  alarm 
clock  that  could  be  trusted  to  ring  you  up  within  half  a  minute,  or  a  minute 
and  a  half,  or  any  other  small  part  of  an  hour  from  the  time  you  had  set  it. 
The  man  thought  that  by  giving  away  cook-books  he  might  get  orders  for 
quite  a  number  of  clocks,  from  housewives  that  did  not  like  to  over-boil 
their  husband's  eggs  or  burn  up  the  biscuits  while  they  were 
reading  the  Sunday  supplement.     Hence  his  location  in  the  Food    ^°^'"^^'"' 

r>   I  wj  •    L         •         I  •  1  ,-  Customers 

Palace.     We  might  give  his  name,  but  prefer  to  de-personalize 

him  here  because  his  case  is  a  mere  illustration  of  what  was  going  on,  in 

less  picturesque  aspect  perhaps,  all  through  the  exhibit  palaces. 

Before  he  had  been  exhibiting  long  he  had  an  order  for  a  hundred  clocks 
from  the  superintending  physician  of  a  large  London  hospital,  who  wanted 
them,  not  to  boil  eggs  with,  but  to  warn  the  nurses  when  they  had  kept  the 
surgical  instruments  in  the  sterilizer  long  enough;  and  for  purposes  in  the 
sick-room.  Then  some  mechanical  engineers  came  along,  and  offered  a  good 
price  for  some  special  timers,  refined  to  the  proper  precision  and  reduced  to 
pocket  size,  for  timing  shaft  revolutions.  Some  boot-and-shoe  manu- 
facturers explained  to  him  that  the  production  of  shoes  is,  in  parts  of  the 
work,  accurately  timed,  and  the  little  egg-boiler  was  just  what  they  had 
been  looking  for.  Representatives  of  a  belting  concern  tried  to  buy  a  large 
stock  of  the  clocks  because  in  their  particular  field  of  manufacture  if  a  two- 
thousand-dollar  belt  remained  two  minutes  too  long  in  a  certain  pickle,  that 
belt  was  ruined;  and  the  substitution  of  a  reliable  mechanical  device  for  the 
fallible  memory  of  a  man  with  a  stop-watch  seemed  like  good  economy  and 
sound  insurance.     And  the  representative  of  the  operating  department  of  a 

VOL.   IV  — I 


railroad  said :  "That  would  be  a  fine  thing  to  hang  in  an  engine  cab.  When 
the  engineer  had  orders  to  stop  at  a  certain  siding  in  54  minutes  and  wait  for 
another  train  he  could  set  it  for  52  minutes,  and  he  couldn't  help  remember- 
ing."    Canneries  wanted  it,  hotel  men  wanted  it,  bankers  wanted  it. 

The  visitors  found  the  timing  machine,  and  the  timing  machine  found 

them.     The  inventor  discovered  in  a  few  weeks  what  it  might  have  taken 

him  years  to  learn  by  the  ordinary  processes  of  manufacturing  and 

They  Found  ^^j     ftisins  and  selling,  if  he  ever  could  have  learned  it  that  way— 

which  is  not  certain.     And  the  discoveries  came  right  there  to  his 

booth  and  forced  themselves  in  on  him.     He  couldn't  keep  them  out. 

Supposing  the  device  to  be  properly  manufactured  and  efficiently 
marketed,  it  was  no  longer  a  matter  of  boiling  eggs  and  baking  biscuits,  but 
of  conserving  large  values,  and  saving  life  itself.  Because  of  the  Exposition 
that  had  brought  men  of  all  occupations  together  from  all  over  the  world 
to  see  exhibits  that  had  been  brought  together  from  all  over  the  world, 
humanity  was  going  to  be  served  better,  earlier;  and  the  world  was  going  to 
become  a  safer  and  more  comfortable  place  in  which  to  live. 

As  for  the  inventor,  he  said  he  wouldn't  have  taken  $10,000  for  the  vision 
of  usefulness  it  had  given  him,  and  the  field  it  had  opened  for  his  invention. 
He  was  passing  through  the  usual  precarious  infancy  of  manufacturing.  He 
wanted  to  know  what  the  selling  prospects  were,  and  they  swamped  him. 
He  accumulated  41,000  orders  in  a  few  months,  and  had  to  close  his  order 
books  because  he  had  not  yet  begun  to  produce,  and  couldn't  undertake  to 
make  so  many  deliveries.  Those  orders  were  from  Germany,  France 
England,  Ireland,  Scotland,  Chile,  Argentina,  Australia,  New  Zealand, 
the  Philippines,  Java,  China,  Japan,  Korea,  Mexico,  and  Canada,  besides 
the  United  States— not  from  commissioners  at  the  Exposition,  but  from 
travelers  the  Exposition  had  attracted   to  one  center  from  all  over  the 


He  received  more  than  orders.  Experienced  manufacturers  told  him  he 
would  never  be  able  to  begin  without  a  larger  amount  of  capital  for  machin- 
ery than  he  could  hope  to  command.  He  was  going  to  need  at  least  seven 
machines  that  would  cost  from  $2,500  to  $3,000  apiece.  He  wished  to  keep 
control  of  his  invention  and  reap  the  profits  himself,  naturally;  and  the  thing 
looked  impossible  just  when  its  possibilities  should  have  appeared  brightest. 
But  within  the  Exposition  he  found  machines  that  would  do  the  work,  one 
for  $300  and  another  for  $500,  and  others  at  like  amounts,  all  well  within 

his  reach. 

His  field  was  before  him  and  the  way  was  clear.  It  was  a  fine,  big  field, 
far  larger  than  the  soft-boiled-egg  business  he  had  seen  at  first.     Eggs,  in 

W    rt'v.     Z 

















w  •;;      >"  ?, 

S    P  o 

r    z  &< 

>  -a 


?  ffi 


fact,  looked  very  small,  and  he  almost  forgot  them.     In  order  to  develop  the 
invention,  he  had  mortgaged  everything  he  owned  except  one  . 

,.,°  _,  IT-  ••  1         Lj  Practical 

buildmg  lot,  and  he  felt  so  grateful  to  the  Exposition  that  he  do-      Gratitude 
nated  that  as  one  of  the  prizes  for  San  Francisco  Day.     True,  it 
was  easier  than  giving  cash;  but  on  the  other  hand  he  did  not  have  to  give 
either.     He  complained  bitterly  that  nobody  had  started  a  fund  to  make  the 
Exposition  perpetual — the  exhibits  part  of  it;  he  wanted  to  subscribe. 

Such  knowledge  is  not  contained  in  books  nor  taught  in  schools.  It  can 
only  be  learned  in  expositions;  for  expositions,  and  they  alone,  assemble  it, 
classify  it,  and  organize  it.  They  so  multiply  it  and  propagate  it,  from  such 
small  germs,  that  they  may  almost  be  said  to  create  it. 

And  aside  from  its  effect  commercially,  and  economically,  important 
sociological  and  historical  inductions  inevitably  follow  upon  so  compre- 
hensive a  vision  of  the  interdependence  of  human  effort. 

Mutual  understanding  is  the  miracle-worker  of  all  time.  Through  that, 
expositions  are  the  swift,  efficient  organizers  of  the  industry  of  the  world. 
They  help  the  world  find  itself.  They  show  it  what  it  has,  what  it  thinks, 
what  it  is  doing.  And  they  show  it  what  it  needs,  and  how  it  can  get  it. 
Their  service  in  raising  human  efficiency  is  invaluable.  They  make  history 
over.  And  they  do  it  right  in  the  exhibit  palaces,  where  one  art  helps 
another.  That  organizing  process  went  on  at  San  Francisco  for  288  days, 
with  what  effect,  in  its  entirety,  we  shall  never  know,  because  that  effect  in 
its  entirety  is  too  large  for  us  ever  to  see.  It  is  broadening  out  all  about  us 
to-day,  and  will  go  on  broadening  out  until  its  farthest  ripples  are  merged  and 
lost  in  the  ocean  of  human  activity.     This  is  the  significance  of  the  Exhibits. 


IN  trying  to  find  out  what  was  the  matter  with  the  world,  and  how  such 
an  attractive  planet  had  been  so  spoiled  as  a  place  of  residence,  a 
number  of  people  had  begun,  by  the  opening  of  the  twentieth  century, 
albeit  dimly  in  most  cases  and  as  a  minor  item  of  a  large  subject,  to  perceive 
that  some  of  the  trouble  is  due  to  making  things  for  sale  instead  of  for  use; 
whereas  service,  and  not  private  profit,  ought  to  be  regarded  as  the  real 
purpose  and  social  function  of  industry.  With  the  spread  of  that  |dea, 
conscience  began  to  assert  itself  in  production.  "  Business  is  Business  "  was 
still  true,  and  always  will  be,  but  in  practice  it  began  to  be  true  that  Busi- 
ness is  also  Service. 

Now,  the  exhibits  of  an  exposition  are  an  epitome  of  its  times,  and 
nothing 'could  have  represented  more  faithfully  the  times  in  which  the 
Panama  Canal  was  constructed  than  the  spirit  shown  straight  through  the 
exhibit  palaces  at  San  Francisco.  It  was  neither  by  accident  nor 
Forced  by  ^^bitrary  decree  that  in  1915  the  underlying  thought  of  the 
the  Times  ^^^^^:^^^^^  ^^^  Service,  rather  than  Art,  or  even  Education  itself. 
The  theme  was  in  the  air.  It  was  the  spirit  of  the  times,  the  spirit  of  the 
Canal,  one  thing  for  which  the  Canal  was  built,  the  one  thing  by  and  through 
which  its  building  was  made  possible. 

The  influence  of  that  example  was  vast.  Although  forced  by  the  neces- 
sity of  defense,  the  Canal  was  also  a  stupendous  national  enterprise  to 
promote  the  welfare  of  humanity,  and  in  spite  of  contemporary  war  in 
Europe  it  flung  a  radiance  over  the  thoughts  of  men.  It  tended  toward 
altruism,  and  altruism  got  into  the  ideas  of  exhibitors,  so  that  all  through 
the  palaces  thev  were  showing,  with  their  service  to  society  as  producers, 
their  immediate  service  to  their  employees  and  their  service  to  the  public  in 
promoting  sanitation  and  safety,  concurrently  with  output. 

The  extent  to  which  this  efi^ort  went  showed  that  exhibitors  generally 
were  animated  by  motives  beyond  mere  advertising  and  selling;  although 
advertising  and  selling  are  good  and  serviceable  activities,  too,  for  they  help 
spread  welfare.     The  product,  the  clean  processes  of  its  production,  and  the 




considerate  conditions  under  which  the  labor  employed  on  it  worked  and 
was  enabled  to  live,  were  shown  together,  by  moving  pictures,  charts  and 
models.  Provision  of  fine  lavatory  systems,  playgrounds,  employees'  club 
rooms,  and  the  encouragement  of  employees'  associations,  were  illustrated 
not  once  but  many  times  over  by  some  of  the  largest  corporations  in  the 
country.  No  exposition  before  ever  showed  so  much  of  just  this  active 
principle.  It  breathed  a  spirit  new  to  such  aflfairs,  and  raised  it  far  above 
the  ordinary  commercial  plane;  or,  better  yet,  the  Exposition  helped  raise 
the  commercial  plane  itself. 

The  exhibitors  responded  to  the  art  stimulus  of  the  Exposition,  mani- 
fested in  the  harmony  of  its  composition  and  the  glory  of  its  architecture,  by 
building  better  and  far  more  artistic  booths  than  exhibitors  had  at  any 
exposition  before.  Some  were  very  costly  and  sumptuous,  some  were 
chaste  and  restrained,  over  40  had  moving  picture  theaters,  many  showed 
beautiful  dioramas;  some,  like  a  great  oil  corporation  exhibit  in  the  Palace 
of  Mines  and  Metallurgy,  were  embellished  with  animal  sculptures 

1    r  •         1        1  •    I  A1  II  Influence 

or  Other  sculptural  forms  m  the  highest  art.  Almost  all  were  of  its  Art 
beautiful,  and  such  installations  as  those  of  a  certain  tapestry 
weaving  concern,  and  a  large  silver  plate  company  in  the  Palace  of  Varied 
Industries,  were  pictures  to  remain  long  in  memory.  Nor  can  any  one  that 
saw  them  forget  the  wonderful  panoramas  of  continental  highways,  moun- 
tain and  river  scenery,  and  exquisite  landscapes  that  surrounded,  high 
above  the  floor,  the  various  sections  of  the  automobile  exhibits  in  the  Palace 
of  Transportation. 

For  an  explanation  of  these  excellences,  one  must  look  farther  and 
deeper  than  the  mere  operation  of  commercial  competition.  That,  we  have 
had  with  us  since  expositions  were,  and  long  before  thedayofmercantilefairs. 
Hundreds  of  thousands  of  dollars  were  expended  in  the  exhibit  palaces  at 
San  Francisco  in  ways  that  by  no  possibility  could  have  produced  any  direct 
or  indirect  financial  returns:  expended  to  teach,  to  enlighten,  to  spread  a 
knowledge,  among  the  public  and  among  possible  competitors,  of  the  best, 
cleanest,  safest  ways  to  live,  to  do  the  world's  work  and  to  treat  the  people 
that  were  concerned  in  the  doing  of  it. 

There  was  little  of  the  land-show  spirit  in  evidence;  no  exploiting  of 
mining  ventures  and  farm  land  speculations.  The  Exposition  refused  large 
sums  of  money  for  concessions  to  itinerant  vendors  to  sell  certain  articles 
that  should  be  distributed  only  by  reputable  specialists  and  experts.  The 
main  principle  throughout  the  work  of  an  exhibit  department  chief  was  to 
select  and  collect  exhibits  of  a  character  that  would  show  the  world  the 
contribution    the   manufacturer   was   making   to   the   welfare   of  society. 


Refinement  of  product  and  of  the  processes  of  production,  labor-saving 
and  life-saving  devices  side  by  side;  these  things  were  more  in 
Social  evidence  at  San  Francisco  than  at  any  other  exposition  ever  held. 

Benefits        ^^  ^^^  nothing  less  than  the  manifestation  of  a  growing  and  con- 
scious desire  to  improve  the  world. 

The  eleven  exhibit  departments  at  San  Francisco  were  a  contraction  from 
the  sixteen  at  St.  Louis  in  1904,  although  the  number  of  classes  was  almost 
as  large.  It  will  be  seen  that  the  gamut  began  with  Fine  Arts  and  ended, 
not  with  Mines  and  Mining,  but  with  Mines  and  Metallurgy;  for  it  is 
through  metallurgy  that  the  output  of  the  metal  mine  is  brought  into  its 
service  relationship  to  the  necessities  of  Man. 

There  was  no  Department  of  Physical  Culture,  for  it  was  considered  that 
the  interest  of  the  majority  of  people  had  by  this  time  passed  beyond  the 
subject  of  Man  as  an  individual  animal  and  was  beginning  to  center  in  his 
moral,  social,  and  industrial  welfare.  There  was  no  Department  of  Anthro- 
pology, for  much  the  same  reason.  Nor  was  there  a  Department  of  Fisher- 
ies, edible  fish  being  treated  as  food,  and  exhibited  in  the  Palace  of  Food 
Products;  while  Forestry,  as  representative  of  the  products  of  the  soil,  was 
assigned  to  the  Department  of  Agriculture.  And  there  was  no  Department 
of  Electricity,  because  electricity  had  become  common  to  so  many  other 
things.  The  Committee  on  Exhibits  at  one  time  discussed  the 
Significant  ^j       ^^at  there  be  a  Department  of  Discoveries  and  Mari- 

time  Development  in  the  Pacific  Area;  but,  brilliant  as  the  con- 
ception was,  and  apparently  suitable  to  the  occasion  to  be  celebrated,  it 
was  abandoned  as  outside  the  proper  limits  of  the  activity  of  an  exposition, 
whose  field  is  the  industrial  rather  than  the  academic  department  of  education. 

It  will  be  observed  that  the  departments  determined  upon  and  organized 
were  definite  and  mutually  exclusive— so  much  so  that  they  were  built  up  by 
different  and  independent  chiefs,  whose  responsibilities  were  defined  in  the 
official  classification,  and  whose  jurisdictions  were  in  most  cases  delimited 
by  their  several  palace  walls.  Food  Products,  however,  were  regarded 
broadly  as  refined  products  of  Agriculture,  and  given  a  separate  palace, 
under  direction  of  the  Chief  of  Agriculture.  Varied  Industries  might  have 
been  in  the  Palace  of  Manufactures,  and  Food  Products  in  that  of  Agri- 
culture, and  the  palaces  in  these  cases  might  have  been  twice  the  size,  to 
accommodate  the  exhibits.  But  by  constructing  separate  buildings,  twice 
the  number  of  entrances  and  of  center  aisles  were  provided  for  the  conveni- 
ence of  exhibitors  and  the  circulation  of  visitors. 

The  Departments  of  Education  and  of  Social  Economy  were  housed  in 
one  palace.     It  was  a  bit  small  for  the  purpose  and  caused  an  overflow  of 





some  Social  Economy  exhibits  into  the  Palace  of  Mines  and  Metallurgy. 
The  Machinery  Palace  contained  some  exhibits  that  belonged  to  the  Depart- 
ment of  Liberal  Arts,  such  as  the  great  color  printing  press,  which  was  noisy 
and  required  power  and  so  could  not  well  be  put  into  the  Liberal  Arts  Palace. 
But  these  were  minor  exceptions.  On  the  whole,  the  classification  was 
adhered  to,  and  the  name  of  a  palace  indicated  the  general  class  of  article 
shown  in  it.  That  was  very  necessary,  to  avoid  a  destructive 
confusion.  An  exposition  full  of  unclassified  exhibits,  thrown  isOrder 
helter-skelter  into  the  palaces,  or  into  foreign  and  State  pavilions, 
without  other  relation  than  common  points  of  origin,  would  be  "a  tale  told 
by  an  idiot,  full  of  sound  and  fury,  signifying  nothing."  For  this  reason 
exhibits  in  pavilions  of  foreign  and  State  governments  are  not  encourages' 
by  exposition  experts,  and  are  not  commonly  reviewed  for  award. 

There  were  exceptions  at  San  Francisco,  brought  about  by  the  exigencies 
the  war  created.  For  example,  Australia  had  its  appropriation  cut  in  two 
by  the  necessity  of  sending  aid  to  the  Allies,  and  for  awhile  it  looked  as 
though  there  could  not  be  any  Australian  participation.  But  a  great  deal 
of  work  had  been  done,  and  by  the  time  the  movement  was  again  under 
weigh,  with  a  moiety  of  the  original  appropriation,  the  space  in  the  palaces 
had  all  been  taken  by  other  exhibitors.  It  was  not  considered  fair  to  exclude 
Australia  from  review  for  award  under  such  circumstances.  Greece, 
Guatemala,  and  Honduras,  owing  to  financial  pressure  brought  about  by 
the  war,  were  also  late,  and  were  admitted  to  the  same  exception. 

To  serve  any  useful  object  the  exhibits  of  an  exposition  must  tell  a 
continuous  story;  they  must  be  mutually  relevant;  all  these  palaces  must 
read  like  open  books,  like  volumes  of  the  same  great,  living  encyclopedia  of 
the  thought  and  work  of  man.  To  make  them  do  so  is  an  art  in  itself,  and  a 
good  classification  is  recognized  as  a  work  of  scholarship. 

In  so  vast  a  collection,  the  reference  quality  is  the  first  important  feature. 
It  enables  the  student  to  coordinate  and  compare  his  impressions.  The  man 
that  seeks  a  power  pump,  seeks  the  best  power  pump  for  his  purpose.  It 
would  not  be  helping  him  help  the  world,  to  have  some  pumps  in  a  foreign 
pavilion  and  others  in  the  California  Building  half  a  mile  away.  He  needs 
them  grouped,  under  one  roof,  anc^  in  some  relation  to  their  uses,  so  that  he 
can  compare  different  types  and  select  the  one  best  adapted  to  his  needs. 

When  he  has  found  that,  it  is  likely  that  he  will  wish  to  see  motors.  And 
the  deep-sea  fisherman  and  the  man  interested  in  auxiliary  schoon-  ^  ,^^ 

ers  are  interested   in    one   class   of  motor,   too.     These    things         ^  ^^^^ 
have  relevancy  in  use,    and  should  have   in   the   classification. 
Tractors  may  seem  like  instruments  of  Transportation — but  their  greater 



use,  for  the  present  at  least,  is  in  Agriculture,  and  they  must  go  where  the 
farmer  will  be,  and  not  be  dispersed  among  the  buildings  of  different  States 
where  they  may  happen  to  be  produced. 

To  get  the  value  of  an  exposition,  a  visitor  not  only  needs  to  have  the 
objects  of  his  study  so  grouped  and  displayed  that  he  may  apply  himself 
directly  to  the  examination  of  them,  without  having  to  assemble  them 
mentally  and  by  memory  from  different  parts  of  the  grounds,  but  he  needs 
to  have  them  segregated,  and  among  articles  of  their  general  type,  instead  of 
having  scattered  about  them  a  lot  of  irrelevant  material  that  distracts  his 
attention  from  a  just  comparison. 

The  classification,  therefore,  almost  determines  the  degree  of  an  exposi- 
tion's effectiveness. 

And  the  classification  must  be  modernized  for  every  exposition.  Prepar- 
ing the  classification  for  the  Panama-Pacific  took  eight  months;  eight 
months  of  study  by  the  Director-in-Chief  of  Foreign  and  Domestic  Partici- 
pation, through  consultation  with  experts  connected  with  the  universities 
and  with  bureaus  of  the  Government,  with  editors  of  technical  journals, 
leaders  in  important  industries,  and  exposition  authorities  in  foreign  coun- 
tries. It  was  worth  such  care,  for  in  the  contemporary  university  of  the 
Exposition,  it  was  the  curriculum.  The  effort  was  to  present  as  far  as 
possible  a  scientific  alignment  of  the  latest  and  highest  achievements  of 
the  world.  The  eleven  Departments  finally  comprised  156  groups  divided 
into  800  classes,  representing  all  modern  phases  of  the  world's  industrial 

The  classification  was  recommended  by  the  Exhibits  Committee  and 
approved  by  the  President  in  April,  1913,  and  was  immediately  promulgated 
to  the  world. 

No  article  manufactured  prior  to  1904,  the  date  of  the  St.  Louis  Exposi- 
tion, and  no  longer  commercially  produced,  could  be  shown  for  award;  for 
this  was  to  be  a  contemporaneous  exposition,  celebrating  in  the  main  an 
achievement  of  its  own  year. 

Three  motives  are  present  in  a  classification:  i,  the  announcement  of  the 
Exposition's  scope;  2,  the  provision  of  a  plan  of  installation;  and  3,  the  lay- 
ing of  a  foundation  for  the  organization  of  the  System  of  Awards.  These 
were  all  subserved  in  the  Panama-Pacific  classification. 

Throughout  that  classification,  as  throughout  the  Exposition,  the  key- 
note of  Service  was  so  strongly  emphasized,  that  the  system  of 
Volume        awards  was  largely  based  on  the  amount  of  benefit  an  exhibitor 

Important  '^     •'  ,,•  ...  ,,  -i 

had  conferred  on  society  by  his  activities,  and  hence  a  material 
consideration  in  making  an  award  was  the  age,  and  extent  of  operations,  of 


the  particular  enterprise  the  exhibit  represented.  For  example,  an  inventor 
that  had  done  something  quite  original  and  remarkable  and  had  produced 
one  sample  of  his  invention  and  stopped  there,  was  not  regarded,  from  an 
Exposition  standpoint,  as  having  contributed  greatly  to  human  happiness. 
Volume  of  output  and  length  of  public  service  through  production  was 
an  element  of  great  importance  in  the  assignment  of  awards. 

In  reviewing  the  more  significant  of  the  thousands  of  exhibits  let  us 
follow  the  classification  and  begin  with  the  Palace  of  Fine  Arts. 


THE  exhibition  of  Fine  Arts  at  the  Panama-Pacific  International 
Exposition  was  more  than  a  gathering  together  of  great  paintmgs 
and  sculptures.  It  was  a  school  wherein  a  person  with  a  serious 
interest  in  the  subject  could  learn  something  of  the  evolution  of  art,  and 
especially  of  American  art,  as  an  expression  of  genius  and  an  adornment  of 
life,  and  wherein  he  could  see  something  of  the  latest  phases  this  evolution 
had  assumed.  And  the  people  of  San  Francisco,  and  the  strangers  in  the 
city,  went  to  that  school  by  the  hundreds  of  thousands,  not  merely  to  acquire 
"culture"  but  to  enjoy.  Throughout  the  community  it  was  the 
'^''^.^°  *f  subject  of  more  discussion  than  any  other  department.  A  count 
^"^"^^  kept  on  several  different  days  showed  that  55  or  56  per  cent  of  all 
entrants  to  the  Exposition  resorted  to  it;  and  it  was  estimated  that  during 
the  season  it  attracted  not  less  than  10,000,000  visits. 

The  head  of  this  Department  was  J.  E.  D.  Trask,  and  his  theory  of  its 
function  was  that  it  should  serve  to  promote  cultural  advancement,  and 
help  inform  every  visitor  to  the  Exposition  no  matter  what  that  visitor's 
intellectual  attainments  might  be.  To  do  that  he  drew  on  the  collections 
of  museums  and  of  individuals  all  over  the  world,  and  then  so  classified  the 
various  items  that  they  should  stand  in  logical  and  sequential  relation  to 
one  another.  He  took  charge  of  his  Department  toward  the  end  of  191 2, 
and  laid  out  a  general  plan  of  the  stupendous  work  before  him;  in  which  he 
was  assisted  by  his  broad  knowledge  of  the  field,  his  acquaintance  with 
collectors,  and  his  experience  as  an  art  museum  manager. 

The  first  labor  was  the  classification,  worked  out  in  conjunction  with  the 
Director-in-Chief  of  Foreign  and  Domestic  Participation  and  the  Director 
of  the  Division.  It  excluded  copies  produced  by  industrial-mechanical 
processes,  pictures,  drawings,  and  engravings  not  framed;  works  of  sculp- 
ture in  unbaked  clay  or  any  form  of  modeling  wax;  and  architectural  orna- 
ments except  such  as  might  be  included  under  group  3.  The  classification 
was  brief  enough  to  recite  here  as  a  matter  of  interest,  and  a  possible  guide 
to  some  future  exposition.     It  read: 



"muse  finding  the  head  of  ORPHEUS  " 


Fine  Arts 
Group  I 


Class  I.  Paintings  on  canvas,  wood  or  metal,  by  all  direct  methods  in  oil, 
wax,  tempera  or  other  media;  enamels;  paintings  on  porcelain, 
faience  and  on  various  preparations,  of  purely  pictorial  intent;  mural 
paintings  in  any  medium. 

Class  2.  Paintings  and  drawings  in  water  color,  pastel,  chalk,  charcoal,  pencil 
and  other  media,  on  any  material.  Miniatures  on  ivory  or  ivory 

Group  2 

Class  3.  Etchings,  engravings  and  block  prints  in  one  or  more  colors.  Auto- 
lithographs  with  pencil,  crayon  or  brush. 

Group  3 


Class  4.  Works  in  the  round,  high  and  low  relief;  busts,  single  figures  and  groups 
in  marble,  bronze  or  other  metal;  in  terra  cotta,  plaster,  wood,  ivory, 
or  other  materials. 

Class  5.     Models  in  plaster  and  terra  cotta. 

Class  6.     Medals,  plaques,  engravings  on  gems;  cameos  and  intaglios. 

Class  7.     Carvings  in  stone,  wood,  ivory  or  other  materials. 

Group  4. 


Selections  of  especially  interesting  art  works  of  various  kinds,  from 
institutions  and  private  collections. 

The  following  will  not  be  admitted  to  the  Fine  Arts  Department: 

1.  Copies;  works  resulting  from  industrial-mechanical  processes. 

2.  Pictures,  drawings  or  engravings  not  framed. 

3.  Works  of  sculpture  in  unbaked  clay,  or  any  forni  of  modeling  wax. 

4.  Architectural  ornaments  except  such  as  may  be  included  in  Group  3. 

As  finally  completed,  the  collection  was  a  very  broad  exhibit  of  the 
graphic  and  plastic  arts  in  spite  of  the  fact  that  it  showed  nothing  in  the 
industrial  arts,  and  nothing  in  the  Arts  and  Crafts,  and  left  wholesale 
reproductions  of  stock  statuary  to  the  Palace  of  Manufactures,  where  they 
made  a  very  beautiful  display,  and  where  thousands  ot  dollars'  worth  of 



them  were  sold  by  the  Italian  dealers.  And  not  all  the  fine  arts  were 
represented  in  the  Palace,  for  architecture  was  lacking.  This  was  because 
the  Exposition  itself  was  the  grandest  and  most  beautiful  exemplification 
of  architecture  ever  seen  in  this  country,  and  one  of  the  most  beautiful  ever 
seen  in  the  world,  and  no  further  effort  to  exhibit  architecture  would  have 
been  effective. 

In  this  work  of  establishing  and  conducting  one  of  the  great  depart- 
ments of  the  Exposition  the  Chief  needed  the  assistance  of  an  able  staff, 
and  had  it— Robert  B.  Harshe,  Assistant  Chief;  Charles  Francis  Browne, 
Superintendent  of  the  United  States  Section:  Jane  de  Maranville,  the 
Department's  Secretary;  John  G.  Dunlap  and  Helen  Wright,  Sales  Manager 
and  Assistant  Sales  Manager;  Will  J.  Hyatt,  John  M.  Bateman,  and  William 
G.  Merchant,  who  assisted  the  very  critical  work  of  installation,  both  of 
pictures  and  statuary;  and  Eugene  Pirard,  Gallery  Superintendent;  with 
quite  a  roll  of  office  and  gallery  assistants. 

Soon  after  taking  charge,  Trask  made  a  trip  through  the  East  on  an 
extended  survey  of  the  field  to  find  what  was  new  and  available.  In  the  Fall 
of  1913  he  went  to  Europe  and  remained  until  the  end  of  the  year.  Here 
he  formed  several  advisory  committees  with  headquarters  at  London  and 
Paris,  visited  American  artists  abroad  and  enlisted  their  support, 
Widejield  jigj,yssgd  space  assignments  and  details  of  hanging  with  foreign 
commissioners  of  countries  that  had  accepted  the  invitation  to 
participate,  and  labored  to  promote  the  participation  of  more.  On  this 
mission  he  visited  France,  Belgium,  Holland,  Denmark,  Sweden,  Italy, 
Austria,  Hungary,  and  England. 

Had  it  not  been  for  the  war  there  would  have  been  a  strong  British 
representation  in  the  Palace  of  Fine  Arts  and  an  unofficial  German  partici- 
pation amounting  to  400  paintings.  In  fact,  a  German  Committee  was 
formed,  composed  of  some  of  the  foremost  artists  and  art  authorities  m 
Germany  and  including  the  American  painter  Gari  Melchers,  instructor  in 
painting  in  the  school  at  Weimar.  Prof.  Carl  von  Marr  of  Munich  was 
appointed  to  take  charge  of  the  German  exhibition  at  San  Francisco.  The 
war  ended  it,  as  far  as  that  sort  of  representation  was  concerned. 

There  were  39  German  paintings  in  the  International  Section,  but  they 
got  there  as  a  result  of  the  chance-medley  of  the  world  conflict,  for  they  had 
been  shown  at  the  Carnegie  Institute  in  Pittsburg  in  the  Spring  of  1914, 
started  home  on  a  German  ship,  were  captured  by  a  British  cruiser,  passed 
upon  by  a  British  prize-court,  and  returned  to  the  Institute;  whose  President 
and  Board  of  Directors  saw  that  they  were  exhibited  at  San  Francisco  for 
the  Exposition  period. 


Trask  returned  to  San  Francisco  in  December,  1914;  and,  the  war  having 
spoiled  the  fairest  prospects  in  the  European  field,  he  devoted  himself  to 
building  up  the  United  States  Section.  In  the  meantime  J.  Nilsen  Laurvik, 
a  Norwegian  authority  in  this  subject,  had  been  credentialed  to  Norway, 
where  he  did  the  effective  work  that  led  to  the  formation  of  the  fine  Nor- 
wegian exhibit.  He  was  then  sent  to  Venice,  where  he  secured 
much  of  value  that  had  been  shown  in  the  Venice  Exposition  of  Eulobe 
1914  and  that  could  not  be  returned  to  its  owners  on  account  of 
war  conditions.  Thence  he  visited  Vienna  and  Budapest,  and  the  result  of 
his  labors  under  the  unpropitious  conditions  of  the  time,  but  aided  by  the 
safe  transportation  of  the  "Jason,"  was  the  filling  out  of  the  International 
Section  with  a  most  noteworthy  display. 

Strong  support  was  found  in  the  advisory  committees  organized  to  assist 
the  Department.  There  was  a  National  Advisory  Committee,  one  for  New 
England,  one  for  New  York,  one  for  Pennsylvania  and  the  South  Atlantic 
States,  one  for  the  West  and  another  for  the  Middle  West,  one  for  Great 
Britain,  and  one  for  Europe  in  general.  On  these  committees  were  such  men 
as  John  S.  Sargent,  Walter  McEwen,  Edmund  C.  Tarbell,  John  W.  Alex- 
ander, Edward  W.  Redfield,  Frank  Duveneck,  and  Eugen  Neuhaus. 

In  building  up  the  United  States  Section,  the  Chief  of  the  Department 
either  visited  in  person,  or  caused  to  be  visited  and  reported  upon  by  some 
member  of  an  Advisory  Committee,  every  exhibition  of  painting  and  sculp- 
ture of  any  importance  held  in  the  United  States  during  1914.  He  spent  the 
last  three  months  of  the  year  interviewing  artists  throughout  the  country. 
Charles  Francis  Browne,  Superintendent  of  the  United  States  Section,  put 
in  the  last  seven  months  of  the  year  on  the  same  sort  of  work.  An  office 
was  opened  in  New  York,  from  which  all  the  great  collectors  in  the  country 
could  be  reached.  It  was  open  during  the  last  three  months  of  1914  and  could 
have  accomplished  more  had  it  been  opened  three  months  earlier. 
.As  it  was,  the  Department  listed  as  available  about  ten  times  as  schools 
many  paintings  as  it  was  able  to  borrow,  and  the  loan  collection 
served    well    as   an    index   to   the   various  schools   of  modern   painting. 

Some  9,000  copies  of  the  general  invitation  to  exhibit  were  circulated 
among  artists  and  art  institutions;  and  juries  made  up  from  the  advisory 
committees  met  in  London,  Paris,  Boston,  New  York,  Philadelphia,  Cincin- 
nati, Chicago,  St.  Louis,  and  San  Francisco  to  pass  upon  the  offerings. 

Artists  with  works  for  sale  had  a  direct  financial  interest  in  exhibiting, 
although  some  were  reluctant  to  remove  those  works  from  the  field  of  fre- 
quently recurrent  Eastern  exhibitions.  But  it  was  no  easy  task,  even  for 
the  Chief  of  the  F"ine  Arts  Department,  to  persuade  collectors  to  lend  him 



their  choicest  treasures,  things  for  which  they  had  not  only  paid  large  sums 
of  money  but  that  never  could  be  replaced  if  they  should  be  destroyed,  to  be 
transported  across  the  continent,  unpacked  amid  the  rush  of  preparation  for 
an  exposition,  handled  and  hung  by  somebody  they  had  never  heard  of,  in  a 
building  they  had  never  seen,  exposed  to  no  one  knew  what  risk  and  changes 
of  exposition  policy  and  management  for  nearly  a  year,  and  repacked  and 
returned  by  unknown  persons  at  the  end  of  that  time.  Some  of  the  deepest 
of  human  interests  were  involved— the  desire  to  aid  a  great  Exposition  in  its 
vocation  of  service  to  humanity,  and  fear  for  the  fate  of  objects  as  near  the 
heart,  perhaps,  as  anything  inanimate  ever  gets.  It  took  personal  mfluence 
and  standing  in  the  art  world  to  secure  the  loan  of  the  many  great  exemplars 
of  painting  that  formed  part  of  the  loan  collection. 

And  sometimes  such  influence  and  standing  failed.  The  son  of  a  noted 
millionaire,  who  was  asked  to  use  his  influence  with  his  father  to  help  obtam 
certain  examples  of  a  particular  school,  had  to  decline  in  this  rather  pathetic 

statement:  i   ■      u 

"  My  mother  is  dead.  My  father  is  a  lonely  old  man,  and  his  work  in  the 
world  is  done.  He  may  not  live  out  the  year.  His  sole  remaining  interest 
in  life  is  centered  in  his  paintings.  If  he  permits  any  of  them  to  go  to  San 
Francisco  he  may  never  see  them  again.  I  cannot  ask  him  to."  And  the 
son's  caution  was  prophetic.  The  owner  of  that  collection  died  before  the 
end  of  the  Exposition  season,  still  in  possession  of  his  art  treasures.  So  an 
exposition  reaches  into  human  life. 

The  United  States  Section  was  under  the  direct  management  of  the 
Department,  but  each  foreign  section  was  given,  as  far  as  possible,  full  free- 
dom in  its  installation.  In  ten  galleries  of  the  United  States  Section  there 
were  cases  around  the  walls  in  which  were  displayed  most  interesting  and 
beautiful  collections  of  miniatures,  medals,  and  prints.  The 
Unijorm  p  j^^^nt  arranged  for  the  receipt  of  prints  from  the  artists 
'  unframed,  under  a  plan  by  which  the  artists  paid  a  nominal  fee 
for  the  framing.     It  worked  well,  and  secured  uniformity  of  setting. 

The  publication  of  the  Fine  Arts  catalogues  was  a  concession,  and  proved 
a  very  lucrative  one  to  the  concessionaire;  and  while  the  Exposition  received 
its  percentage  the  work  had  to  be  carefully  supervised  by  the  Department  in 
order  to  have  any  value,  and  so  the  Exposition  might  have  had  the  entire 
return  from  the  publication.     At  least,  such  was  the  Chiefs  opinion. 

To  show  the  nature  and  tendencies  of  the  various  schools  of  painting  in 
the  United  States  in  the  most  comprehensive  way  the  limitations  of  the 
space  at  command  would  permit,  it  was  determined  to  set  aside  a  certain 
number  of  galleries  for  certain  representatives  of  these  schools. 






In  accordance  with  the  educational  purpose  of  the  Exposition,  efforts 
were  made  to  extend  the  influence  of  its  Department  of  Fine  Arts,  and  scores 
of  lectures  were  delivered  throughout  the  country  by  Trask  and  his  assist- 
ants. These  lectures  were  the  best  sort  of  publicity,  for  they  served  to 
whet  the  popular  anticipation  and  desire.  Harshe  compiled  a  "Reader's 
Guide  to  Modern  Art"  which  stimulated  interest.  After  the  opening  of 
the  galleries,  three  docents  were  installed,  whose  duties  were  to  conduct 
visitors  through  the  palace  for  a  small  fee,  giving  them  information  about 
the  exhibits  and  exhibitors,  which  it  was  far  pleasanter  to  receive  in  this  way 
than  to  dig  out  of  a  book.  They  were  no  expense  to  the  Department,  and 
from  an  educational  point  of  view  their  services  were  of  great  value — and 
they  attracted  attendance.  Those  serving  in  this  capacity  were  Mrs.  Mel- 
ville J.  Johnston,  Dr.  Elizabeth  Denio,  and  Mrs.  Rose  V.  S.  Berry. 

In  conformity  with  exposition  practice,  a  large  part  of  the  collection  was 
for  sale,  for  the  exhibiting  artists.  But  a  method  new  to  expositions  was  put 
into  effect,  on  suggestion  of  the  Chief  of  the  Department,  who  recommended 
that  the  sales  should  be  handled  by  the  Department  itself  through  salesmen 
on  salaries,  the  Exposition  to  deduct  15  per  cent  to  reimburse  itself.  Dun- 
lap  was  appointed  sales  manager,  with  Helen  Wright  of  the  Congressional 
Library  at  Washington  as  his  assistant.  Miss  Wright  being  an  expert  on  prints. 

Not  only  did  the  sales  during  and  for  a  short  while  after  the  Exposition 
season  total  more  than  four  times  as  many  as  were  made  from  the  Depart- 
ment of  Art  at  the  St.  Louis  Exposition,  but  they  distributed  an  amazing 
number  of  fine  paintings  and  art  works  over  the  West  and  Middle  West — a 
fact  likely  to  have  a  continuing  influence  on  the  cultural  development  of 
those  parts  of  the  country  for  generations  to  come.  Sixteen  hun- 
dred and  eleven  sales  were  made  for  $227,121.     On  this  business      °'^^\'!^^] 

,  .   .  .      .  -r       I  ■)      ^  2^^  Made 

the  Exposition  drew  commissions  of  over  $34,000,  of  which 
$21,462  was  net  profit  from  the  sales  activity.  Of  the  sales,  188  were  made 
after  the  close  of  the  Exposition.  The  commissions  would  have  been  larger, 
but  for  the  fact  that  in  certain  cases  where  some  museum  needed  a  particular 
piece  and  could  not  raise  enough  money  to  cover  the  commission,  and  where 
investigation  showed  that  the  sale  would  have  fallen  through  if  the  com- 
mission were  insisted  upon,  the  Exposition  felt  that  it  would  be  losing 
nothing,  and  serving  the  general  cause  of  art  and  incidentally  the  artist,  if  it 
waived  its  fifteen  per  cent. 

Practically  all  the  sales  were  for  delivery  after  the  Exposition  period, 
and  this  fact,  in  addition  to  the  work  of  returning  loans,  necessitated  a 
considerable  expansion  of  force  in  the  Department  for  packing  and  shipping, 
and  some  increase  in  the  accounts  for  freight. 


From  the  United  States  Section  alone,  1,083  exhibits  were  sold,  compris- 
ing 1 82  paintings,  1 28  pieces  of  sculpture  and  773  prints.  Four  hundred  and 
eighty-six  foreign  exhibits  were  sold,  which  included  125  paintings.  More 
items  were  purchased  for  delivery  in  California  than  in  any  other  State:  83 
American  paintings,  82  pieces  of  American  sculpture,  and  513  American 
prints;  52  foreign  paintings,  6  pieces  of  foreign  sculpture,  170  foreign  prints 
and  57  miscellaneous  foreign  objects.  The  next  largest  list  went  to  New 
York.     The  purchases  went  into  34  States,  and  Canada. 

We  have  elsewhere  recounted  that  in  response  to  large  popular  petitions 
the  Directors  decided  to  keep  the  Fine  Arts  Palace  open  after  Closing  Day 
until  May  i,  1916,  in  order  to  give  opportunity  to  certain  public  spirited 
persons  to  make  it  a  permanent  art  gallery.  This  made  it  necessary  for  the 
Chief  of  the  Department  to  undertake  the  arduous  task  of  getting  extensions 
of  all  the  loans  he  could  and  then  filling  the  places  of  those  exhibits  that  had 
to  be  returned  promptly  after  December  4.  Exhibitors  were  circularized  for 
this  purpose,  and  Trask  went  east  to  persuade  more  of  them;  accompanied 
and  greatly  assisted  by  Francis  McComas,  President  of  the  San  Francisco 
Society  of  Artists,  a  man  whose  service  to  the  art  interests  of  San 
Extending  p^ancisco  can  hardly  be  overstated.  They  made  an  extended 
the  Term  ^^^^^  ^^^  ^^^^^  ^  ^^^^^  closing  period  the  rearranged  galleries 
were  opened  to  the  public  for  the  post-Exposition  period  on  January  i, 


The  whole  exhibition  was  rehung  by  the  middle  of  February.  Pictures 
were  brought  over  from  the  Annex  to  the  main  building.  Through  the 
cooperation  of  the  National  Sculpture  Society,  and  the  very  generous  action 
of  the  Albright  Art  Gallery  of  Buffalo,  where  the  Society  had  arranged  a 
great  exhibition,  practically  the  whole  sculpture  exhibit  was  retained. 
Sales  in  the  post-Exposition  period  amounted  to  $33,607. 

The  Fine  Arts  Department  differs  fundamentally  from  that  of  any  other 
in  an  exposition.  One  important  point  of  difference  is  the  fact  that  the 
exhibits  are  in  many  cases  unaccompanied  by  their  owners  or  even  by  their 
owners'  special  representatives.  The  Department  must  represent  the 
exhibitor  in  the  majority  of  cases,  and  be  responsible  for  the  safe  keeping 
of  treasures  that  are  irreplaceable,  and  to  that  extent  uninsurable.  The 
nature  of  art  insurance  for  an  exposition  we  have  endeavored  to  indicate  in 
the  chapter  headed  "  Insuring  an  Exposition,"  and  the  reader  may  infer  from 
it  that  such  insurance  would  be  very  unsarisfactory  to  have  to  collect.  For 
the  safe  keeping  of  works  that  are  precious  to  the  world,  the  Department 
Chief  and  through  him  the  Exposition  itself  is  morally  responsible,  in  r- 
even  larger  degree  than  in  the  case  of  other  exhibits,  and  cannot  hire 



member  of  Lloyd's,  or  anybody  else,  to  take  that  responsibility  in  anymore 
than  a  commercial  way. 

For  these  reasons  it  was  the  opinion  of  the  Chief  of  the  Fine  Arts  Depart- 
ment that  the  building  and  its  guardianship  should  have  been  under  his  con- 
trol or  at  least  under  that  of  the  Division  of  Exhibits.  For  example,  wheel 
chairs  were  a  menace,  and  in  his  opinion  should  have  been  permitted  in  this 
palace  only  when  occupied  by  persons  unable  to  walk.  But  the 
Chief  could  not  keep  any  of  them  out  as  long  as  the  Guards  had  of  Control 
orders  to  let  all  of  them  in,  and  so  wheel  chairs  with  healthy  mem- 
bers of  society,  and  baby  carriages  with  twins,  were  daily  pushed  about, 
amid  priceless  cloisonnes  and  other  fragile  things. 

The  Palace  of  Fine  Arts  with  its  Annex,  cost  $631,929  to  build,  and 
afforded  some  148,558  square  feet  of  space;  but  comparison  with  other 
exhibit  palaces  is  difficult  because  the  Fine  Arts  exhibits  were  both  inside 
and  outside  the  buildings,  and  on  walls. 

Ordinary  exhibit  palace  space  is  not  difficult  to  divide  and  assign;  but  in 
a  collection  of  the  fine  arts  there  may  be  important  reasons  for  desiring 
special  structural  arrangements.  Says  the  Chief:  "  For  the  benefit  of  future 
expositions  I  suggest  that  it  would  be  wise  if,  in  the  Fine  Arts  Department 
especially,  the  person  having  charge  of  the  organization  of  exhibits  and  their 
installation  should  have  some  voice  in  regard  to  the  plant  in  which  the 
installation  is  to  take  place — a  voice  at  least  equal  to  the  builders  of  that 
plant."  Such  considerations  raise  organization  problems  that  history  may 
properly  indicate,  but  not  attempt  to  solve. 


REMOTE  as  it  seemed,  unearthly  and  dreamlike,  you  could  actually 
enter  the  precincts  of  the  Palace  of  Fine  Arts.  Across  the  Lagoon 
the  penetralia  of  the  Temple  of  Sculpture  invited  you,  through  the 
strange  open  peristyle  with  the  women  on  its  top  weeping  over  their 
mysterious  coflPers. 

The  way  led  through  the  Gallery  of  Sculptures — a  gallery  that  was 
merely  this  peristyle  along  the  curving  rim  of  the  Lagoon,  a  copse  here 
and  there,  a  canopy  of  foliage,  and  a  setting  of  grasses  and  acanthus  and 
flowering  myrtles  between  the  giant  columns. 

The  Loggia  was  more  a  temple  to  the  glory  of  Sculpture  than  it  was  a 
shelter;  shelter  was  not  needed  in  the  California  climate,  and  most  of  the 
figures  had  none  but  the  turquoise  sky,  or  that  cool,  silver  shroud  of  fog  that 
enwrapped   them   on   a   summer  morning.     Every   position,  on 
Lnnng  gward,  or  amid  pittosporum,  eucalyptus,  cypress,  willow,  or  plumed 

clumps  of  pampas  grass,  had  been  especially  sought  out.  Some  of 
the  statues  stood  in  little  fountain  basins,  under  a  continuous  rain  from  deli- 
cate jets.  Every  pedestal  was  a  separate  study  and  all  of  them  reproduced 
some  detail  of  the  architecture,  thus  drawing  the  statuary  into  unity  with  it. 
The  architect  was  in  some  terror  during  construction  days  lest  a  plan 
should  be  put  into  effect  to  make  the  Fine  Arts  Palace  more  accessible  by 
constructing  causeways  over  the  Lagoon.  He  had  his  way,  for  he  told 
Connick  about  it,  and  Connick  conveniently  found  it  impossible  to  get  hold 
of  any  money  for  the  causeways,  and  so  the  Palace  remained  properly 
detached  and  aloof  from  the  main  body  of  exhibit  buildings,  with  its  own 
locale  and  atmosphere.  You  had  to  approach  it  by  going  around  an  end  of 
the  httle  lake,  in  which  gulls  and  ducks  had  their  feeding  grounds;  and  if 
you  went  around  the  north  end  you  came  upon  Bela  L.  Pratt's 
i'T'^'°      "Whaleman,"  the  dramatic  figure  of  a  boat-steerer,  standing  in 

Belong  There  ,  ,     ,     ,  •   i     •  •       i  -i  v 

the  bow  of  a  whale-boat  with  iron  poised  to  strike.      lou  came 

upon  it  in  a  clump  of  shrubbery,  and  the  foliage  helped  abstract  the  figure 

most  effectively,  while  the  water  behind  gave  a  marine  setting. 







A  little  farther  on,  through  a  clump  of  cypress  and  pepper  trees,  was 
a  huge  "Dying  Lion"  by  Paul  Wayland  Bartlett:  a  mammoth  figure  of 
might  in  agony,  writhing  there  in  a  bit  of  natural  jungle.  A  lion  might  wish 
to  die  so  if  he  had  any  comprehension  of  the  matter,  and  thus  it  looked  quite 
suitable  for  such  a  tragedy. 

A  Nymph  is  about  what  you  would  expect  to  find  next,  and  you  did;  by 
Edmond  T.  Quinn.  Then  you  came  on  Lorado  Taft's  fragment  of  the 
"Fountain  of  Time,"  a  group  of  six  or  eight  colossal  struggling  figures,  roll- 
ing upward  in  two  waves — from  a  copse  of  pittosporum  under  a  clump  of 

Some  fine  things  got  your  attention  at  the  entrance  to  the  colonnade. 
Here  was  a  little  oval  pool  about  fifteen  feet  long,  with  three  groups  by  Anna 
Coleman  Ladd:  a  pair  of  "Triton  Babies"  playing  in  the  pool  atone  end,  an 
"Apollo  Slaying  Python"  at  the  other,  and  in  the  center  two  water  sprites 
doing  a  sort  of  tumbling  turn  in  the  most  graceful  and  water-sprightly  man- 
ner. Fine  jets  spouted  from  each  group,  and  seemed  to  put  them  all  in 
motion.  Nearby,  a  "  Daughter  of  Pan,"  a  half-goat  figure  playing  on  pipes 
under  trees  on  the  margin  of  the  Lagoon,  seemed  a  very  natural  part  of  the 
scene.  The  seated  figure  of  Chief  Justice  Marshall,  by  Herbert  Adams,  in 
the  large  bay  near  it,  was  very  imposing,  but  probably  would  have  looked 
better  in  a  hall. 

If  you  entered  the  crescent  from  the  South,  near  the  Danish  Building, 
you  caught  one  of  the  finest  vistas  anywhere  about  the  grounds,  in  the  view 
northward  from  the  southerly  end  of  the  Lagoon  to  the  solid  pile  of  the 
California  Building,  with  just  enough  of  the  dome  and  colonnade  of  the  Fine 
Arts  Palace  showing  from  behind  the  curtain  of  trees  to  suggest  illimitable 
grandeurs.  Here  was  an  "  Indian  Scout "  sitting  his  pony  with  perfect  grace 
and  looking  off  toward  the  city.  It  was  by  Cyrus  Edward  Dallin,  with 
whom  the  horse  and  Indian  are  intimate  acquaintances  and  prime  favorites. 
To  the  left  was  a  mature  and  lovely  "  Diana,"  by  Haig  Patigian,  set  high  in  a 
thicket,  whence  she  had  loosed  an  arrow. 

Just  before  you,  in  the  water,  was  Anna  Coleman  Ladd's  lightsome  group 
of  five  figures  in  bronze,  about  four  feet  high,  entitled  "Wind  and  Spray,"  a 
delicate  conception  of  dancing  life  and  movement,  with  a  half  dozen  fountain 
jets,  from  which  "  falling  ever  mistily,  the  sparkling  drops  kept  tune."  This 
was  in  a  sharp  little  bay  of  the  Lagoon,  framed  in  shrubbery,  and  . 

bordered  with  buttercups  and  calla  lilies.     Beyond  swam  gulls     ^^  water 
and  ducks,  and  beyond  them  were  trees  and  more  shrubs  and 
beyond  them  loomed  the  giant  bulk  of  the  California  Building.     To  the  left 
were  the  colossal  columns  of  the  Loggia,  and  to  the  right,  above  the  trees. 


the  open  vaults  and  greenish  blue  domes  of  the  other  palaces,  across  the 

As  you  went  on  into  the  colonnade  you  passed  between  two  huge 
"American  Bison,"  by  A.  Phimister  Proctor,  which  stared  at  you  dis- 
concertingly from  their  coverts,  in  a  typically  bovine  fashion.  They  had 
just  the  look  of  limitless  power  and  imbecile  indecision  that  characterizes 
these  cumbrous  beasts,  so  that  you  didn't  know  whether  they  would  charge, 
or  bolt,  or  permit  you  freely  to  pass.  They  finally  did  the  last  thing,  but 
their  eyes  followed  you  with  stupid  suspicion  all  the  way  in. 

These  were  original  plaster  casts  of  the  bronzes  made  by  Proctor  for  the 
United  States  Government,  to  stand  in  the  city  of  Washington,  and  any 
other  exhibition  of  them  in  the  open  air  had  been  expressly  prohibited.  It 
was  necessary  for  Trask  to  obtain  special  permission  to  install  them  for  the 
Panama-Pacific  International  Exposition,  and  he  only  obtained  it  on  the 
condition  that  they  would  not  be  exhibited  after  the  Exposition  was  over. 
In  accordance  with  that  understanding,  the  casts  were  broken  up  at  the  end 
of  the  season.  And  it  drew  upon  the  Chief's  devoted  head  all  sorts  of  harsh 
comment  from  people  that  did  not  understand  the  necessity  of  the  case,  nor 
stop  to  inquire  about  it.     A  great  deal  of  criticism  is  like  that. 

In  two  alcoves  forming  a  sort  of  vestibule  were  a  St.  Gaudens  "Lincoln," 
sitting;  and,  opposite,  a  standing  figure  of  "Henry  Ward  Beecher"  by  John 
Adams  Ward — that  Beecher  who  was  part  of  the  Nation's  fame  a  generation 
back,  and  who,  with  his  powerful,  steadfast  countenance  and  shaggy  mane 
seemed,  at  least  superficially,  to  have  something  of  the  nearby  bison  about 
him.  These,  too,  were  original  plaster  casts,  as  well  as  the  Chief  Justice 
Marshall  statue  at  the  other  end  of  the  colonnade. 

These  were  in  the  leafy  vestibule  of  the  peristyle.  Flanking  the  inner 
entrance  were  two  portrait  busts  that  had  a  place  of  high  sentimental 
interest  in  the  Exposition  development.  One  was  of  former  President 
William  H.  Taft,  and  facing  it  was  one  of  the  late  Halsey  C.  Ives,  who  had 
been  at  the  head  of  the  Fine  Arts  Departments  at  Chicago  and  St.  Louis. 

Beyond  this  you  saw,  beneath  a  thin,  bent  tree  framed  in  a  square  of 
columns,  Edward  Berge's  marble,  the  "  Muse  Finding  the  Head  of  Orpheus." 
It  seemed  to  suggest  all  the  sad  finalities  of  art,  and  probably  that  is  why  it 
was  there.  It  had  much  attention,  especially  from  the  amateur  photograph- 
ers, for  it  was  a  beautiful  thing,  in  a  poignant  sort  of  way  that  got 
"^J^"'^  right  hold  of  you  and  softened  your  mood  from  too  much  accord 
with  bisons  and  Beechers  and  other  strenuous  things.  Yet  there 
was  some  gentle  humor  here,  too:  the  "Piping  Pan,"  by  Louis  St.  Gaudens, 
and  the  "Flying  Cupid,"  by  Janet  Scudder,  were  placed  between  the  great 


columns  rising  to  the  wondrous  architrave  that  was  dentaled  and  paneled 
and  fretted  and  colored  in  soft  green  and  blue  overhead. 

Within  the  crescent,  inside  the  colonnade  that  was  roofless  like  the  ruins 
ot  Karnak,  you  moved  between  statues  in  marble  and  bron2e  standing  in 
tiny  fountain  basins  or  on  pedestals  rising  out  of  little  thickets  of  myrtle  and 
heliotrope  and  wild  sweet  pea  and  honeysuckle.  There  was  Janet  Scud- 
der's  "Young  Pan,"  playing  double  pipes,  with  one  foot  on  a  crab — an  elfish 
wight  with  a  pointed  upper  lip,  a  round  and  prominent  "bread  basket,"  and 
a  bit  of  a  tail,  like  a  rabbit.  Isodore  Konti's  marble  "  Wood  Nymph  "  stood 
opposite.  Furio  Piccirilli  showed  a  "Young  Mother  with  Child"  in  marble. 
And  just  across  from  this,  was  the  pert  little  bronze  figure  with  a  poppy  on 
its  head,  that  Helen  Keller  "saw"  with  her  finger  tips  and  loved,  the  "Wild 
Flower,"  by  Edward  Berge. 

They  were  all  along  on  both  sides,  too  many  for  individual  mention. 
One  that  arrested  the  attention  of  every  passer  was  Attilio  Piccirilli's  colossal 
marble  the  "Outcast."  To  relieve  its  grim  impression,  there  was,  a  little 
farther  on,  a  bronze  baby,  by  Bela  Pratt,  standing  on  the  back  of  a  terrapin 
and  putting  up  an  awful  struggle  with  a  young  pike,  or  salmon,  or  muskel- 
lunge  he  had  ambitiously  captured.  Across,  John  J.  Boyle  showed 
a  savage  "Hunter"  in  bronze,  bringing  back  the  spoil  of  his  flint  ^^^^  Tmoedy 
spear.  "L'Amour,"  a  marble  group  by  Evelyn  Beatrice  Long- 
man, stood  in  a  pittosporum  copse  just  opposite.  In  a  fountain  basin  near 
by,  a  couple  of  boys  fought  for  a  spouting  rock  cod,  and  acquired  a  valuable 
chalybeate  deposit  during  their  year-long  bout.  This  group  was  by  Janet 

Edith  Woodman  Burroughs  showed  a  "Garden  Figure,"  an  infant  with 
a  ball,  and  near  it  was  "Youth,"  by  Victor  D.  Salvatore. 

Finally  came  a  row  of  stressful  drama  in  bronze — Paul  Noquet's  "Sold- 
ier of  Marathon,"  Olga  Popofl^  Muller's  "Primitive  Man,"  and  Edward 
Berge's  "The  Scalp."  They  showed  death,  savage  victory,  and  spoil  of  the 
chase.  Emerging  at  the  south  vestibule,you  saw  "Apollo  Hunting"  by  Haig 
Patigian,  a  "Marble  Faun,"  making  his  scanty  toilet,  by  Attilio  Piccirilli, 
and  the  "Duck  Baby"  by  Edith  Parsons,  a  grinning  little  devil  with  a  pair 
of  downy  ducks  he  has  just  dragged  from  the  pond.  This  last  was  the 
subject  of  some  immensely  popular  verses  by  Leo  S.  Robinson,  Controller 
of  the  State  Commission.  Finally  (although  we  cannot  here  catalogue  them 
all),  there  was  the  "  Maiden  of  the  Roman  Campagna,"  by  Albin  Polasek. 

Grander  in  theme  but  no  more  beautiful,  was  the  statuary  grouped 
beneath  the  great  Sculpture  Loggia,  the  Fine  Arts  Rotunda.  Here  in  the 
center,  on  a  high  pedestal  beneath  the  canopy  glorified  by  Reid's  murals. 


Paul  Wayland  Bartlett's  "Lafayette,"  mounted  and  armed,  raised  aloft 
the  sword  he  had  drawn  for  Liberty.  Horse  and  rider  were  victorious  and 
commanding.  This  was  a  cast  made  in  Paris,  where  the  original  stands, 
from  the  original  moulds,  under  direct  supervision  of  the  sculptor,  as  a 
courtesy  to  the  Exposition,  and  brought  to  San  Francisco  in  the  "Jason." 
Just  back  of  "Lafayette"  was  John  J.  Boyle's  "Commodore  Barry,"  and 
under  the  arches  opening  toward  the  Lagoon  were  a  standing 
pTuTef  fig"'"^  °f  "  Lincoln,"  by  Daniel  Chester  French,  French's  "  Prince- 
'^"'"  ton  Student,"  and  a  "Young  Franklin,"  by  Robert  Tait  McKen- 
zie.  At  the  entrances  to  the  Loggia  were  figures  of  "William  Cullen 
Bryant"  by  Herbert  Adams,  and  of  "Thomas  Jefferson"  by  Karl  Bitter. 
Small  sculptures  were  exhibited  in  cases,  inside  the  Fine  Arts  Palace  itself. 
One  of  the  humorous  things  that  had  been  shown  in  the  crescent  early 
in  the  season  was  taken  to  the  rear  when  the  Annex  was  completed,  to  lend 
adornment  to  the  open  space  between  the  Annex  and  the  main  building  of 
the  Palace.  This  was  Clement  J.  Barnhorn's  "  Boy  Pan  with  Frog."  The 
frog  was  very  attentive  while  the  boy  stood  on  a  rock  with  his  great-toes 
crossed,  and  piped  to  it  on  a  reed.  Here,  too,  was  a  "Young  Diana"  by 
Janet  Scudder;  the  huntress  standing  on  a  globe  supported  by  three  sitting 
hounds.  And  Edward  Berge  had  here  a  sundial,  with  the  awful  legend 
"There  is  no  time  like  the  present." 

These  figures,  starting  at  you  from  niches  of  foliage,  or  from  behind 
curtains  of  flowering  vines,  or  standing  under  trees  and  scrutinizing  you 
with  their  steady,  level  eyes,  had  a  most  lifelike  and  convincing  effect. 
The  sculptors  that  sent  their  works  to  the  Panama-Pacific  International 
Exposition  could  have  commanded  such  a  setting  nowhere  else. 




IN  the  Fine  Arts  exhibition  more  than  a  thousand  years  were  represented, 
and  over  11,400  works  were  gathered,  in  spite  of  the  war,  from  the 
whole  round  world.  Not  only  European  art,  but  ancient  Chinese  and 
Japanese  were  exemplified,  and  South  American.  The  Scandinavian 
countries  were  strong — probably  the  most  distinctive  foreign  feature. 

The  main  building  of  the  Palace  was  divided  into  120  exhibit  galleries, 
apportioned  ten  to  Japan,  eight  to  France,  five  to  Italy,  one  to  Cuba,  one 
to  Uruguay,  four  to  Holland,  one  to  Argentina,  three  to  Portugual,  nine  to 
Sweden,  four  to  China,  one  to  the  Philippine  Islands,  one  to  a  part  of  the 
International  exhibit,  and  72  to  the  United  States.  The  latter  occupied 
between  65  and  70  per  cent  of  the  whole  building.  The  International  Sec- 
tion occupied  23  galleries  in  the  Annex,  and  the  Norwegian  seven.  The 
works,  inclusive  of  painting,  sculptures,  engravings,  and  other  objects,were 
listed  by  countries  as  follows: 

Argentina  75 

Cuba  33 

China  442 

France  460 

International  I,i79 

Italy  156 

Japan  244 

Netherlands  188 

Norway  333 

Philippine  Islands  36 

Portugal  157 

Sweden  440 

Uruguay  69 

United  States  7,591 

Total         1 1 ,403 

Of  the  collection  as  a  whole,  the  Department  Jury  of  Awards,  comprising 
men  eminent  in  their  own  fields,  many  of  them  of  international  reputation, 



reported  to  the  Superior  Jury  that  in  their  opinion  it  was  the  best  exhibition 
of  painting,  engraving,  and  sculpture  ever  held  in  the  United  States,  and 
"should  have  a  far-reaching  effect  on  the  appreciation  and  understanding 
of  art." 

A  considerable  part  of  the  popular  interest  centered  at  first  in  those 
amazing  manifestations  of  esthetic  rebellion  housed  in  the  Annex,  a  separate 
structure  that  had  to  be  erected  westward  of  the  main  Palace  to  accommo- 
date an  unexpected  overflow.  Whether  they  would  "live"  and  increase, 
or  pass  early  to  oblivion,  were  questions  to  which  the  public 
Cuinsmand  ^g^^j-gj  itself  with  vigor,  and  which  acted  on  the  community  in 
general  as  an  intellectual  tonic.  And,  whatever  the  answer, 
they  did  help  illustrate  the  times. 

By  the  year  of  the  Panama-Pacific  International  Exposition  painting  had 
been  liberated  from  the  painful  prunes-and-prisms  precision  that  had 
characterized  it  about  the  middle  of  the  nineteenth  century,  and  popular 
taste  was  in  part  redeemed  from  its  adoration  of  story-telling  pictures  and 
mere  prettiness.  The  foremost  painters  seemed  to  find  it  no  longer  worth 
while  to  tell  nice  little  domestic  stories  with  photographic  fidelity,  nor  even 
great  Biblical  and  Roman  tragedies  about  Jeroboam  and  Virginius;  nor  were 
they  doing  much  in  pears,  bananas,  and  bowls  of  gold-fish.  Rather  they 
sought  to  convey  states  of  mind  and  feeling,  indefinable  moods,  aspects  of 
nature  and  of  man's  relation  to  it,  that  were  not  to  be  defined  verbally,  for 
that  is  a  different  art.  How  far  and  valuably  these  impulses  progressed  it 
is  not  for  a  mere  historian  to  say.  They  certainly  embodied  the  essential 
element  of  progress,  which  is,  innovation. 

Technique  was  more  free  and  masterful — had  reached  the  spotted,  or 
dappled,  brushwork  stage,  the  "divided  touch,"  and  in  some  cases  the 
results  may  have  looked  as  though  they  had  been  accomplished  nonchalantly 
with  the  thumb.  A  forceful  realism  had  entered  into  painting,  expressive 
in  part  of  a  spirit  of  revolt.  Some  of  the  forces  of  that  revolt  gathered,  con- 
centrated, and  burst  on  the  world  in  the  forms  of  "cubism"  and  "futur- 
ism," and  their  highly  colored  examples  were  on  view  in  the  International 
Section  of  the  Fine  Arts  exhibition,  housed,  appropriately,  in  the  cubical 

How  hard  people  studied  those  blue  and  purple  fields  of  slashed  wall- 
paper, and  how  earnestly  they  strove  to  decipher  cabalistic  portents  from 
such  sculptural  abstractions  as  "Muscles  in  Motion"!  They  read  books 
about  the  matter,  and  discussed  it  in  paper-clubs,  and  were  mentally 
aroused,  excited,  and  rejuvenated.  It  gave  them  a  new  point  of  view,  and 
helped  them   enjoy   certain   other    manifestations   of  modernity  hanging 


about.     They  understood,  better,  artistic  impatience  with  the  endless  re- 
petition of  what  had  been  done,  and  done  again  and   done    to 

J  L        T^i  -1  r       <<        1  ■  >>  II  r  •  >>   1  Hard  Studv 

death.     1  hey  might  not  care  tor    cubism     or     rutunsm     but  at 

least  it  gave  them  a  fresh  topic  of  debate  on   the  street  car  or  the  ferry 


In  short,  it  appeared  that,  having  mastered  all  phases  of  composition, 
painting  and  sculpture  had  now  to  progress  through  decomposition.  To 
illuminate  this  matter,  interest  in  which  will  probably  return  again  and 
again,  we  can  do  no  better  than  cite  a  bit  of  explication  by  Umberto  Boccioni 
of  the  futurist  group  at  Milan: 

"The  simultaneousness  of  states  of  mind  in  the  work  of  art;  that  is  the 
intoxicating  aim  of  our  art.  Let  us  explain  again  by  examples.  In  painting 
a  person  on  a  balcony  seen  from  inside  the  room,  we  do  not  limit  the  scene 
to  what  the  square  frame  of  the  window  renders  visible;  but  we  try  to  render 
the  sum  total  of  visual  sensations  which  the  person  on  the  balcony  has 
experienced;  the  sun-bathed  throng  in  the  street,  the  double  row  of  houses 
which  stretch  to  right  and  left,  the  beflowered  balconies,  etc.  This  implies 
the  simultaneousness  of  the  ambient,  and,  therefore,  the  dislocation  and  dis- 
memberment of  objects,  the  scattering  and  fusion  of  details,  freed  from 
accepted  logic  and  independent  of  one  another.  .  .  .  This  decomposition 
is  not  governed  by  fixed  laws,  but  it  varies  according  to  the  characteristic 
personality  of  the  object  and  the  emotions  of  the  onlooker." 

Yes,  that  is  it. 

This  art  movement  was  destined  to  take  on   tremendous  import  to 
humanity  in  the  last  field  where  one  would  expect  to  meet  it.     Its  processes 
were  admirably  adapted  to  making  a  thing  look  what  it  was  not; 
its  professors  were  the  profoundest  students  of  their  time  of  the  ^1^'^lf"','! 

•      I     or  r    L     J  1        1  11-  1      •  the  World 

optical  errects  or  shade  and  color;  and  their  technique  and  in  many 

cases  their  personal  services  became  the  basis  of  modern  camouflage  on  the 

battlefields  of  Europe. 

In  the  region  of  the  more  conventional  evolution,  however — the  sort  of 
painting  more  nearly  related  to  what  people  had  been  accustomed  to — 
painters  had  attacked  with  fresh  vigor  and  from  new  angles  a  trying  phase 
of  representation,  and  that  was  the  portrayal  of  the  effects  of  light.  It 
distinctly  characterized  their  efforts  in  the  year  of  the  Exposition.  In  the 
United  States  section  the  Grand  Prize  went  to  Frederic  Carl  Frieseke  for  his 
group  of  pictures,  of  which  the  most  important  was  a  painting  of  a  nude  in  an 
orchard,  entitled  "Summer";  a  painting  in  which  the  light  played  brokenly 
through  the  leaves  in  a  quite  remarkable  manner.  Perhaps  it  went  a  bit 
too  far;  for  the  lady,  flecked  with  shadows  and  with  bright  spots  that  were 


very  lucent  and  seemed  quite  motile,  had  a  somewhat  glassy  and  brittle 
appearance,  suggesting,  at  least  to  the  writer,  a  bottle  that  had 

^'^'"  just  turned  into  a  woman.     Despite  which,  there  is  no  doubt 

that  it  was  a  very  great  painting  in  the  modern  manner,  and  quite 

beautiful  to  those  that  appreciated  the  difficulties  of  producing  its  luminous 


The  entrance  to  the  Fine  Arts  Palace  led  directly  mto  a  broad  and  open 
space,  in  the  center  of  which  was  the  large  fountain  by  Gertrude  Vanderbilt 
Whitney,  a  marble  basin  supported  by  three  male  figures  of  heroic  size. 
Thence  the  galleries  stretched  away  on  either  side  through  the  long  arc  of 

the  building.  •  u    u      j         •       i 

There  were  separate  rooms  given  over  in  accordance  with  the  educational 
plan  of  the  department  to  William. M.  Chase,  Alson  Skinner  Clark,  Frank 
Duveneck,  John  McLure  Hamilton,  Childe  Hassam,  William  Keith,  Gari 
Melchers,  Francis  McComas  and  Arthur  F.  Matthews,  Joseph  Pennell, 
Edward  W.  Redfield,  John  S.  Sargent,  Edmund  C.  Tarbell,  John  M. 
Twachtman,  James  McNeill  Whistler  (two  rooms,  one  for  etchings  and 
lithographs  and  the  other  for  paintings),  and  Howard  Pyle.  These  were 
not  in  competition  for  award. 

Besides  the  separate  rooms  given  over  to  individual  painters,  there  were 
galleries  devoted  largely  to  the  work  of  illustrators:  Stuart  Davis,  John 
Sloan,  Boardman  Robinson,  Henry  Reuterdahl,  N.  C.  Wyeth,  Henry  Mc- 
Carter,  Frank  Walter  Taylor,  Thornton  Oakley,  Elizabeth  Shippen  Green 
Elliott,  Anna  Wheelan  Betts,  Ethel  Betts  Bain,  and  many  more. 

For  the  twelve  foreign  sections,  the  respective  national  commissions 
were  responsible,  and  they  produced  some  wonderful  results  under  the 
circumstances— great  contributions  to  the  exhibition  and  the  delight  of  its 
visitors.  The  foreign  sections  were  of  the  utmost  value  as  demonstrations 
of  artistic  aims  and  the  character  of  national  genius  throughout  the  world. 
Among  them  the  Norwegians  and  the  Swedes  displayed  a  bold  advance- 
ment. Swedish  studies  of  marine  life  and  of  winter  scenes  were  of  a  com- 
pelling beauty.  And  the  wild  scenery  of  Norway,  under  the  blue  arctic 
night,  came  in  for  special  treatment  and  attracted  much  attention. 

But  the  greatest  emphasis  was  laid  on  the  Americans,  not  merely  because 
this  was  a  contemporaneous  Exposition,  but  because  in  191 5  the  standard 
of  painting  was,  in  the  opinion  of  the  Chief  of  the  Department,  actually 
higher  here  than  it  was  anywhere  else  in  the  world,  and  was  everywhere 
recognized  to  be  so  except  in  these  fairly  well  United  States.  So  the  thing 
was  laid  out  to  show  the  American  descent  from  West  and  Stuart  and 
Copley— and  perhaps  Copley's  predecessor  and  preceptor,  the    English- 

(frieseke's  "summer"  on  lower  center  of  left  wall) 




American  Blackburn — contemporaries  of  the  British  Romney,  Reynolds, 
and  Raeburn.  Of  this  lineage  from  Revolutionary  days  and  be- 
fore, and  of  its  offspring  of  to-day,  there  were  nearly  250  examples,  America 
including  five  by  that  unique  genius  of  Washington's  time,  Gilbert 
Stuart.  Hence  it  appeared  to  the  discerning  mind,  from  this  exhibition, 
that  art  in  America,  far  from  being  a  new  and  rudimentary  thing,  had  run 
about  as  long  a  term  of  development  as  it  had  in  the  modern  form  in  Eng- 
land, where  there  is  little  that  is  modern  which  owes  its  character  to  other 
influences  than  the  British  painters  mentioned. 

Art  touches  life  at  many  points,  and  illustrates  more  things  than  battles 
and  the  amours  of  the  Greek  pantheon.     The  poet  did  not  write 

Listen,  my  children,  and  you  shall  hear 

Of  the  midnight  ride  of  the  well-known  Boston  engraver 

And  etcher,  Paul  Revere, 

but  he  might  have  done  so  with  as  much  truth  as  poetry,  and  the  Palace 
of  Fine  Arts  held  several  prints  by  the  celebrated  night  rider. 

The  gossips  of  his  day  have  failed  to  tell  us  that  "Samuel  F.  B.  Morse, 
after  all  the  time  he  has  spent  working  at  the  art  business,  will  never  become 
a  sculptor  of  any  account,  because  he  has  laid  aside  his  chisel  and  gone  to 
fooling  with  a  new-fangled  game  of  tick-tack-toe  which  he  thinks  he  can 
play  at  a  distance  by  means  of  an  electrical  current."  Yet  the  Palace  had  in 
it  three  creditable  portraits  by  the  inventor  of  the  electric  telegraph.  The 
versatile  Charles  Wilson  Peale,  watchmaker,  taxidermist,  dentist,  and 
portrait  painter,  was  represented.  The  collection  contained  the  first  process 
print  ever  made  in  the  United  States. 

From  these  types  of  modernity  the  scope  ran  back,  though  not,  of  course, 
unbrokenly,  to  the  only  piece  of  sixteenth-century  fresco  in  the  country, 
that  of  Luini,  and  to  an  altar  piece  by  Guido  of  Sienna  dating  from  about 
the  year  1235.  These  indicated  the  earlier  general  influences;  but  the  direct 
lineage  and  art  derivation  of  American  painting  was  shown  by  the  arrange- 
ment we  have  indicated  above. 

There  was  even  some  effort  to  express  geographical  relations.  There 
was  the  art  of  Whistler,  who  painted  in  England,  and  of  Twachtman,  who 
painted  in  Connecticut,  and  of  Keith  andMcComas  and  Arthur  Matthews 
who  painted  in  California,  so  that  you  could  get  a  notion  of  the 
environment  in  which  these  men  had  worked,  and  as  much  explan-  ^^^  p^^^^ 
ation  of  them  as  environment  could  give.  Chronologically,  you 
could  get  cross  sections  of  American  art  in  Revolutionary  times;  in  the  years 


1815  to  1820;  in  the  period  of  about  1840;  in  the  days  after  the  Civil  War, 
and  of  American  art  to-day— from  Copley  right  down  to  Redfield  of  the 
realistic  landscapes. 

The  Japanese  set  up  a  reference  room  in  which  the  evolution  of  Japanese 
art  could  be  traced  from  copies  of  antiques  1,200  years  old.  They  illus- 
trated the  first  appearance  of  a  typically  Japanese  style,  about  800  years 
ago.  Here  was  a  copy  of  Amitabha  and  Bodhisattva  coming  to  meet  the 
spirits  of  the  blessed,  painted  by  Yoshin  Sodsu  in  965  a.d.  The  original 
belongs  to  the  Koyassan  Temple  near  Kyoto,  and  is  the  most  celebrated 
Japanese  Buddhist  picture  in  existence.  From  a  time  a  little  later,  about 
800  years  ago,  came  a  "Resurrection  of  Buddha,"  from  the  Chohiji  Temple 
collection.  The  artist  was  unknown,  but  the  study  showed  the  beginnings 
of  Japanese  portraiture.  There  were  beautiful  screens  of  the  Kano  school, 
beginning  about  350  years  back,  and  temple  masks  of  carved  wood  (origi- 
nals) used  in  Shinto  ceremonies,  over  800  years  old. 

It  was  most  interesting  to  see  nature  in  tree,  flower,  bird,  and  trelhsed 
vine,  and  to  see  junks,  sampans,  dainty  little  houses,  and  people,  through 
the  window  of  the  Japanese  soul — the  temperamental  interpretation  of  a 
nation  of  artists.  At  their  deft  hands,  embroidery  justified  itself.  The 
large  wave  screen,  exhibited  by  lida  Shinhichi,  and  the  lioness  screen,  also 
embroidered,  seemed  done  in  a  better  medium  for  such  studies  than  any 
pigment.  The  work  was  as  fluent  as  art  could  have  made  it,  the  subjects 
seemed  luminous  and  alive.  The  wave  screen  was  the  work  of  Seizaburo 
Kajimoto,  with  three  assistant  embroiderers,  and  represented  eight  months 
of  continuous  labor. 

When  it  came  to  painting,  the  "Moving  Clouds"  of  Ranshu  Dan  dis- 
closed a  romantic  power  in  landscape  interpretation  that  produced  super- 
lative beauty.  You  might  think  it  difficult  to  emphasize  a  mountain, 
but  this  scene  did  it — showed  mountains  really  mountain  high,  emphasized 
by  a  few  huts  huddled  together  on  the  bank  of  a  stream,  thus 
giving  that  appealing  quality  in  landscape  pictures,  wherein  the 
sublimity  of  nature  is  brought  into  intimate  relation  with  man. 
This  painting  showed  how  efl^ectively  the  unpainted  part  did  its 
work  in  the  picture,  inasmuch  as  the  clouds  were  portrayed  by 
not  painting  them.  It  is  a  very  important  practice  in  Japanese 
painting  to  leave  a  part,  often  the  greater  part,  blank,  and  let  that  blank 
portion  perform  a  function,  and  the  practice  was  exemplified  in  this  picture. 

There  were  tapestries,  some  great  wood  carvings,  bold  and  strong,  and 
an  ivory  piece  about  three  feet  high  depicting  an  old  man  and  his  pet  rabbit, 
as  human  and  animal  and  as  quaintly  humorous  with  the  essential  sympathy 


of  real  humor,  as  anything  could  be.  Of  lacquer  there  were  some  exquisite 
examples,  as  there  were  of  porcelain  and  cloisonne.  But  perhaps  the  most 
interesting  exemplification  of  the  Japanese  artist's  impulse  to  deal 
in  difficult  material  was  the  iron  statuary:  a  pup,  and  a  storm  sculpture 
king,  or  devil,  hollow,  and  hammered  from  within,  until  the 
exterior  gave  an  effect  of  the  utmost  fluency,  although  the  medium  was 
as  difficult  as  could  well  be  imagined,  tending  to  grow  too  thin  and  breach 
through,  when  the  whole  work  would  have  to  be  started  over.  These  were 
by  Chozabur  Yomada,  and  excited  much  interest,  for  they  were  a  searching 
test  of  craftsman's  skill. 

And  all  through  these  Japanese  galleries,  by  means  of  porcelain,  silken 
strand,  ink,  and  pigments,  or  cloisonne,  the  eye  and  fancy  were  regaled  with 
the  charm  of  Japan  and  the  visions  of  its  nature  that  appealed  to  its  people 
— the  carp  suspended  in  the  invisible  water,  the  eagle  or  the  raven  perched 
on  the  long-leafed  pine,  the  cloud  rack  flowing  through  fairy  mountain 
summits — all  infused  with  the  rarest  spiritual  grace.  Many  of  these  treas- 
ures were  loaned  by  the  Imperial  Household. 

The  Chinese  Section  showed  a  rare  collection  of  Chinese  scrolls,  brought 
over  by  Mr.  Liu  Sung  Fu,  of  Shanghai,  a  collector.  There  were  about 
300  of  them,  and  some  were  very  old.  They  hung  in  two  galleries,  about 
100  at  a  time,  and  were  often  changed.  Their  venerable  owner  was  in 
regular  attendance  and  in  his  rich  Chinese  costume  added  an  Oriental 

Besides  the  paintings,  the  Chinese  Section  showed  some  curious  as  well  as 
beautiful  objects.  There  was  a  large  gold-fish  kong  or  pot,  for  example, 
made  of  porcelain,  and  the  porcelain  had  a  landscape  carved  on  it  after 
baking.  There  were  tiny  bottles,  two  or  three  inches  long,  with  narrow 
necks  through  which  landscapes  had  been  painted  on  the  inner  surface  of  the 
glass.  Big  cloisonne  lions,  blue  enameled,  we  are  perhaps  accustomed  to, 
but  lacquer  on  linen,  producing  vases  and  jars  that  looked  as  if  made  of 
bronze  and  that  turned  out  to  be,  by  contrast,  almost  imponderable,  were  a 
rarity.  The  red  lacquer  furniture  displayed  was  of  the  most 
sumptuous  character.  On  the  frames  as  many  as  200  coats  of  Lacquer 
lacquer  would  be  laid,  and  then  carved  deeply  and  intricately, 
so  that  the  whole  chair  or  chest  or  sofa  frame  looked  as  though  it  had  been 
built  of  red  coral.  There  were  boxes  and  cabinets  on  which  had  been  placed 
lacquers  in  different  colored  layers  so  that  they  could  be  carved  like  huge, 
intricate  cameos. 

There  were  fruit  stones  with  long  poems  carved  on  them;  and  screens 
with  trees,  flowers,  and  birds  made  of  carved  pink  quartz,  red  coral,  and  green 


jade;  and  other  screens  in  which  panels  decorated  with  carved  ivory  were 
set  in  rich  teak  frames.     The  works  in  cloisonne  were  especially  fine. 

Of  carved  ivories,  jades,  and  crystals  there  was  an  abundance,  but  the 
transition  affecting  all  things  Chinese  appeared  in  the  growing  rarity  of 
those  typically  Oriental  ornaments,  the  pierced  ivory  spheres  with  other 
spheres  free  inside  them.  There  were  one  or  two  in  the  exhibition,  but  they 
were  said  to  be  growing  scarce  because  there  were  no  young  men  left  m 
China  practicing  this  time-consuming  craft. 

The  art  of  Argentina  was  represented  by  paintings  and  sculptures  to 
the  extent  of  75  pieces,  many  of  them  loaned  by  the  Museum  of  Buenos 
Aires.  It  was  largely  Italian  in  spirit,  but  bore  the  seeds  of  strong  develop- 
ment on  its  own  lines.  Cuba  was  represented  by  a  number  of  paintings  and 
drawings.  France  made  an  especially  strong  art  display  in  her  Pavilion, 
but  she  also  managed  to  fill  eight  galleries  in  the  Fine  Arts  Palace  with 
exemplifications  of  contemporaneous  painting,  most  of  which,  according  to 
Neuhaus,  expressed  "an  astounding  versatility,  always  accompanied  by 
technical  excellence."  Italy  filled  five  galleries  with  paintings 
Abrmd"  ^^^  drawings.  Here  also  was  the  piece  of  sculpture,  "Proximus 
Tuus,"  by  Achille  d'Orsi,  described  as  the  "  Man  with  the  Hoe 
Sitting  Down";  a  spent  laborer,  thin  and  underfed,  with  the  dulled  look 
of  habitual  exhaustion.  This  figure  arrested  everybody's  attention,  and 
was  the  subject  of  many  new  chapters  in  the  age-old  discussion  about  the 
object  of  art  and  the  nature  of  beauty. 

The  critics  seemed  agreed  that  the  three  galleries  occupied  by  the  works 
of  Portuguese  painters  showed  much  technical  mastery  and  gave  promise 
of  further  power  in  the  field  of  design,  although  at  present  showing  a  bit  too 
much  of  photographic  fidelity  to  the  subject.  "The  Pilgrimage,"  by 
Senhor  Adriano  de  Sousa  Lopes,  Portuguese  Commissioner  of  Fine  Arts, 
received  much  attention. 

Holland  filled  three  galleries  with  paintings  and  sculpture,  and  one  with 
etchings,  wood  cuts,  and  mezzotints.  Here  one  saw  those  quiet  and  familiar 
Dutch  scenes,  of  formal  neatness  and  harmony,  that  characterize  the  art  of 
The  Netherlands;  a  revelation  in  the  use  of  homely  material  for  art  subjects. 

The  Uruguayan  Section  occupied  a  gallery,  with  works  of  promise  from 
some  of  her  young  men  who  had  profited  by  shrewd  governmental  patron- 
age in  the  form  of  certain  European  art  scholarships.  The  gallery  was  domi- 
nated by  the  equestrian  portrait  of  General  Galarza,  by  Pedro  Blanes  Viale. 

The  Philippine  Islands  were  represented  by  a  gallery  of  paintings  and 
drawings,  distinguished  for  the  proofs  they  gave  of  the  recent  assimilation  of 
European  art. 




In  the  International  Section,  Finland  was  represented  by  the  work  of 
Axel  Gallen-Kallela.  It  was  big  and  masterful,  and  of  dominating  individu- 

Some  of  the  national  sections  did  not  open  until  the  year  was  well  along, 
and  then  the  event  was  made  the  subject  of  interesting  ceremonies,  in  which 
addresses  on  the  art  of  the  different  nations  figured. 

It  is  impossible  in  such  a  work  as  this  to  follow  far  or  more  in  detail  the 
masterpieces  of  this  grand  exhibition.  They  have  been  listed  completely, 
and  well  presented,  in  the  Illustrated  Official  Catalogue  issued  by  the 
Wahlgreen  Company  and  in  the  "Catalogue  de  Luxe  of  the  Department 
of  Fine  Arts  of  the  Panama-Pacific  International  Exposition,"  edited  by 
John  E.  D.  Trask  and  J.  Nilsen  Laurvik,  and  published  by  Paul  Elder  &  Co., 
of  San  Francisco;  and  the  galleries  were  reviewed  at  length  by  Eugen  Neu- 
haus  of  the  faculty  of  the  University  of  California.  A  fine  illustrated  cata- 
logue for  the  post-Exposition  period  was  published  by  the  San  Francisco 
Art  Association,  and  there  was  a  brief  guide  by  Michael  Williams.  It  was  a 
very  great  and  a  very  beautiful  exhibition,  and  its  educational  potency  was 
the  grandest  and  finest  impulse  of  the  sort  ever  felt  in  the  West. 

The  writer  has  been  quite  highly  complimented  by  the  Chief  of  Fine 
Arts  for  this  chapter.  The  Chief  says  the  best  thing  about  it  is  its  convinc- 
ing internal  evidence  of  having  been  written  by  somebody  that  knew 
nothing  whatever  about  art.  With  which  encouragement  we  shall  proceed 
gayly  to  destruction  by  way  of  a  description  of  radio  apparatus,  Pelton 
water  wheels,  gas  engines,  high-voltage  transmission,  structural  steel  work, 
mines  and  mining,  locomotives,  and  a  few  such  other  simple  things. 


SAID  Pope,  Chief  of  the  Departments  of  Education  and  Social  Economy: 
"The  death  rate  for  hogs  in  the  United  States  during  the  first  year 
is  five  per  cent,  for  sheep  three,  for  calves  one.  For  babies  it  is  12. 
Every  day  3,000,000  people  are  ill  in  this  country,  involving  a  loss  of 
$500,000,000  annually  in  working  power,  and  as  much  more  in  costs  of 
attendance  and  treatment;  a  total  of  a  billion  a  year  for  illness,  much  of  it 

"To  meet  such  a  condition,  Social  Economics  arises.    It  would  cut  down 
these  vital  losses  to  a  minimum." 

The  Department  of  Social  Economy  was  a  comparatively  new  phase  of 
expositions.  Its  function  was,  in  general,  to  improve  the  art  of  livmg,  to 
teach  the  public  the  scientific  conservation  of  life  and  time  and  human 
values.  Within  its  field  of  presentation  were  such  ameliorating  agencies  as 
hygiene,  insurance,  industrial-welfare  work,  banking  and  methods 
^"""^   .       of  exchange,  public  parks,  playgrounds,  gymnasia,  swimming  pools 

Economics  o)r-  r  jr^o  _         iij  j 

and  other  things  that  go  to  keep,  cleanse,  and  energize  the  body  and 
clear  the  mind;  the  things  that  tend  to  conserve  the  moral  and  the  physical 
attributes  of  the  citizen;  without  trenching  on  general  athletics  on  the  one 
hand  or  on  general  education  on  the  other— although,  theoretically,  educa- 
tion would  be  a  branch  of  Social  Economy.  Education  was  recognized  in 
expositions  before  Social  Economy,  but  the  two  departments  embrace  a 
vast  number  of  subjects  relating  to  direct  betterment  and  advancement, 
individually  and  collectively. 

After  it  was  decided  to  give  such  recognition  to  Social  Economy  as  to 
assign  it  a  department,  Dr.  Frank  A.  Wolff  of  the  United  States  Bureau  of 
Standards  at  Washington,  was  put  at  the  head  of  it,  but  he  resigned  and 
was  succeeded  by  Alvin  E.  Pope,  who,  later,  also  succeeded  James  A.  Barr 
as  Chief  of  the  Department  of  Education. 

The  combining  of  these  two  departments  under  one  head  was  fortunate, 
not  only  because  the  talents  and  experience  of  the  Chief  in  educational, 
corrective,  and  institutional  work  fitted  him  to  handle  them  together,  but 



also  because,  while  the  distinction  between  them  was  clear  and  logical, 
they  were  so  intimately  related  that  when  their  subjects  were  presented  in 
exhibits,  those  of  one  department  added  force  and  impressiveness  to  those 
of  the  other;  and  the  public  did  not  have  to  bother  about  the  difference, 
and  neither  will  this  history. 

Both  departments  occupied  the  Palace  of  Education,  although  physically 
it  was  not  possible  to  get  all  the  Social  Economy  exhibits  into  it.  Most  of 
the  United  States  Government's  exhibits  in  Social  Economy  went  into 
the  Palace  of  Liberal  Arts.  Banking,  insurance,  and  industrial-wel- 
fare exhibits  went  into  the  Palace  of  Mines  and  Metallurgy,  and 
the  tremendously  impressive  exhibits  of  the  municipality  of  New 
York  went  into  the  structure  erected  among  the  State  buildings  by  that  city. 
Those  of  the  more  significant  of  these  that  space  permits  us  to  mention  we 
shall  describe  in  connection  with  the  other  exhibits  in  the  palaces  in  which 
they  were  installed. 

Few  of  the  exhibitors  in  Education  and  Social  Economy  had  anything 
to  sell.  Nobody  was  taking  orders  for  so  many  units  of  knowledge  or  for 
new  systems  of  developing  the  human  young.  Here  and  there  methods  of 
bodily  conservation  were  clinically  demonstrated.  Educational  processes, 
also,  were  demonstrated;  but,  what  was  far  more  practical,  the  visitor 
could  acquire  a  special  education  here  himself,  for  things  were  being  taught, 
things  of  recent  discovery  or  analysis,  which  had  not  yet  made  their  way 
into  the  curricula  of  the  schools. 

It  might  have  been  called,  instead  of  the  Palace  of  Education,  the 
Palace  of  the  New  Knowledge.  Through  lectures,  moving  pictures,  trans- 
parencies, stereomotorgraphs,  charts,  pamphlets,  personal  instruction,  mod- 
els, topographical  maps,  every  conceivable  sort  of  visual  representation, 
the  exhibits  gave  people  the  latest  views  on  practical  affairs  of  life;  on  child 
welfare,  on  health  conservation,  on  hygiene,  on  social  relations,  and  eco- 
nomic tendencies.  It  was  like  a  university  that  had  sprung  into  being  over- 
night, without  traditions  or  precedent.  It  would  have  suited  an  ancient 
Greek,  filled  with  the  originating  impulses  of  the  dawn  of  Western  ideas,  and 
free  from  hampering  preconceptions.  Could  a  man  of  the  Middle  Ages  have 
returned  to  study  it  he  would  have  found  just  about  as  much  meaning  in 
it  as  a  Congo  savage,  so  strange  to  him  would  it  have  been  in  matter  and 
in  spirit.  But  a  man  of  the  Renaissance  would  have  felt  a  curious  affinity 
with  the  determination  everywhere  in  evidence  to  cast  off  the  repressive 
opinions  of  the  past,  and  test  everything  by  its  utilitarian  value  for  the 
people  of  the  present  and  the  future. 

There  were  eight  moving-picture  theaters  in  the  Palace.     At  intervals 


great  educators,  leaders  in  this  main  concern  of  a  democracy,  education, 
lectured  in  them.  Helen  Keller  spoke.  Examinations  of  children  went  on 
daily  at  the  Children's  Bureau  booth  and  elsewhere,  so  that  mothers  might 
know  whether  or  not  they  were  pursuing  the  proper  course  with 
could  Gt  their  little  ones  or  should  adopt  some  other.  At  the  Race  Bet- 
terment booth.  Dr.  A.  J.  Read  lectured  daily  on  eugenics  and 
allied  topics.  There  were  conferences  on  problems  that  were  pressing  them- 
selves on  the  attention  of  altruists.  In  the  exhibit  of  the  National  Child 
Labor  Committee,  the  "high  cost  of  child  labor"  in  what  it  takes  out  of 
the  industrial  efficiency  of  the  worker  when  he  reaches  adult  years  was  shown 
in  a  manner  so  distinct  no  one  could  leave  in  uncertainty  about  it. 

In  one  of  the  theaters  of  the  Palace  there  was  a  story-telling  hour  for 
children,  once  a  week,  conducted  by  Miss  Grace  Miner  of  the  National 
Story  Tellers'  League.  This  was  to  give  the  children  not  merely  wholesome 
entertainment,  but  a  taste  for  good  literature.  A  series  of  lectures  on  Mental 
Deviation  was  delivered  by  J.  Harold  Williams  of  the  Buckel  Foundation 
of  Stanford  University. 

There  was  a  class  in  lip  reading  for  the  deaf.  There  was  a  school  for 
the  blind.  There  was  a  demonstration  class  for  the  courses  in  the  Mon- 
tessori  method  of  infant  development.  There  were  illustrated  lectures  of 
the  California  Association  for  the  Study  and  Prevention  of  Tuberculosis. 
There  was  a  free,  open,  dental  clinic,  where  visitors  were  instructed  in  mouth 
hygiene,  and  told  what  repairs  or  corrections  of  their  dental  equipment 
they  needed,  and  why.  There  were  several  exhibits  in  which  children  were 
taught  to  play;  for  most  of  this  educational  and  conservational  work  began 
quite  properly  with  the  child. 

There  was  a  fully  equipped  and  thoroughly  operated  commercial  school, 
the  first  one  ever  conducted  by  an  exposition,  in  which  the  teaching  did 
not  proceed  in  timeworn  ruts,  but  was  based  on  what  business  men 
had  advised  the  department  they  needed  in  their  assistants.  There  was 
an  exhibit  devoted  to  social  hygiene  and  sex  education.  There  was  another 
in  which  a  great  medical  association  taught  people  the  contents  of  the 
injurious  brands  of  patent  medicine.  There  was  a  demonstrating  class  in 
sewing.  There  were  lectures  on  the  Indian  in  the  Rodman  Wanamaker 
Expeditions  to  the  Indians  exhibit,  describing  the  condition  and  treatment 
of  the  aborigines.  There  was  a  demonstration  of  the  open-air  school,  and 
the  methods  employed  in  it. 

In  short  a  whole  education  in  education,  and  in  the  physical  conduct  of 
life,  could  be  obtained  in  the  Palace,  painlessly.  Humanity  could  come 
here  and  learn  how  to  take  care  of  itself  and  train  itself — which,  in  the  light 





of  all  this  teaching,  were  things  great  masses  of  people  did  not  seem  to 
know  much  about.  To  pass  through  the  Palace  of  Education  with  your 
eyes  open  was  to  come  under  influences  that  were  broadening  and  enlight- 
ening, and  to  come  out  better  educated  than  you  went  in. 

The  United  States  Department  of  Agriculture  showed  remarkable  dem- 
onstrations of  the  new  agricultural  education;  and  you  got  most  vivid 
exemplifications  of  the  centralized  method  of  State  control  of  public  schools 
by  the  State  of  New  York,  of  State-aided  vocational  schools  by 
Massachusetts,  of  modern  rural  schools  by  Oregon,  of  scientific  f--  "'^  , 
research  by  the  Carnegie  Institution,  of  the  higher  education  of 
women  by  Smith  College,  of  open-air  schools  by  the  Elizabeth  McCormick 
Memorial  Fund,  of  school  museums  by  St.  Louis,  of  museum-extension 
work  among  the  schools  by  the  N.  W.  Harris  Public  School  Extension  of 
the  Field  Museum  of  Chicago,  of  out-door  education  and  suitable  school 
architecture  by  the  State  of  California,  of  school  music  by  Oakland,  of  a 
city  public-school  system  by  Los  Angeles,  and  of  the  development  of  dra- 
matic art  in  schools  by  the  city  of  Berkeley.  To  some  of  these  things  we 
shall  recur  later.  They  were  all  shown  with  such  force  and  clearness  that 
anyone  interested  in  methods  of  education  could  here  learn  what  it  would 
have  taken  him  half  a  lifetime  to  glean  from  books,  and  then  he  would  be 
without  facilities  for  comparative  observation,  and  study  of  relative  results. 

Usually  it  is  well  to  have  an  aim.  The  Department  of  Social  Economy 
had  one,  and  so  did  the  Department  of  Education.  The  former  embodied 
the  hope  that  the  Exposition  would  be  followed  by  great  improvements  in 
the  habits  of  living,  and  by  national  and  international  movements  along 
all  lines  of  social  service.  Whether  such  movements  will  follow  we  cannot 
yet  say,  the  world  just  at  this  writing  being  too  busy  spreading  death  to 
think  sufficiently  about  helping  life. 

The  hope  of  the  Department  of  Education  was  that  through  the  display 
of  the  most  successful  methods  of  teaching,  the  waste  of  time,  energy,  and 
money  caused  by  duplication  of  experimental  work  might  be  avoided,  and 
youth  be  better  educated.  Each  exhibitor — State,  municipality,  organi- 
zation, or  institution — was  asked  to  confine  its  exhibit  to  the  portrayal  of 
some  specialty  in  which  it  excelled,  or  to  the  teaching  of  one  or  two  prin- 
ciples. So,  each  would  represent  the  whole  country  as  far  as  that  particular 
specialty  was  concerned.  This  introduced  the  invaluable  element  of  emu- 

In  Educational  exhibits  the  world  had  outgrown  the  old-style  display  of 
pupils'  papers  showing  how  much  like  the  copy  book  little  Johnny  and  little 
Mary  could  write,  and  what  long  words  they  could  spell  at  the  age  of  seven 


years  without  getting  blots  on  the  paper;  for,  people  were  beginning  to  see 
that  the  best  spellers  did  not  always  turn  out  to  be  the  best  sellers.  More- 
over, with  hard  enough  drill  on  the  teacher's  part  it  sometimes 
notWanted  happened  that  a  blotless  prodigy  in  a  most  inferior  school  sur- 
passed the  best  product  of  the  good  institutions.  Such  exhibits 
showed  nothing  valuable,  and  the  public  had  found  it  out. 

So  with  collections  of  examination  papers.  Tons  of  wood  pulp  had 
gone  into  these  exhibits  in  the  past,  without  raising  educational  standards 
perceptibly,  or  making  education  worth  a  bit  more.  Hence  exhibitors  were 
advised  that  such  exhibits  would  not  be  acceptable,  but  that  they  were  to 
select  specialties  in  which  they  excelled,  or  lessons  they  were  capable  of 
teaching  others,  things  that  would  show  the  public  fundamental  educational 
principles,  how  to  make  useful  citizens,  how  certain  types  of  school  and 
methods  of  education  were  benefiting  individuals  and  communities  and 
helping  to  make  men  more  effective  and  life  on  this  old  earth  a  better 

Inasmuch  as  the  Chief  of  the  combined  Departments  of  Education  and 
Social  Economy  had  very  definite  ideas  about  what  he  wished  his  depart- 
ments to  convey,  no  circular  letters  of  invitation  were  sent  out  by  him; 
the  invitations  were  particular.  The  advantages  of  such  selection  in  ad- 
vance of  space  commitments  are  clear.  But  it  calls  for  an  executive  that 
knows  what  he  wants. 

With  one  or  two  exceptions,  the  attendants  in  the  various  booths  were 
experts  in  the  subjects  they  were  there  to  portray.  The  inquiring  visitor 
felt  directly  that  he  had  applied  for  information  to  a  person  that  knew 
what  he  was  talking  about — a  fine  experience,  worth  repeating  at  the  next 
booth  and  following  up  next  day. 

The  Palace  of  Education  covered  396  feet  by  526  and  cost  about 
1300,000  to  build.  It  had  one  distinguishing  feature  of  construction — the 
floors  of  booths  were  level  with  the  floors  of  the  aisles,  instead  of  being  four 
or  five  inches  above.  This  added  to  convenience  and  to  the  chance  of  the 
exhibits  being  inspected,  and  reduced  the  risk  of  Potts's  fractures. 

Besides  the  United  States  these  countries  were  officially  or  unofficially 
represented  in  the  Palace:  Argentina,  China,  Cuba,  France,  Japan,  the 
Philippines,  and  Uruguay. 


THE  days  when  bilious  ascetics  taught  the  public  to  abhor  the  body 
as  a  peril  to  the  soul  were,  happily,  gone  for  most  of  us,  and  people 
were  thinking  more  about  certified  milk  and  uncontaminated  water 
supplies  and  how  much  benzoate  of  soda  they  could  stand  in  the  ketchup 
than  about  the  minutiae  of  theological  doctrine.  There  was  a  wide  and  an 
intense  interest  in  everything  that  could  make  this  life  more  secure  and 
comfortable,  either  for  those  that  were  living  it  or  for  the  descendants 
and  dependents  of  those  that  would  soon  cease  to  live  it.  Much  of  it  cen- 
tered in  the  improvement  of  the  body  and  much  of  it  in  the  subject  of 

The  Department  of  Social  Economy  illustrated  insurance  and  indus- 
trial welfare  by  such  exhibits  as  that  of  the  United  States  Steel  Corporation, 
and  the  safety  devices  shown  by  the  ^Etna  Life  Insurance  Company's 
casualty  department.  It  illustrated  profit  sharing  by  the  Ford  Motor 
Company,  fire  prevention  by  the  Hartford  Fire  Insurance  Company,  the 
education  of  policy  holders  in  preventive  medicine  and  the  medi- 
cal  service  rendered  to  policy  holders  and  employees  by  the  j^p^g^^^„i 
Metropolitan  Life  Insurance  Company  of  New  York,  agricul- 
tural extension  work  by  the  International  Harvester  Company,  health  con- 
ditions by  the  Prudential  Insurance  Company  of  America;  and  a  collective 
exhibit  on  all  phases  of  insurance  by  the  "Insurance  Field." 

Most  of  these  exhibits  were  placed  in  the  Palace  of  Mines  and  Metal- 
lurgy. The  Palace  of  Education,  itself,  seemed  like  some  great  college. 
The  temper  of  the  crowds  was  serious.  People  went  there  to  study,  not  to 
be  amused,  and  they  went  in  masses.  Men  of  influence  from  foreign  coun- 
tries, not  merely  the  commissioners  to  the  Exposition,  but  unofficial  trav- 
elers, received  light  on  problems  of  human  betterment  they  might  never 
have  acquired  elsewhere,  and  they  took  that  light  home  and  spread  it. 
Dr.  Ernesto  Nelson,  Director  General  of  Secondary  Industrial  and  Com- 
mercial Education  of  Buenos  Aires,  a  member  of  the  Argentine  Commission, 
put  in  months  of  study  in  this  Palace,  personally  photographing  every 



chart  of  importance  and  almost  every  exhibit,  and  he  was  but  one  of  many 
who  seized  this  extraordinary  opportunity. 

And  all  contributed.     To  return  to  the  case  of  Argentina;  she  made  a 

representation  of  her  normal  language  schools,  wherein  the  courses  are 

taught  in  several  languages,  so  that  a  pupil  intending  to  specialize  in  any 

one  of  them  pursues  his  studies  in  that  tongue.    The  "copa  de  leche,"  the 

glass  of  milk  for  the  pupil,  the  cost  of  which  is  borne  by  parent- 

Reciprocal  ,  .      .  ,  ..... 

Influences  teacher  associations,  as  much  an  mstitution  m  the  Argentme 
schools  as  the  textbook,  was  depicted  and  its  effect  on  the  health, 
stamina,  and  mental  powers  of  the  student  was  set  out.  Argentina 
showed  her  care  of  weakling  children  in  open-air  schools,  her  industrial 
education  of  women,  her  progress  in  agricultural  education  and  in  uni- 
versity methods  through  the  new  universities  at  La  Plata  and  Tucuman, 
and  her  rapidly  expanding  building-and-loan  transactions. 

A  striking  feature  of  the  Argentine  exhibits  in  Education  was  a  picture 
the  "Christ  of  the  Andes,"  cast  in  bronze  from  melted  cannon  that  would 
have  served  in  a  war  with  Chile  had  not  the  differences  between  those  two 
countries  been  arbitrated.  It  showed  sincere  efforts  for  peace,  and  the  joy 
in  both  countries  over  the  success  of  those  efforts. 

Uruguay  depicted  its  methods  of  conducting  open-air  schools  and  of 
handling  its  charities,  Guatemala  its  special  education  in  agriculture,  Japan 
its  special  education  in  the  Fine  Arts,  and  so  on. 

Of  the  individual  exhibits  of  these  departments  we  can  mention  here 
but  a  few  of  the  more  striking. 

One  of  the  exhibits  that  caught  the  eye  of  every  visitor  to  the  Palace 
of  Education  was  the  Race  Betterment  booth,  representing  the  eugenics 
movement  in  the  thought  of  the  time.  Here  were  large  plaster  casts  of 
Atlas,  and  Venus,  and  of  Apollo,  Belvedere  type,  to  advertise  the  human 
race  at  its  best,  and  get  that  race  interested  in  its  glorious  past  and  possible 
future.  As  for  its  present,  that  was  represented  by  four  "live"  people, 
although  not  always  nor  for  long  the  same  four,  who  sat  in  vibrating  chairs 
and  were  agitated  physically  by  electric  motor,  and  usually  looked  resentful 
of  the  past  and  careless  of  the  future,  and  as  though  they  thoroughly  needed 
the  good  shaking  they  were  getting.  You  could  hardly  pass  such  an  exhibit 
without  stopping  to  see  what  it  was  about,  or  how  much  shaking  these 
subjects  could  stand  without  becoming  addled. 

On  the  wall  were  pictures  of  the  promoters  of  the  first  Race 

started         Betterment  Conference,  held  in  January,  1914,  at  Battle  Creek, 

Michigan,  where  the  breakfast  food  comes  from:    Dr.  Stephen 

Smith  of  New  York,  Prof.  Irving  Fisher  of  Yale,  Dr.  Charles  VV.  Eliot  of 




Harvard,  Sir  Horace  Plunkett,  the  Hon.  Gifford  Pinchot,  and  Judge  Ben 
Lindsey  of  Denver.  This  booth  was  so  admirably  arranged  with  placards 
and  charts  that  you  didn't  have  to  ask  many  questions;  all  you  had  to  do 
was  just  to  look,  to  see  the  necessity  for  its  work.  The  Race  Betterment 
Foundation  put  in  the  exhibit,  and  Dr.  A.  J.  Read,  its  Director,  was  in 
almost  constant  attendance  to  give  information  and  advice. 

Its  announced  purpose  was  "To  present  the  evidence  of  race  deteriora- 
tion, to  show  the  possibility  of  race  improvement,  to  emphasize  the  impor- 
tance of  personal  hygiene  and  race  hygiene,  or  eugenics,  as  methods  of  race 
improvement."  "The  Race  Betterment  movement  aims  to  create  a  new 
and  superior  race  through  euthenics,  or  personal  and  public  hygiene,  and 
eugenics,  or  race  hygiene."  "  A  thorough  application  of  public  and  personal 
hygiene  will  save  our  nation  annually  1,000,000  premature  deaths,  2,000,000 
lives  rendered  perpetually  useless  by  sickness,  and  200,000  infant  lives." 

Another  chart  inquired:     "Is  our  race  dying  at  the  top?"  and  cited 

these  centenarian  figures:     Bulgaria,  one  centenarian  to  1000  population. 

United  States  one  to  25,000,  Spain  one  to  40,000,  England  one  to  200,000 

and  Germany  one  to  700,000;  although  no  reason  was  given  why  anyone 

should  have  wished  to  live  a  hundred  years  in  any  of  these  countries.    Some 

figures  were  given  on  the  death  rate  from  cancer:  in  man,  living 

•         .  ■  •         1        J  L      1-  Ltmng 

on  mixed  diet,  it  was  given  as  5  per  cent,  in   the  dog,  who  lives         Longer 

on  meat  exclusively,  as  8,  in  the  sheep,  vegetarian,  .0015,  and  in 

the  ape  nothing  at  all.    United  States  census  reports  were  quoted  to  show 

that  the  average  length  of  life  is  15   years   more  in    the   country  than  in 

the  city — although  nothing  was   said   statistically   as    to   quality,  which 

is  where  the  statistical  method  of  inquiry  falls  down. 

Encouragement  to  consider  these  matters  and  brace  up  the  individual 
and  the  race  was  offered  by  examples  of  what  man  has  done,  through 
selection  and  breeding,  to  improve  the  dahlia,  the  cactus,  corn,  and  various 
kinds  of  animal. 

A  horrible  example  of  what  the  race  might  become  if  its  development 
is  not  tempered  by  common  sense  was  offered  by  a  small  exhibit  in  an  ob- 
scure corner  of  the  Palace,  where  a  swarm  of  bees  devoted  every  waking 
hour  to  toil,  without  the  least  notion  why.  They  flew  in  and  out  a  small 
chink  in  the  wall,  gathering  nectar  from  the  acres  of  flower  beds,  more 
than  they  would  ever  need,  and  you  could  see  them  storing  it  in  glass-front 
hives  inside  the  Palace.  They  worked  incessantly,  they  never  played, 
they  never  stopped  to  enjoy  the  beauty  all  about  them;  the  flowers  they 
plundered  were,  to  them,  merely  repositories  of  glucose;  and  so  they  formed 
a  most  impressive  warning  against  the  deadening  effects  of  intemperate  in- 


dustry,  and  its  fixation  as  a  racial  vice.  The  Race  Betterment  movement 
aimed  "  to  create  a  new  and  superior  race  through  personal  and  public 
hygiene."  The  bees  showed  it  wasn't  going  to  be  worth  doing  if  that  su- 
perior race  was  to  abandon  itself  to  excessive  indulgence  in  work. 

Fifty  wall  charts  supplemented  by  models,  pictures,  and  illustrated 
albums  dealing  with  the  medical,  educational,  religious,  and  legal  phases 
of  social  hygiene  constituted  the  American  Social  Hygiene  Association's 
exhibit.  Intelligence  had  been  sharply  focused  on  this  question  not  long 
before  the  Exposition  opened  by  the  publication  of  a  translation 
Hygiene  °^  Brieux's  "Damaged  Goods"  and  by  the  dramatization  of  that 
common-sense  tract,  so  the  Association  had  some  basis  of  tolerant 
interest  on  which  to  build.  Yet  it  was  not  making  a  campaign  for  sex 
instruction  alone,  but  in  behalf  of  a  far  broader  purpose — the  handing  down 
of  unblemished  physical  and  mental  inheritance  from  generation  to  genera- 
tion. Its  propaganda  included  sex  education,  the  establishment  of  the 
single  standard  of  morality,  and  the  suppression  of  prostitution  and  its 
associated  evils. 

In  this  Palace  a  certain  collection  of  charts  exhibited  the  early  condition 
of  what  promises  to  become  an  important  factor  in  education:  the  actual 
measurement,  by  fixed  standards,  of  mental  ability.  The  charts  showed 
the  Binet-Simon  scale  and  the  Yerkes-Bridges  scale,  and  the  subject  sug- 
gested limitless  possibilities. 

Amid  the  clangor  of  arms  resounding  through  the  world  in  191 5,  Japan's 
exhibit  of  Red  Cross  work  in  the  Palace  of  Education  tended  to  impress 
people  with  a  feeling  of  gratitude  for  what  civilization  was  left.  The  dis- 
plays were  very  effective.  There  were  life-size  wax  figures  of  surgeons, 
nurses,  and  patients,  and  models  of  field  telephones  used  for  communicating 
with  chief  surgeons,  hospital-supply  bases,  and  base  hospitals.  The  dressing 
of  wounds  was  demonstrated.  All  surgical  instruments,  dressings,  steriliz- 
ing apparatus  and  every  other  form  of  equipment,  were  exhibited,  down  to 
the  electro-magnets  used  for  extracting  shell  splinters.  Army  hygiene,  in 
the  field,  was  illustrated  here,  and  the  efficiency  of  Japanese  preparedness 
shone  out  in  a  very  striking  manner. 

The  weazened  American  dyspeptic,  going  to  the  cupboard  for  a  dose  of 
his  favorite  "bitters,"  was  a  familiar  figure  on  the  American  comedy  stage 
a  generation  ago.  Americans  were  known  the  world  around  as  a 
in  Them?  dyspeptic  nation — owing,  perhaps,  to  our  vaunted  "home  cook- 
ing"— and  they  dosed  themselves  for  it.  That  made  a  field  where 
fortunes  could  grow  from  patent-medicine  bottles — bottles  about  whose  con- 
tents and  therapeutic  effects  the  users  knew  nothing.    The  American  Medi- 


cal  Association  had  been  telling  about  them  for  some  time,  with  general 
good  results,  and  seized  on  the  Exposition  as  an  opportunity  to  carry  the 
propaganda  to  a  larger  number  of  people  thian  it  had  been  able  to  reach 

This  organization  presented  its  testimony  in  the  form  of  samples  of 
books,  and  pamphlets  (copies  of  which  could  be  obtained  for  mailing  a 
postal  card),  and  by  some  striking  cartoons  showing  the  effects  of  promis- 
cuous drug  taking.  The  testimony  offered  was  bold  and  daring.  Some  of 
the  most  respectable  family  remedies  had  their  insides  mercilessly  exposed. 
Wall  charts  showed  the  results  of  chemical  analyses  of  some  highly  adver- 
tised and  universally  respected  members  of  the  patent-medicine  group. 
The  thing  went  farther.  Certain  brands  of  tobacco  were  taken  apart, 
chemically  and  statistically,  and  the  world  was  shown  just  what  percentage 
of  alfalfa  went  to  their  composition.  So  the  users  of  some  of  the  patent- 
medicines  had  reason  to  believe  they  were  being  poisoned  more  than  they 
should  have  been,  and  the  users  of  certain  brands  of  tobacco  saw  that  they 
were  not  being  poisoned  as  much  as  they  had  paid  for.  The  value  of  this 
exhibit  in  enabling  mankind  to  poison  itself  knowingly  and  just  to  its  taste, 
or  not  at  all  if  it  did  not  wish  to,  must  have  been  large. 

The  booth  of  the  American  Federation  of  Labor  showed  by  charts  and 
pictures  the  development  of  labor  unions  in  America,  and  the  history  of 
the  Federation.  The  literature  of  the  Federation  was  displayed  and  dis- 
tributed. A  stereomotorgraph  of  52  slides  showed  industrial  scenes,  and 
fac  similes  of  union  labels.  There  were  bound  volumes  of  the  Federationist, 
and  of  the  transactions  of  the  annual  conventions  from  1881  to  1913. 

France  exhibited  in  this  Palace,  and  the  pity  of  it  was  that  the  charts 
and  other  published  matter  were  not  in  English  so  that  the  average  Ameri- 
can visitor  could  have  understood.  For,  the  exhibit  dealt  in  part  with  that 
wonderful  system  of  French  domestic  economy  in  which  the  salary  limits 
the  budget  and  the  budget  determines  the  expenditures,  and  no 
fooling  about  it.  A  reference  library  was  maintained,  and  there  b°^IIs 
was  a  fine  model  of  the  Rothschild  Foundation  Hospital.  You 
could  also  see  "cut-open"  models  of  railway  coaches  transformed  for  carry- 
ing wounded  French  soldiers.  There  were  studies  in  insurance,  on  wall 

This  was  the  first  exposition  at  which  woman  suffragists  ever  exhibited. 
The  booth  of  the  Congressional  Union  for  Woman  Suffrage  contained  every 
argument  that  could  be  presented  visually  for  this  extension  of  the  vote  in 
the  United  States.  It  was  decorated  with  flags;  and,  raised  where  all  might 
see  it,  was  a  banner  bearing  the  words  of  the  Susan  B.  Anthony  Amendment, 


which  demanded  that  the  right  of  citizens  of  the  United  States  to  vote 
should  not  be  denied  by  the  United  States  or  by  any  State.  Above,  so  that 
it  might  be  seen  from  a  distance,  was  the  record  of  votes  cast  on  the  Amend- 
ment by  the  63d  Congress. 

At  one  side  of  the  booth  was  a  large  portrait  of  the  "mother  of  suffrage," 
Susan  B.  Anthony,  surrounded  by  exhibits  sent  by  different  States.  Suf- 
frage conferences  were  held  at  this  booth  three  times  a  week. 

An  important  feature  of  the  exhibit  was  the  petition  to  Congress  asking 
it  to  pass  the  amendment.  Every  visitor  to  the  booth  was  asked  to  sign, 
and  long  before  the  close  of  the  Exposition  more  than  a  half  a  million 
names  were  secured.  On  May  21,  1919,  the  amendment  passed  the  House 
of  Representatives,  and  on  June  5,  1919,  it  passed  the  Senate;  in  both  cases 
by  large  majorities.  By  November,  1920,  national  woman  suffrage  had 
become  a  reality. 

In  1913,  New  York  enacted  a  public  health  law  that  early  became  a 
model  for  some  of  the  most  progressive  States  in  the  Union.     Under  this 
law  a  Public  Health  Council  was  given  the  power  to  formulate  a  State- 
wide sanitary  code,  administrative  power  in  sanitary  matters  was 
New  York  s  ^^^^^^^^^^^^  \^  ^^g  hands  of  a  commissioner  with  a  staff  of  di- 

HeaUn  Lode  .         .  •   u    t         l 

vision  heads,  and  a  practical  plan  of  coordmation  with  local 
authorities  through  a  group  of  twenty  district  Sanitary  Supervisors  to 
act  as  intermediaries  was  provided  for.  The  organization,  to  its  smallest 
unit,  was  shown  by  an  electric-flash,  wall-panel  diagram  in  the  exhibit 
booth.  It  appeared  as  a  remarkable  administrative  arm  of  government, 
including  a  large  expert  consulting  staff,  and  a  division  of  vital  statistics, 
one  of  local  registrars,  one  of  laboratories  and  research,  one  of  sanitary 
engineering,  one  of  cold  storage,  one  of  child  hygiene,  and  divisions  on 
tuberculosis,  publicity  and  education,  communicable  disease  and  public- 
health  nursing;  with  the  1,249  local  registrars  and  1,250  local  health  officers. 

This  army  proceeded  to  defend  the  vitality  of  the  people  of  the  State 
of  New  York;  not  that  life  was  more  menaced  there  than  in  other  places, 
but  because  it  shared  the  common  risk.  The  necessity  for  such  defense 
appeared  in  a  moving  model  under  glass,  which  showed  that  26  out  of  100 
born  perish  before  reaching  the  tenth  year,  three  more  before  the  20th, 
six  more  before  the  30th,  six  more  before  the  40th,  seven  more  before  the 
50th,  10  more  before  the  60th,  15  more  before  the  70th,  16  more  before  the 
80th,  and  nine  more  before  the  90th,  leaving  but  two  in  a  hundred  to  pass 
the  90th  year. 

There  was  a  model  of  a  typical  Infant  Welfare  Station,  showing  a  dis- 
pensing   room,  with    ice-box,  and    dispensing    table,  a    consulting    room 








with  a  weighing  table,  supply  cabinet  and  range,  and  apparatus  for  the 
demonstration  of  milk  modification  and  general  infant  care.  The  latest 
laboratory  appliances  were  shown.  There  were  models  representing  the 
pollution  of  streams,  and  the  sort  of  sewage  disposal  that  prevents  such 
pollution.  A  relief  map  under  glass  showed  water  supply  and  sewage-dis- 
posal plants.  There  was  a  model  of  the  Albany  filtration  plant,  which  has 
greatly  lowered  the  amount  of  typhoid  fever  in  the  capital  of  the  Empire 

Much  instruction  was  given  by  means  of  pictures.  In  this  way  the 
Division  of  Communicable  Diseases  urged  the  prompt  reporting  of  infectious 
disease,  personal  cleanliness,  the  necessity  for  the  early  administra- 
tion of  antitoxin,  and  the  isolation  of  the  sick.  And  it  taught  the  Masses 
the  wholesome  lesson  that  "Persons  in  whom  the  germs  are  grow- 
ing are  more  likely  to  be  the  agents  of  infection  than  are  things  on  which  the 
germs  are  dying."  The  motto  of  the  New  York  State  Department  of  Health 
was:  "Public  Health  is  Purchasable.  Twenty-five  Thousand  Lives 
Can  be  Saved  in  New  York  State  Within  the  Next  Five  Years." 

The  New  York  State  Department  of  Labor  had  an  exhibit  showing  how 
it  took  care  of  the  workers — not  merely  by  factory  inspection  and  by  com- 
pelling proper  construction,  but  by  promoting  conciliation  and  arbitration 
in  labor  conflicts.  There  were  models  of  three  factory  buildings  with  fire 
walls,  sprinkler  systems,  fire-proof  stairways,  protected  machinery  and 
other  safety  devices.  All  the  great  work  of  factory  regulation  that  New 
York  has  had  to  undertake  was  represented,  graphically  and  statistically. 

The  exhibit  of  the  New  York  State  Hospitals  for  the  insane  aroused 
great  interest.  The  treatment  of  the  bafiling  affliction  of  insanity  was 
passing  through  some  striking  phases  of  development,  and  in  addition  to  a 
beautiful  model  of  a  State  Hospital  plant,  there  was  a  large  section  of  the 
exhibit  devoted  to  hydrotherapy,  with  all  the  apparatus  for  it  in  operation: 
a  steam  cabinet,  an  electric-light  cabinet,  a  sheet  or  blanket  warmer,  a 
prolonged  or  continuous  flow  bath,  and  a  hydriatic-control  table,  with 
spray  and  shower  baths.  As  there  were  water  and  electric  connections,  the 
demonstrations  were  clear  and  striking. 

Perhaps  the  deepest  and  most  serious  interest  the  public  evinced  in  the 
Palace  of  Education  was  aroused  by  the  exhibit  of  the  Children's  Bureau 
of  the  Department  of  Labor.  Since  the  last  great  international  exposition 
in  this  country,  scientific  care  of  the  human  young  had  become  a  concern 
of  the  national  Government,  and  the  Children's  Bureau  had  been  estab- 
lished by  Congress,  with  a  staff  of  experts  which  in  the  year  of  the  Expo- 
sition numbered  76.     Nowhere  did  the  function  and  the  mission  of  Social 


Economy,  and  the  modern  impulse  toward  human  conservation,  appear 
with  greater  promise  than  in  this  exhibit.  It  reached  right  out  for  the 
mothers  and  the  babies.  By  lectures  and  by  individual  advice  it  sought  to 
spread  a  proper  knowledge  of  child  care.  Eminent  physicans 
Teaching       attending    the    conventions   of  the    great    medical   associations 

Mothers  °  ,       ,  ■  ,        t.  j-  •  u 

were  glad  to  assist  by  lecturmg,  under  Bureau  direction,  on  those 
specialties  that  applied  to  this  particular  phase  of  life  conservation.  Moth- 
ers were  encouraged  to  bring  their  children  and  find  out  what  was  the 
matter  with  them,  or  if  there  were  nothing  the  matter,  then  how  their 
vital  advantage  might  be  increased  and  protected.  Mothers'  clubs  were 
drawn  into  it,  and  delegated  members  to  assist. 

There  were  daily  children's  health  conferences,  with  free  medical  exami- 
nation of  children  under  15  years  of  age,  gratuitous  advice  as  to  the  removal 
of  tonsils  and  adenoids,  and  directions  about  diet,  so  that  prudent  mothers 
might  find  out  whether  they  were  pursuing  the  best  course  or  not.  And 
they  flocked  to  the  booth,  every  day  in  the  week  except  Sundays,  and  some 
from  nearly  every  State  in  the  Union,  to  learn  about  sanitation,  ventila- 
tion, play,  the  right  and  the  wrong  kinds  of  toy,  the  preparation  of  those 
foods  that  would  give  the  maximum  of  bone,  muscle,  and  blood,  and  the 
wisdom  of  having  their  growing  children  medically  overhauled  once  in  a 
while;  something  better  than  the  old  soothing-syrup  method. 

In  spite  of  its  determination  not  to  pass  anybody  into  the  grounds  free, 
the  Exposition  management  did  permit  five  mothers  and  their  children  on 
two  days  a  week  to  enter  without  pay  in  order  that  the  children  might  be 
examined  and  benefited  by  this  clinic.  The  exhibit  was  installed  under 
direction  of  Dr.  Anna  Strong  of  the  Children's  Bureau.  Her  colleague, 
Dr.  Frances  S.  Bradley  of  Altanta,  who  had  been  in  charge  of  various  "baby 
conservation"  conventions  and  exhibits  in  the  Southern  States,  met  the 
mothers  and  examined  the  babies.  White-clad  nurses  from  local  hospitals 
were  in  attendance. 

Through  models,  illustrations,  and  stereomotorgraphs  the  lessons  were 
taught,  as  well  as  orally  and  by  demonstrations  with  the  real  babies  brought 
in  for  examination.  There  was  a  model  of  a  good  and  of  a  bad  dairy,  made 
by  pupils  of  the  Pasadena  High  School.  In  a  number  of  glass  cases  were 
trays  containing  models,  or  samples,  of  proper  diet  for  children  of  one,  two, 
three,  four,  and  five  years,  with  instruction  as  to  the  right  way  to  balance 
the  feeding  so  as  to  introduce  the  needed  elements  into  the  food.  Every 
Wednesday  and  Friday  there  were  illustrated  milk  tests  and  lessons  in 
preparing  baby  foods.  It  would  hardly  do  for  history  to  record  just  what 
those  foods  were;  the  doctors  might  change  their  minds.     But  at  least. 


the  conclusions  of  medical  science  on  this  matter  in  the  year   191 5   were 

Placards  on  the  wall  told  prospective  mothers  how  to  care  for  them- 
selves so  that  their  coming  babies  would  have  no  just  cause  of  complaint 
after  they  arrived.  Women  in  remote  mining  camps  and  other  distant 
places  were  sent  literature  from  the  exhibit  when  they  could  not  come  them- 
selves. In  the  corner  of  the  booth  was  a  small,  model  playground,  where 
tame  children  set  a  good  example  to  the  wild. 

One  of  the  striking  objects  in  this  exhibit  was  the  mortality  model, 
from  North  Carolina.  There  were  a  hundred  tiny  card  houses  on  a  plat- 
form. In  each  house  a  light  showed  a  newborn  baby.  Then  a  light  flickered 
and  died,  and  another  and  another  until  twelve  homes  were  dark.  That 
represented  the  first  year  of  life.  A  nearby  chart  showed  why  they  died. 
Milk  tests  were  conducted  by  the  Bureau  at  this  booth  two  or 
three  times  a  week,  forming  part  of  the  lectures  on  nourishment.  MortMty 
Wednesday  mornings  there  was  a  demonstration  clinic  of  the 
Women's  Collegiate  Alumnse  of  Califorina,  to  which,  under  supervision  of 
the  Associated  Charities,  dozens  of  babies  were  brought  and  weighed, 
examined  and  prescribed  for.  Most  of  these  were  foundlings,  and  foster 
children  of  charitable  families.  Medicines  and  certified  milk  were  provided 
free  where  they  were  needed.  Feeding  and  care  were  under  direction  of 
the  Baby  Hygiene  Committee  of  the  Women's  Collegiate  Alumnae,  and  some 
of  the  most  eminent  specialists  and  surgeons  of  the  city  gave  their  time 
and  help  gratuitously. 

The  week  beginning  June  28,  as  the  convention  of  the  American  Medical 
Association  was  closing,  was  made  Child  Welfare  Week  by  the  Children's 
Bureau,  and  visiting  delegates  to  the  medical  convention  were  drafted  into 
the  service  and  induced  to  stay  over  and  lecture  on  various  phases  of  the 
work  of  saving  babies  and  rearing  them  to  strong  manhood  and  womanhood. 
In  one  of  the  moving  picture  theaters  of  the  Palace  of  Education  some  of 
the  country's  leading  authorities  on  subjects  relevant  to  child  welfare  dis- 
cussed all  phases  of  tWe  problem  before  an  earnest  and  intensely  interested 
Children's  Conference.  Hundreds  of  babies  were  examined,  and  compara- 
tively scored  on  "points,"  and  their  care  and  feeding  were  scientifically 
directed  to  an  extent  that  will  form  a  valuable  aid  to  the  health  of  the 
rising  generation  in  California — which,  of  course,  benefited  most  by  the 
proximity  of  the  Bureau. 

Here,  too,  was  an  exhibit  of  one  of  the  grand  practical  philanthropies 
of  the  country,  the  Forsyth  Dental  Infirmary  of  Boston,  instituted  by  John 
Hamilton  and  Thomas  Alexander  Forsyth  to  provide  free  dental  treatment 


for  poor  children  that  could  not  afford  to  pay  for  it.  The  institution  has  a 
foundation  of  three  and  a  half  million  dollars  and  was  then  the  only  thing 
of  the  kind  in  the  world,  although  by  this  time  the  exhibit  may  have  op- 
erated as  an  effective  suggestion  to  other  philanthropists. 

So  the  work  of  applying  science  to  humanity's  most  promising  posses- 
sion, its  own  young,  went  on  throughout  the  Exposition  season,  expanding 
and  becoming  more  popular  as  the  year  drew  on.  It  was  said  that  in  one 
week  over  a  thousand  mothers,  anxious  to  do  their  best  with  the  oppor- 
tunity motherhood  meant  to  them,  visited  the  Children's  Bureau  exhibit 
seeking  help,  and  they  got  it.  That  was  a  better  form  of  activity  than 
expositions  are  usually  able  to  set  in  motion. 





IN  the  method  and  subject  matter  of  education,  greater  changes  had 
taken  place  during  the  decade  closed  by  the  Exposition  year  than 
during  three  decades  before.  To  this  evolution  certain  alterations  of 
physical  environment  had  contributed  results  entirely  unforeseen.  Gone 
was  the  Hoosier  School  Master.  The  little  red  school  house  was  doomed. 
Good  roads,  bicycles,  automobiles,  and  telephones  had  broadened  the  men- 
tal outlook  and  drawn  the  world  together.  Throughout  vast  regions  of 
the  United  States,  the  union  high  school  and  the  rural  consolidated  school, 
made  possible  through  the  larger  financial  power  of  consolidated  districts, 
equipped  with  fine  libraries  and  laboratories  and  gymnasia  and 
assembly  halls,  and  modernized  in  administration  so  that  they  ^  f''""^ 
were  themselves  exemplifications  of  improved  plans  and  methods, 
were  becoming  the  aspiration  of  more  and  larger  sections,  and  were  being 
realized  with  great  rapidity. 

Vocational  training  was  growing  into  better  repute.  Conservative  peo- 
ple might  deplore  it  but  they  could  not  stop  it.  A  larger  community  con- 
sciousness was  coming  from  it,  a  broadening  of  the  social  understanding,  a 
more  distinct  realization  of  the  possibilities  of  life. 

You  could  see  it  nowhere  better  than  in  the  exhibit  built  under  the 
direction  of  Charles  A.  Greathouse,  Superintendent  of  Public  Instruction 
of  Indiana.  It  showed  only  the  rural  consolidated  school,  but  it  showed 
that  well.  Educators  from  every  State  in  the  Union,  and  from  Canada 
and  Europe  gave  it  serious  study.  One  room  showed  a  plaster  topographi- 
cal model  of  a  typical  Indiana  township,  supported  by  two  scenes  showing 
the  general  improvement  brought  about  in  the  aspect  of  homes,  and  farms, 
and  the  countryside  in  general  by  the  example  of  the  consolidated  school. 
The  handiwork  of  the  children  appeared  to  be  equal  in  these  country  insti- 
tutions to  that  of  pupils  in  the  best-equipped  technical  schools  in  the  city. 
In  another  booth,  stereomotorgraphs  showed  colored  pictures  illustrative 
of  the  same  development. 



Indiana  is  a  good  "sample  State" — centrally  situated,  typical  of  Ameri- 
can conditions.  In  the  Exposition  year  it  had  290  consolidated  elementary 
schools,  36  consolidated  high  schools,  and  330  consolidated  elementary  and 
high  schools.  Every  generation  lives  in  its  own  world.  The  day  of  the  little 
red  school  house  was  passing. 

Every  generation  lives  in  its  own  age,  and  this  was  the  age  in  which  edu- 
cation through  some  form  of  vocational  training  sought  to  prepare  men  and 
women  for  citizenship  and  active,  properly  rewarded  service  of  their  fellows, 
instead  of  leading  too  many  of  them  into  lives  of  cultured  poverty  and  im- 
potence, and  activities  rather  ornamental  than  useful.  All 
CtowiW*  through  the  Palace  of  Education  this  departure  was  apparent. 
The  exhibits  were  practical  and  utilitarian.  They  showed  what 
pupils  could  be  taught  to  do  that  would  be  valuable  to  humanity,  and  they 
also  taught  the  public  directly  the  things  it  should,  perhaps,  have  been 
taught  in  an  earlier  age  in  school;  matters  of  cleanliness,  hygiene,  economic 
efficiency,  and  things  tending  toward  an  understanding  of  nature  in  a 
modern  way  and  a  modern  sense.  The  old  "humanities"  suffered  a  little, 
but  new  ones  would  take  their  place. 

The  United  States  had  something  to  show  the  world  in  colonial  educa- 
tion, and  showed  it  in  the  exhibit  of  the  Philippine  Islands.  The  whole 
American  spirit  of  dealing  with  a  dependency  was  in  it:  the  islands  for  the 
people  of  the  islands,  the  schools  for  their  interests,  primarily.  So  this  was 
an  exhibit  in  the  science  of  government,  as  well  as  in  education. 

There  was  a  centralized  management  of  the  Philippine  schools,  and  a 
curriculum  that  embraced  industrial  work  as  well  as  academic  training  and 
physical  culture.  The  natural  resources  of  each  community  were  the  study 
of  the  schools  of  that  neighborhood.  The  teachers  had  found  practical 
use  for  over  fifty  vegetable  fibres  hitherto  supposed  to  be  of  no  value,  and 
new  uses  for  nearly  200  well-known  and  already  utilized  fibres.  They  had 
designed  articles  in  which  these  fibres  could  be  used,  and  they  taught  the 
manufacture  of  the  articles  using  them:  baskets,  hats,  laces,  textiles.  Better 
than  that,  there  was  practical  application  of  commercial  methods  in  mar- 
keting. Advanced  pupils,  after  graduation,  went  into  the  rural  districts  as 
agents,  collecting  the  finished  articles  and  encouraging  the  students  to  do  home 
work.    Thus,  in  short,  the  schools  developed  commerce  instead  of  following  it. 

At  Manila  or  some  other  trade  center  where  fairs  were  organized  by 

the   management,   the  goods   were  sold.     The  school   received 

b^^'ooin        ^  profit  on  the  raw  material  it   had  furnished,  the  pupil   that 

made  the  articles  got  a  manufacturer's  return,  and  the  jobber's 

commission  went  to  the  graduate  that  collected  the  goods.     The  retail  profit 


paid  for  the  selling,  and  yielded  the  school  about  20  per  cent  besides. 
Thus  all  factors  got  a  taste  of  blood,  commercially  speaking;  a  notion  of 
the  work,  of  the  manufacturer  and  the  merchant  and  the  rewards  that 
come  from  the  proper  doing  of  that  work. 

It  was  nothing  less  than  the  development  of  industrial  and  commercial 
initiative  among  a  people.  Agriculture  was  not  neglected.  School  gardens 
were  established,  and  they  even  went  so  far  as  sea  gardening,  wherein  the 
pupil  got  an  idea  of  the  products  of  the  sea  and  their  values,  from  sponge  to 
pearl.  And  with  it  the  academic  courses  went  on,  and  the  "humanities," 
so  that  the  system  made  for  culture  and  its  best  manifestation,  effective 

The  Philippines  exhibit  was  the  largest  in  the  Palace  of  Education.  It 
was  situated  north  of  the  west  portal  of  the  Palace,  and  was  installed  in 
booths  of  great  beauty  of  design,  with  palm  stems  that  looked  like  turned 
mahogany,  supporting  a  frieze  of  tindalo  wood,  which  framed  the  little 
square  sash  set  with  small  translucent  shells  of  which  windows  are  made 
in  the  islands.  Frank  L.  Crone,  Director  of  Education  for  the  Philippines, 
was  in  charge.  Here  were  looms,  and  weaving  operations,  manufactures 
of  furniture  from  the  beautiful  island  hardwoods;  lathes  and  lathe  work, 
bamboo  hats  and  bamboo  basketry,  and  about  all  that  is  commercially 
valuable  that  can  be  made  from  bamboo.  There  were  mattings  whose  tex- 
ture and  design  were  adapted  by  the  schools  from  Philippine  sleeping  mats, 
there  were  slippers  of  woven  grass,  and  many  other  products  not  merely 
of  the  Philippines  but  of  Philippine  public  school  education  under  the  Ameri- 
can regime.  Over  $100,000  worth  of  goods  made  by  pupils  was  on  sale 
here  and  in  the  Philippine  Building. 

With  these  things  went  enough  charted  statistical  and  descriptive  mat- 
ter to  instruct  the  visitor  in  what  had  been  going  on  to  elevate  life  in  the 
islands  since  the  United  States  took  control,  and  thus  the  exhibit  was  a 
contribution  of  the  utmost  significance  to  the  history  of  colonial  adminis- 

Pictures  and  diagrams  set  forth  those  things  which  could  not  be  shown 
by  the  model  or  the  concrete  object.  They  showed  the  marvelous  growth 
in  school  attendance  as  well  as  the  alteration  in  the  ideals  of  education, 
from  aristocratic  to  democratic  standards.  They  showed  such  facts  as 

The  total  attendance  at  school  in  the  Philippine  Islands  in  the  years 
from  i860  to  1896  was  estimated  at  125,000.  The  small  schoolboy  in  the 
diagram  representing  this  attendance  was  accompanied  by  a  servant  to 
carry  his  books.     Education  was  a  thing  for  the  rich  and  powerful,  who 


were  thus  taught  in  infancy  that  some  servant  must  always  wait  on  them. 
And  it  was  carried  on  in  Spanish.  The  United  States  stepped 
and  Now  ^"-  ^he  diagrammatic  schoolboy  grew.  His  sister  went  to 
school  with  him,  and  the  book-carrying  servant  disappeared. 
The  attendance  in  1906  was  375,000;  in  1910  it  was  430,000;  in  I9i4ithad 
increased  to  490,000;  and  23,000  were  turned  away  for  lack  of  room. 

English  had  become  the  language  of  the  schools,  yet  the  object  was  not 
to  Americanize  or  Anglicize  the  population,  but  to  give  it  access  to  a  mighty 
literature  embodying  the  world's  best  intellectual  strength.  The  object 
was  a  system  adapted  to  the  needs  of  the  Philippine  people.  This  worked 
itself  out  in  five  main  phases:  in  the  primary  grade,  first  year;  the  purpose 
was  to  make  a  literate  worker;  in  the  next  four  years,  to  make  an  efficient 
worker  and  citizen;  through  three  intermediate  years,  to  produce  a  trained 
craftsman  and  a  person  socially  fit  to  be  a  local  leader  among  his  people; 
in  four  years  of  secondary  education,  to  produce  the  professional  man  with 
a  strong  personality;  and  in  the  university  course  to  equip  for  national 
leadership.  Such  ideals  might  be  classified  as  educational,  political,  eco- 
nomic, sociological,  historical,  ethical — anything  you  like;  they  carried  a 
stimulating  message  of  human  progress. 

In  education,  Massachusetts'  name  has  so  long  "led  all  the  rest"  that 
under  the  old  style  of  educational  exhibit  a  great  and  dry  display  could 
have  been  made  of  her  leadership  among  the  universities  and  advanced 
technical  institutes.  She  was  invited  however  to  show  a  specialty,  and  pre- 
pared an  exhibit  of  her  State-aided  vocational  system,  her  textile  schools, 
and  her  nautical  school,  which  was  one  of  the  most  significant  and  impres- 
sive displays  in  the  whole  Exposition. 

The  booth  was  a  large,  two-story  structure,  occupying  2,000  square  feet 
of  space  on  the  ground  floor,  and  quite  handsomely  built.  Here  the  old 
Bay  State  showed,  not  the  educational  growth  from  her  centuries  of  labor 
in  the  higher  academic  field,  where  her  fame  is  established  too  surely  to 
need  advertising  or  promotion,  but  her  recent  contributions  to  the  modern 
education  for  work. 

A  great  deal  of  demonstrating  was  done  with  films  and  slides,  with 
which  the  exhibit  was  abundantly  supplied.  There  was  a  daily  program 
of  2,000  feet  of  film  illustrating  the  work  of  State  institutions,  and  there 
were  nearly  1,500  slides  picturing  the  work  of  the  vocational  and 
Exhibits  textile  schools.  These  latter  were  arranged  in  a  twin  slide  sys- 
tem, one  giving  the  picture  and  the  other  a  legend,  or  "caption." 
In  the  State-aided  vocational  school  schedule  there  were  402  pictures  and 
legends  for  the  agricultural  schools,  339  for  the  industrial  schools  for  boys. 





169  for  the  industrial  and  home-making  schools  for  girls,  117  of  the  evening 
trade-extension  and  evening  home-making  schools,  and  104  of  the  continua- 
tion schools;  and  there  were  184  slides  for  the  textile  schools  and  52  for  the 
Nautical  Training  school,  making  a  total  of  1,367.  Besides  these  there  was 
a  daily  exhibit  of  104  shdes  descriptive  of  the  buildings  and  work  of  the 
State  Commission  for  the  Blind  and  the  Perkins  Institute  for  the  Blind. 

Massachusetts,  in  establishing  State-aided  vocational  education  (the 
movement  for  which  began  in  1905)  sought  to  provide  courses  for  the  in- 
dustrial training  of  youth  between  the  ages  of  fourteen  and  twenty-five,  in 
preparation  for  entering  a  trade,  and  to  offer  instruction  in  trade  extension 
and  home-making  to  the  adult  skilled  worker.  It  authorized  schools  for 
the  benefit  of  minors  between  fourteen  and  sixteen  years  of  age  that  were 
regularly  employed  not  less  than  six  hours  a  day. 

The  State-aided  vocational  schools  included  agricultural,  industrial, 
and  home-making  education  for  youths,  trade-extension  schools  for  men 
and  women,  and  home-making  schools  for  women.  There  were  Full-Time 
Day  Schools,  Full-Time  Cooperative  Day  Schools,  Part-Time  Day  Schools 
and  Evening  Schools. 

In  1914  there  were  75  schools  of  these  types,  and  15,575  pupils.  The 
State  reimbursed  cities  and  towns  each  year  for  one-half  the  net  mainte- 
nance of  these  schools,  the  total  reimbursement  for  19I4  being  $245,046. 

The  exhibit  included  120  charts  in  large  multiplex  frames,  which 
described  in  a  comprehensive  and  systematic  way  origins  of  interest  in 
vocational  education  in  Massachusetts,  beginnings  in  the  establishment 
of  schools,  legislation,  growth  of  schools,  local  administration.  State  super- 
vision, expenditures,  courses  of  study  and  methods  of  work  and 
teacher-training.  A  limited  amount  of  product  for  illustrative  Evolution 
purposes  from  home-making  industrial  schools,  and  of  examples 
of  related  school  work,  was  exhibited  in  large  glass  cases.  There  was  a 
complete  exhibit  of  all  State  reports,  documents,  and  administrative  forms 
for  vocational  education. 

The  movement  towards  the  establishment  of  textile  schools  in  Massa- 
chusetts began  about  1888.  In  accordance  with  legislation  passed  in  1895, 
three  schools  were  established  in  important  textile  manufacturing  dis- 
tricts: the  Lowell  Textile  School  in  1897,  the  New  Bedford  Textile  School 
in  1899,  and  the  Bradford  Textile  School  of  Fall  River  in  1904. 

These  schools  aimed  to  meet  the  needs  of  two  distinct  classes  of  student: 
young  men  in  day  classes  who  desired  to  fit  themselves  to  fill  the  higher 
positions  in  the  industry  by  obtaining  a  good  foundation  in  the  theory 
and  practice  relating  to  it;  and  those  already  employed  in  the  mills,  who 


wished  to  acquire  through  shorter  courses  in  evening  classes  greater  skill 
in  their  work,  and  to  get  a  knowledge  of  other  branches  of  the  industry 
than  that  upon  which  they  were  engaged  in  their  daily  occupations. 

The  Massachusetts  Nautical  School  was  established  by  an  act  of  the 
Legislature  on  June  ii,  1891,  and  is  maintained  by  the  Commonwealth  in 
the  interest  of  the  Merchant  Marine.  Three  Commissioners  appointed 
by  the  Governor  are  in  control.  The  U.  S.  S.  "Ranger"  has  been  loaned 
by  the  Federal  Government  for  the  use  of  this  institution.  The  exhibit  in- 
cluded a  large  glass  case  showing  course  of  study,  routine  of  work  in  Sum- 
mer and  Winter  terms,  cruising  charts,  photographs,  and  data  regarding 
the  growth  and  success  of  the  institution.  There  were  one  hundred  stereo- 
motorgraph  slides  and  wall  pictures. 

The  Massachusetts  educational  exhibit  was  an  attractive  as  well  as  an 
impressive  one.  Seventy-two  large  transparencies  represented  nearly  every 
phase  of  vocational  school  work,  and  added  much  to  the  exhibit.  The 
cases  contained  photographs,  products,  and  descriptive  matter. 

The  United  Shoe  Machinery  Company  had  an  exhibit  in  Social  Economy 
on  the  second  story  of  this  booth,  illustrating  work  and  play  in  a  typical 
Massachusetts  industry.  "The  Making  of  a  Shoe"  was  shown  by  motion 
pictures.  The  development  of  footwear  could  be  traced  from 
'NtSstoes  ^^^  "^'"^^  °^  primitive  man  to  the  present.  There  were  over  500 
samples  and  colored  plates,  and  you  could  see  what  Cleopatra 
used  to  complain  of  on  a  warm  day  in  Egypt,  with  primitive  clogs,  sandals, 
moccasins,  the  enormous  jack-boots,  Dick  Turpin  style,  that  used  to  weight 
down  and  wear  down  horsemen  in  the  olden  wars,  and  the  comfortable 
footgear  worn  in  the  trenches  of  Europe  in  19 15. 

How  visual  education  was  being  carried  into  the  public  schools  of  Chi- 
cago so  that  no  child  could  escape  it  was  demonstrated  by  the  exhibit  of 
the  N.  W.  Harris  Public  School  Extension  of  the  Field  Museum  of  Natural 
History.  Here  was  a  plan  by  which  nature  was  sent  into  the  schoolroom 
to  instruct  pupils  that  could  not  go  to  nature,  and  who,  even  when  they 
visited  a  museum,  took  it  inevitably  and  humanly  as  a  holiday,  and  derived 
little  other  benefit  from  it. 

The  Field  Museum  of  Natural  History,  inaugurated  in  Chicago  at  the 
close  of  the  Columbian  Exposition  in  1893,  had  become,  under  the  direction 
of  Dr.  Frederick  J.  V.  Skiff,  one  of  the  great  educational  museums  of  the 
world.  But  the  Doctor  noticed  that  a  very  small  percentage  of  the  chil- 
dren of  the  Chicago  schools  ever  visited  it:  a  good  deal  less  than  ten  per 
cent  of  them  in  a  year.  Mr.  N.  W.  Harris  of  Chicago  and  Pasadena  offered 
to  cooperate  in  any  solution  of  this  problem  that  could  be  tound,  and  finally 


devoted  a  quarter  of  a  million  dollars  to  the  establishment  of  a  system  of 
traveling  exhibits  that  was  unique. 

Collections  of  birds,  rocks,  minerals,  and  small  animals,  as  they  occur 
or  as  they  live  in  nature,  were  put  into  portable  cases,  and  delivered  by 
automobile  to  the  Chicago  schools,  where  they  stayed  two  weeks  at  a  time 
before  giving  way  to  others,  and  thus  the  pupils  could  see  examples  of 
the  subject  of  their  studies.  And  these  collections,  arriving  at  intervals, 
had  the  additional  interest  of  "something  new."  The  blue  jay  on  a  bough, 
the  squirrel,  with  his  fine  gray  brush,  approaching  his  nest,  the 
black  bass  at  the  bottom  of  a  lake,  were  all  there  so  that  the  ^^  ^j^^  qj^-i^ 
children  could  have  no  misconceptions  of  them,  but  a  lively  and 
truthful  image  to  carry  through  life.  Comprehensive  labels  were  attached, 
and  longer  descriptive  articles  were  prepared  and  sent  along  for  the  use  of 
the  teacher. 

The  exhibit,  under  direction  of  Dr.  S.  C.  Simms,  Curator,  showed  the 
whole  process,  and  it  excited  the  liveliest  interest.  This  form  of  school 
extension  had  a  deeper  purpose  than  mere  instruction  in  facts.  It  was  the 
belief  of  Mr.  Harris  that  if  a  scheme  could  be  devised  to  give  the  textbook 
life,  so  that  the  younger  minds  of  society  would  have  attractive  fields  in 
which  to  extend  their  reason  and  imagination,  they  would  contract  the 
habit  of  acquiring  knowledge,  and  would  find  delight  in  it;  and  better 
citizenship  would  develop  in  the  community  than  comes  from  the  too  often 
penitential  drudgery  of  the  classroom. 

The  St.  Louis  exhibit  showed  materials  and  methods  somewhat  similar 
to  the  N.  W.  Harris  Public  School  Extension,  owned  by  the  Board  of  Edu- 
cation, and  operated  in  conjunction  with  a  library.  The  moving  picture 
and  the  phonograph  were  used  to  support  the  charts,  wall  maps,  and 
specimens,  and  relieve  the  pupil's  mind  from  the  tedium  of  the  printed 

Among  the  great  exhibits  in  the  Palace  of  Education  were  those  of  the 
State  of  New  York.  Centralized,  unit  control  of  education  in  the  State 
was  illuminated,  literally,  and  presented  to  the  gaze  of  the  least  observant 
by  means  of  a  huge  papier  macH'e  relief  map  of  the  State,  27  by  36  feet  in 
area,  on  which  glowed  thousands  of  electric  lights  of  various  colors,  showing 
the  different  classes  of  school  under  the  jurisdiction  of  the  New  York  De- 
partment of  Education.  Probably  no  exhibit  in  the  Palace  excited  more 
interest  and  curiosity  than  this. 

To  many,  the  map  itself  had  an  adventitious  interest  arising  from  the 
fact  that  it  was  made  of  300  pounds  of  paper  currency  discarded  by  the 
United  States  Treasury.    Added  to  this  curious  fact  were  all  the  lights,  in 


13  colors:  11,642  white  lights  showed  the  elementary  schools,  948  red 
lights  indicated  the  high  schools  and  academies,  34  ruby  lights 
S  'uem''^  located  the  colleges,  technical  institutes  and  universities,  34 
orange  lights  showed  the  professional  schools,  136  green  lights 
identified  the  nurses'  training  schools,  n  violet  lights  showed  the  fine  arts 
schools,  10  yellow  lights  the  normal  schools,  7  pink  lights  the  Indian  schools, 
136  canary-colored  lights  the  training  schools,  10  purple  lights  the  schools 
for  defectives,  21  amber-colored  lights  the  publicly  maintained  business 
schools,  and  65  frosted  lights  the  vocational  schools.  In  addition  there 
were  513  blue  lights,  by  which  the  location  of  the  public  libraries  of  the 
State  could  be  identified.  It  took  over  a  year  to  make  the  maps  and  set 
the  lights. 

Apart  from  the  big  contour  map,  with  these  flashing  lamps,  there  was 
a  large  architectural  model  of  the  State  Education  Building  at  Albany, 
whence  the  public  educational  work  of  the  entire  State  is  directed.  This 
model,  seven  by  sixteen  feet  in  size,  gave  the  visitor  an  idea  of  the  magni- 
tude of  the  work  of  caring  for  education  in  a  State  which  numbers  more 
than  1,500,000  pupils  of  school  age.  The  interior  of  this  model  was  lighted 
by  electricity. 

Ranging  along  one  side  of  the  space  devoted  to  the  educational  exhibit 
were  placed  eight  stereomotorgraphs,  which  were  in  continuous  action 
during  the  hours  the  Exposition  was  open  to  the  public,  and  which  dis- 
played the  educational  buildings  situated  in  the  various  sections  of  New 
York,  ranging  from  the  great  universities  to  the  primary  school. 

One  exhibit  in  this  Palace  was  of  great  interest  to  Americans,  and 
served  to  remind  both  Americans  and  Japanese  of  an  old  bond  between 
them.  It  was  a  collection  of  beautiful  Japanese  water  colors  commemo- 
rating the  mission  of  Commodore  Perry  to  Japan  in  1853,  that  mission 
as  a  result  of  which  Japan  emerged  from  the  seclusion  into  which 
tf^pl'ir  ^^^  ^^^  retired  in  the  days  of  the  great  Shogun  lyeyasu,  and  took 
her  place  in  the  international  family.  The  portraits  of  Commo- 
dore Perry,  and  of  Townsend  Harris  who  was  the  American  consul  in  Japan 
at  the  time  of  the  memorable  visit,  and  a  number  of  drawings  and  paintings 
showing  how  the  visitors  were  received,  were  arranged  in  chronological 
order,  and  with  them  were  records  of  the  first  Japanese  party  to  visit  this 

Among  others  were  pictures  representing  Commodore  Perry's  first  land- 
ing at  Kurihama,  and  the  monument  there  commemorating  it,  the  landing 
at  Yokohama,  the  entertainment  given  by  Perry  to  the  Japanese  Commis- 
sioners aboard  his  flagship  the   "Powhatan,"   and  the  reception  given  by 




the  Japanese  Commissioners  to  Perry  and  his  officers.  Exact  data  prepared 
by  the  Department  of  Education  regarding  the  48  schools  in  Japan  estab- 
lished or  supported  by  Americans  attracted  much  attention. 

A  system  of  education  was  comprehensively  shown  from  elementary 
schools  to  universities,  representing  normal,  commercial,  agricultural,  in- 
dustrial, technical,  and  art  schools.  Such  interesting  exhibits  as  those  rep- 
resented by  the  Tokyo  Higher  School  of  Technology,  the  Fine  Art  School 
of  Tokyo  and  of  Kyoto,  the  Commercial  School  of  Nagoya,  the  Agricul- 
tural School  of  Aichi,  the  Marine  School  of  Niigata,  the  Girls'  Art  School  of 
Tokyo,  the  Deaf  and  Blind  School,  and  the  Sericultural  School  were  very 

The  excellent  examples  of  students'  work  in  lacquer,  porcelain,  dyeing 
textiles,  and  bronze,  stood  out  prominently.  Comments  were  often  made 
upon  the  infinite  pains  devoted  to  the  preparation  of  these  exhibits.  Some 
of  the  articles  showed  a  capacity  for  endless  patience  and  painstaking 

No  article  exhibited  this  better  than  a  woman's  dress  with  wave  de- 
signs, such  as  was  used  in  the  Genroku  era,  which  was  designed  by  Director 
Isono  of  the  Girls'  Art  School  of  Tokyo  and  made  by  the  students,  under 
the  supervision  of  instructor  Kiyohara.  All  details  of  the  intricate  pattern 
were  worked  out  in  different  pieces  of  cloth  cut  to  suit  the  design  and  sewed 
together.  In  all  6,520  pieces,  representing  55  different  colors,  were  used. 
Counting  the  cutting,  pasting  or  sewing  together  of  one  small  piece  as  one 
process,  the  whole  dress  involved  53,555  operations  for  its  completion,  and 
the  work  on  it  was  said  to  represent  120,000  hours  of  labor  by  one  person. 

Nothing  opened  the  eyes  of  the  people  more  to  the  scope  of  the  Japa- 
nese educational  system  than  a  table  showing  the  school  attend- 
ance of  children  in  Japan.     In    1913  the  attendance  of  those  of      Them  All 
school-attending  age  (for  there  is  a  compulsory  education  law) 
was  98.8%  for  boys  and  97.62%  for  girls,  showing  an  average  of  98.21%. 

There  was  brought  into  the  United  States  that  year,  through  the  Expo- 
sition, what  was  probably  the  most  remarkable  collection  of  models  of 
Chinese  pagodas  ever  seen  in  the  West,  as  part  of  an  exhibit  by  the  Roman 
Catholic  Mission  of  Nanking  Province  and  the  Zi-ka-wei  Orphanage  of 
Shanghai.  There  were  56  of  them,  and  they  constituted  a  wonderful  ex- 
hibit of  ethnology.  In  fact  most  of  them  were  purchased  for  the  Field 
Museum  of  Natural  History  and  went  to  Chicago,  to  remain — a  fine  addi- 
tion to  the  museum  treasures  of  the  United  States. 

The  models  demonstrated  the  handicraft  of  the  orphans  and  made  an 
impressive  showing  of  the  training  they  had  received.     Standing  several 


feet  high,  they  were  not  only  delicately  carved  and  painted,  but  were  faith- 
ful copies  in  every  detail  of  the  originals  scattered  throughout  China. 

Inasmuch  as  congregational  worship  is  unknown  to  the  Chinese  reli- 
gions the  pagoda  may  not  be  usable  as  a  place  of  congregation,  but  in  other 
respects  it  constitutes,  figuratively  speaking,  the  cathedral  of  the  Chinese. 
The  building  of  it  is  an  act  of  merit  and  brings  prosperity  to  the  region. 
The  act  of  merit  once  accomplished,  there  is  not  likely  to  be  any  reserve  of 
money  or  energy  for  maintenance,  so  the  pagoda  yields  to  the 
Pa"odas  universal  tendency  to  fall  into  ruins.  The  carved  and  painted 
wooden  models  showed  with  photographic  fidelity  the  condition 
of  the  subjects,  where  signs  of  decay  had  begun  to  appear:  broken  lintels, 
crumbled  arches,  traces  of  missing  ornament,  which  gave  great  romantic 
interest  to  this  exhibit. 

The  making  of  the  models  depended  on  the  assembling  of  minute  infor- 
mation and  descriptions  from  all  parts  of  the  Chinese  Empire,  the  taking  of  x 
hundreds  of  photographs  and  the  cooperation  of  all  the  Jesuit  missions,  in 
the  gathering  of  historic  data.  This  data,  handled  by  the  boys  of  the  or- 
phanage, reappeared  in  these  beautiful  exemplars  of  Chinese  art  and  archi- 
tecture. They  were  but  part  of  this  interesting  exhibit,  however,  the  first 
exhibit  ever  made  by  the  newer  Chinese  educational  system,  and  a  remark- 
able showing  of  the  growth  of  vocational  training.  The  entrance  gate  to 
the  space  was  a  carved  copy  of  the  gate  into  the  Forbidden  City  of  Pekin 
which  it  had  taken  60  boys  two  years  to  make.  The  carving  was  intricate 
and  beautiful,  for  the  Chinese  are  among  the  greatest  wood-carvers  in  the 
world,  and  the  boys  had  been  carefully  instructed  in  the  vital  practices  of 
the  art.  There  was  a  copy  of  the  back  of  the  Imperial  Throne,  done  in 
teak  and  inlaid  with  the  curious  /anete  wood,  which  turns  with  age  to  a  sort 
of  vegetable  ivory.  Then  there  were  the  large  Coromandel  lacquer  screens, 
hundreds  of  years  old.  These  were  not  made  by  the  orphanage  boys,  but 
were  put  on  sale  by  one  of  the  interior  missions  whose  revenues  had  failed 
because  of  the  war.  They  showed  wonderfully  carved  and  colored  scenes 
from  Chinese  life.  There  was  statuary  in  wood  carving  by  students  of  the 
orphanage,  and  a  fine  collection  of  antique  bells,  from  old  Buddhist  temples. 
Schools  of  sericulture  showed  all  the  processes  taught  in  this  ancient 
art,  and  schools  of  fishery  exhibited  models  of  nets,  boats,  and  apparatus 
for  fish  propagation,  all  made  by  pupils. 

Besides  these  exhibits,  various  Chinese  provinces  displayed  the  work  of 
their  pupils,  with  normal  schools  and  girls'  schools  much  in  evidence. 

These  "outward  and  visible  signs"  were  China's  announcement  to  the 
world,  of  the  greatest  educational  revolution  through  which  any  country 


had  ever  passed  in  a  like  interval  of  time.  Down  to  the  end  of  the  nine- 
teenth century,  Chinese  education  had  been  restricted  to  drilling  the  literati 
in  the  classics.     It  was  said  that  no  such  schools  any  longer 

„,  .  ,,,  .  ,  ,     .  ,  Another 

exist  in  China.     Western  science  and  art  are  being  propagated     Kevoiuiion 
through  Western  methods  by  the  Ministry  of  Education,  all  over 
the   Flowery    Kingdom,   which   now  has   thousands  of  grammar  schools, 
middle  schools,  high  schools,  and  colleges,  supplemented  by  vocational  and 
technical  institutions. 

In  this  development  the  citizens  of  the  United  States  have  good  cause 
for  pride.  With  part  of  the  remitted  indemnity  due  this  country  for  its 
share  in  putting  down  the  Boxer  rebellion  of  1900,  there  was  founded,  in 
1909,  the  now  famous  Tsing  Wha  College,  of  Tsing  Wha  Yuan,  near  Pekin. 
Here  students  from  the  provincial  schools  of  China  are  admitted,  and  here 
they  are  trained  by  American  and  Chinese  teachers  until  they  are  qualified 
to  enter  an  American  university  or  technical  college.  Tsing  W^ha  College 
made  an  exhibit  of  its  system  and  results  that  formed  one  of  the  most 
interesting  studies  in  the  whole  Palace  of  Education. 

After  all,  in  spite  of  cinematographs  and  stereomotorgraphs  and  models 
and  various  types  of  physical  apparatus,  school  must  come  back  to  the  book 
as  its  main  instrument  of  torture.  Ginn  &  Company's  exhibit  showed 
people  things  about  the  making  of  textbooks  that  they  had  never  thought 
of  before — the  extreme  care  with  which  they  have  to  be  compiled  and 
printed,  the  expert  and  costly  intellectual  labor  that  goes  to  their  compo- 
sition and  proofreading  and  revision  and  re-revision,  the  author's  pains- 
taking corrections  and  interlineations;  for  nothing  authoritative  can  be 
done  carelessly,  and  to  many  a  man  the  authority  of  his  life  is  the  little  old 
textbook  he  studied  at  school. 

A  number  of  glass  cases  showed,  side  by  side,  the  schoolbooks  used  a 
century  ago  and  those  used  to-day,  and  they  were  in  remarkable  contrast. 
And  a  lighted  cabinet  displayed,  without  comment,  the  comparative  expen- 
ditures of  the  American  people  (priding  themselves  on  the  uni- 
versality of  education  in  this  democracy)  for  schoolbooks  and  and  Books 
for  tobacco:  $12,000,000  a  year  for  the  former,  $410,000,000  a 
year  for  the  latter.  But  then,  of  course,  a  schoolbook  can  be  read  over  and 
over  and  handed  down  in  the  family,  while  a  cigar  can  be  smoked  but  once. 

If  there  were  any  such  thing  as  an  average  youngster,  and  this  youngster 
were  to  quit  school  and  go  to  work  for  less  than  $9  a  day  he  would  be  losing 
money,  although  he  might  not  "make  the  loss"  just  then.  This  was  the 
argument  of  the  statistical  charts  in  the  exhibit  of  the  United  States  Bureau 
of  Education,  and  it  proceeded  thus: 


Unskilled  or  uneducated  labor  averages  $500  a  year  throughout  a  work- 
ing lifetime  of  40  years,  or  $20,000. 

High  school  graduates  earn,  on  an  average,  $  1,000  a  year  throughout  a 
working  career  of  40  years,  or  $40,000. 

To  go  to  school  twelve  years,  for  180  days  a  year,  consumes  2,160  days 

of  childhood. 

Since  the  educated  man  earns  in  his  lifetime  twice  as  much  as  the  uned- 
ucated man,  or  $20,000  more,  his  daily  earning  power  in  the  future  with 
reference  to  his  school  days  is  $20,000  divided  by  2,160,  or  $9.21. 

Of  course,  the  moral  was,  "Stay  in  school."  But  the  greater  moral 
and  terrible  warning  should  have  been:  "Don't  be  an  average  person, 
even  an  educated  average  person,  or  you  will  not  make  more  than  $1,000  a 
year — which  is  not  much  better  than  poverty." 

Wisconsin's  exhibits  in  the  Department  of  Education  were  of  a  sort  to 
interest  every  person  with  the  welfare  of  society  at  heart,  for  they  showed  a 
direct  grasp  on  the  necessities  of  a  democracy.  Here  university  extension 
as  developed  under  President  Van  Hise  of  the  University  of  Wisconsin 
means  more  than  esthetic  culture  for  the  few.  It  reaches  after  the  many 
that  have  had  small  opportunity,  and  it  follows  them  right  into  the  factory. 

In  Wisconsin,  children  of  school  age  are  required  to  get  a  definite  amount 
of  education,  if  there  is  any  such  thing  as  a  definite  amount  of  education; 
and  if  circumstances  make  it  necessary  for  them  to  go  to  work  before  they 
have  obtained  it  in  school,  they  receive  it  from  "continuation  teachers," 
with  whom  they  must  put  in  a  certain  number  of  hours  a  week.  Sometimes 
School  instruction  is  received  in  the  assembly  room  of  the  plant  where 

Follows  the  pupils  are  at  work;  and  the  practice  of  putting  lecture  rooms 
Them  i„  industrial  plants  for  the  benefit  of  the  employees  is  growing  in 

Wisconsin,  as  elsewhere.  In  addition,  university  extension  follows  the  young 
mechanic,  and,  through  the  extension  corps  of  the  University,  teaches  him 
the  theory  and  the  scientific  aspects  of  what  he  is  doing. 

A  feature  of  extension  work  consisted  of  the  operation  of  the  "package 
library."  Any  group  or  school  district  could  combine  with  the  "package 
library"  department  and  have  a  small  collection  of  books  shipped  to  it 
treating  both  sides  of  any  subject  of  study. 

Considered  in  connection  with  the  statistics  of  the  United  States  Bureau 
of  Education  cited  above,  the  Wisconsin  system  would  seem  to  promise  a 
great  deal  for  the  personal  values  of  the  future  citizens  of  that  State. 




THE  Philippines  once  enjoyed  the  usual  run  of  tropical  diseases,  propa- 
gated and  spread  by  all  the  usual  methods  of  tropical  insanitation. 
The  Philippine  Public  Health  Service  had  an  exhibit  in  the  Palace 
of  Education  that  showed  the  large  measure  of  recent  improvement — 
models  of  old  houses  and  streets  in  Manila,  for  example,  side  by  side  with 
models  of  modern  houses  and  equipment;  sanitary  toilets,  and  wells;  and 
copies  of  bulletins  issued  to  the  people  telling  them  how  wells  ought  to  be 
protected  and  how  to  dispose  of  their  sewage.  Drs.  J.  E.  Snodgrass  and 
J.  A.  Austen,  who  had  been  in  the  thick  of  the  fight  for  better  conditions 
in  the  islands  for  a  dozen  years,  were  in  charge  of  the  exhibit,  and  ready  to 
explain  it. 

Vaccination,  and  such  methods  of  living  as  the  exhibit  indicated,  had 
rescued  large  parts  of  the  population,  and  the  younger  generation  was 
taking  quite  kindly  to  this  sort  of  life-saving  on  the  part  of  its 
step-Uncle  Sam.    Most  of  the  methods  of  fever  control  are  an  old    ,r    °'^\-  ^ 

'         .  ...  Vaccmahon 

Story  smce  Panama,  except  for  their  application,  but  one  exhibit 
that  was  quite  striking  was  that  of  the  old  and  modern  markets;  the  old, 
in  which  exposed  food  was  handled  in  the  dirtiest  ways;  and  the  modern, 
in  which  there  were  cement  floors  and  running  water  and  inspectors  to  see 
that  things  were  done  properly.  Even  the  old  moat  of  Manila,  the  handiest 
place  in  the  city  to  throw  things,  had  to  reform  and  become  a  park. 

Charts  and  illuminated  pictures  showed  the  hospital  work — and  from 
them  you  learned  that  over  18,000,000  vaccinations  had  been  performed 
in  the  islands  during  the  previous  decade.  The  cholera  maps  showed  the 
victory  over  cholera,  since  1902  when  80,632  persons  died  of  this  malady, 
to  1912  when  there  was  not  a  single  death  from  it.  An  epidemic  that 
started  in  1914  was  smothered  after  551  had  fallen  victim.  The  views  of 
the  General  Hospital  in  Manila,  the  Southern  Islands  Hospital  in  Cebu, 
and  the  Baguio  Hospital,  showed  institutions  that  were  among  the  finest  of 
their  kind.  Charts  exhibited  the  increase  of  artesian  wells,  from  two  in 
1905  to  thousands  in  191 5.    Children's  funerals,  once  of  amazing  frequency, 



had  become  far  less  numerous.  There  was  an  illustration  of  the  Health 
Bureau's  exhibition  railway  coach  that  goes  about  teaching  sanitation  with 
moving  pictures,  and  lectures  in  native  dialects. 

Health  conservation  was  one  of  the  leading  subjects  in  the  Department 
of  Social  Economy,  and  to  find  the  beginnings  of  the  sort  of  sanitation 
shown  in  the  Philippines  health  exhibit  you  could  profitably  visit  the  small 
booth  of  the  Republic  of  Cuba.  For  here  you  could  see  a  portrait  of  Dr. 
Carlos  J.  Finlay,  who  as  long  ago  as  1881  contended  that  yellow  fever  is 
transmitted  from  a  fever  sufferer  to  a  fresh  victim  by  the  bite  of  a  mosquito. 

Here,  too,  was  a  fine  sanitation  exhibit,  with  a  model  of  the  Department 
of  Public  Health  and  Charities  at  Havana;  Cuba  being  the  only  country 
to  have  in  its  cabinet  a  Secretary  of  Public  Health  and  Charities.  There 
was  a  map  showing  branches  of  the  department,  distributed  all  over  the 
island;  there  were  pictures  of  clean  vaccine  and  serum  production  in  the 
central  vaccine  laboratory  of  the  Republic,  and  most  effective  demonstra- 
tions of  malaria,  tuberculosis,  bubonic  plague,  filariasis,  typhus,  and  typhoid 
transmission  and  prevention. 

There  were  portraits,  with  Finlay's,  of  Reed,  Carroll,  Lazear,  and 
Agramonte,  and  a  picture  of  Lazear  Camp,  "where  were  realized  the  first 
observations  of  the  transmission  of  yellow  fever  by  the  mosquito  in  order 
to  prove  the  theory  of  Finlay."  So,  with  Finlay  as  the  discoverer  of  the 
criminality  of  the  mosquito,  and  Lazear  as  the  martyr  who  sacrificed  his 
life  to  prove  the  discovery,  with  the  other  devoted  men  that  had  risked 
their  lives  in  the  same  way,  you  had  in  the  Cuban  booth  vivid  mementoes 
of  one  of  the  grandest  strides  of  science. 

There  were  models  of  Las  Animas  Hospital  and  La  Esperanza  Sanato- 
rium for  the  treatment  and  cure  of  tuberculosis;  both  modern,  well-appointed 
institutions.  Mortality  tables  showed  Cuba  to  be  one  of  the  healthiest 
countries  in  the  world — something  no  miracle  could  have  explained  to  our 

"The  varied  industries  on  which  we  depend  for  our  comfort,  the  wealth 
which  enables  us  to  enjoy  them,  and  the  arts  of  civilization  which  adorn 
and  diversify  our  lives,  are  but  the  fruitage  of  the  tree  whose  root  is  health." 
This  from  Dr.  Samuel  G.  Dixon,  renowned  bacteriologist  and  Pennsylva- 
nia's first  and  only  Commissioner  of  Health,  adorned  the  booth  of  the 
Pennsylvania  Department  of  Health  exhibit.  Here  all  the  main 
Methods  m     ^jyigions  of  departmental  activity  in  this  field  were  depicted,  in 

Pennsylvania  ,    ,.  ,  ,     •  i        i  u       ■  '      »U 

models,  charts,  and  diagrams— the  work  in  school  hygiene,  in  the 
branch  dealing  with  typhoid  fever  and  sanitary  engineering,  and  in  the 
cure  and  prevention  of  tuberculosis. 


Pennsylvania  was  making  medical  inspection  of  approximately  400,000 
country  school  children  a  year,  and  was  the  only  State  that  had  undertaken 
this  work  on  anywhere  near  so  vast  a  scale.  Statistical  charts  showed  the 
percentages  of  disease  revealed.  School  sanitation  had  been  well  developed. 
Life-size  models  of  pupils  using  that  venerable  adjunct  of  superficial  clean- 
liness illustrated  the  dangers  of  the  common  roller  towel.  Modern,  sanitary, 
well-lighted  and  aired  school  buildings,  proper  seating  arrangements, 
screened  outhouses  and  sanitary  drinking  fountains,  instead  of  the  old  tin 
dipper  that  once  floated  about  among  the  skippers  on  the  surface  of  the 
spring  up  back  of  the  schoolhouse,  were  all  depicted  either  by  models  or 
by  transparencies. 

A  large  part  of  the  section  was  devoted  to  models  illustrating  the  spread 
of  typhoid  fever.  And  there  were  other  and  very  beautiful  models  showing 
the  Pennsylvania  institutions  for  the  care  and  cure  of  tuberculosis.  There 
were  transparencies  showing  the  work  of  the  new  Bureau  of  Housing,  and 
of  the  bacteriological  and  pathological  laboratories.  The  exhibit  demon- 
strated the  high  rank  Pennsylvania  had  taken  in  this  most  important  field 
of  administration. 

Hardly  anything  could  have  had  more  practical  value  educationally 
and  economically  than  a  spread  of  the  knowledge  of  disease,  and  of  its 
propagation.  The  hookworm  exhibit  in  the  Hygiene  section  of  the  De- 
partment of  Social  Economy  was  a  typical  illustration  of  the  way  this  work 
was  done  in  the  Palace  of  Education,  and  the  way  it  affected  the  visitors 
and  promised  to  afi^ect  the  world. 

This  exhibit  became  famous  through  discussion  of  its  thoroughly  con- 
vincing features.  Its  fascinating  ugliness  attracted  people  of  all  classes 
and  instructed  them  in  very  many  ways.  For,  taking  it  visually,  the  hook- 
worm exhibit  was  revoltingly  ugly,  but  if  you  considered  its  significance  in 
human  welfare  it  was  one  of  the  most  beautiful  and  hope-inspiring 
manifestations  in  the  whole  Exposition.  Men  had  been  learning  fjggf^orm 
that  their  worst  enemies,  physically,  are  not  the  lions  and  tigers 
and  sharks,  large  forms  of  terror  that  kill  them  singly,  and  are  themselves 
easy  targets,  but  the  little  things  one  can  hardly  see  or  cannot  see  at  all, 
microscopic  organisms,  mainly,  that  wipe  out  people  by  tribes  and  cities. 
To  those  that  lacked  the  imagination  to  picture  the  destructive  work  of  a 
microbe,  the  hookworm  exhibit  was  a  good  rough  illustration  of  the  results 
of  infection.  Its  social  and  industrial  devastation  were  vividly  portrayed — 
the  ruin  of  families  and  of  large  sections  of  the  country  and  the  world. 

And  this  disease  was  curable  for  seven  cents  a  head  and  a  little  intelli- 
gence; and  preventable,  as  to  recurrence,  by  the  wearing  of  shoes  and  the 


general  adoption  of  sanitary  plumbing.  Persons  that  read  the  newspapers 
and  the  magazines  understood  these  things  long  before  the  Exposition 
opened.  The  tragedy  of  human  affairs,  recurring  with  the  generations, 
lies  in  the  vast  numbers  that  die  without  transmitting  such  information  as 
this,  and  the  corresponding  vast  numbers  it  never  reaches  from  any  source. 
The  International  Health  Commission  of  the  Rockefeller  Foundation 
assembled  the  materials  and  pictures  for  the  hookworm  exhibit,  and  put 
experts  in  charge  of  the  booth  that  could  demonstrate  every  obscure  point 
and  properly  impress  the  skeptic  (if  there  were  any  skeptics  after  the  ex- 
hibit had  been  examined)  by  the  consistency  of  the  demonstrations  and 
explanations.  There  were  large  models  of  hookworm  eggs,  of  the  larvse, 
of  the  male  and  female  hookworm,  and  of  a  cross  section  of  the  human 
skin,  showing  the  manner  in  which  hookworms  made  their  entrance — usu- 
ally by  wav  of  bare  feet.  Models  of  portions  of  the  body  such  as  hands  and 
feet,  showed  the  pathological  effect  of  the  entrance  of  hookworms,  and  a 
portion  of  the  small  intestine  exhibited  fully  developed  worms 
spreadh,g     ^^^^^^^^   j„   ^^e  intestine's  inner  wall.     Life-size  and  life-like 

A  noivleage  .  .  ^  r     k 

models  of  children  were  made,  showmg  different  stages  ot  the 
disease,  its  effect  in  stunting  growth,  and  symptoms  such  as  pallor  of  skin, 
enlarged  abdomen,  and  "angel-wing"  shoulders.  A  typical  home,  before 
and  after  the  occupants  were  cured,  was  represented  in  models,  and  the 
contrast  was  dramatic.  To  all  these  things  were  added  maps,  photographs, 
charts,  lantern  slides,  and  motion  picture  reels,  most  of  which  interpreted 
different  phases  of  the  hookworm  lesson. 

World-wide  benefits  followed.  The  Australian  Commission  at  the  Expo- 
sition organized  a  movement  to  eradicate  the  hookworm  from  Australia. 
New  Zealand,  China,  and  other  countries  started  investigations.  The  Pan- 
American  republics  were  interested.  It  was  the  sharpest  attack  in  force 
ever  made  against  this  slow  plague,  and  only  an  exposition  could  have 
offered  the  opportunity  for  it. 

The  Federal  Government's  Department  of  Labor,  the  Museum  of  Safety 
cooperating,  showed  by  means  of  charts,  and  by  wax  and  plaster  models 
the  occupational  diseases  and  injuries  against  which  society  has  begun  to 
guard  its  workers.  Lead  poisoning  among  painters  and  paint  factory  em- 
ployees, the  effects  of  coal  mine  dust  upon  the  lungs,  and  of  hot  lime  fumes 
on  the  eye-balls,  the  results  of  potassium,  wood  alcohol,  and  carbon  monox- 
ide poisoning,  were  indicated  in  their  fruitage  of  disease,  incapacity,  and 
waste  of  national  energies.  The  charts  showed  the  percentages  affected 
out  of  those  employed,  and  suggested  the  protection  and  remedial  measures 
necessary  for  dealing  with  the  evil.    It  was  the  first  time  any  adequate  pre- 





sentation  of  the  subject  of  industrial  safety  had  been  made  at  a  great 

The  onslaught  society  was  making  against  its  ancient  foe,  the  "white 
plague"  had  a  striking  representation  in  the  exhibit  of  the  California  and 
the  San  Francisco  Associations  for  the  Study  and  Prevention  of  Tubercu- 
losis. The  teachings  of  modern  science  on  this  fateful  riddle  were  set  out 
by  charts,  maps,  diagrams,  slides,  pictures,  models,  radiographs 

hj-  t|  •  iiir*  •  ^1  1        Attack  on 

_   owmg  diseased  lung  tissue;  and  all  01  it  was  interpreted  and  Tuberculosis 

driven  home  by  daily  lectures.     There  was  abundant  statistical 

matter  relevant  to  the  subject,  showing  its  frequency  of  occurrence,  its 

public  cost,  its  death  rate  under  different  conditions  of  life  and  treatment. 

There  were  models  of  open  air  tents  and  beds,  and  of  hospitals,  and  there 

were  photographs  from  the  Cutter  Laboratory  in  Berkeley  showing  the 

production  of  tuberculine. 

On  either  side  of  the  booth,  in  front,  were  two  electrically  lighted  red 

crosses,  the  symbol  of  the  Associations,  surmounting  panels  that  set  forth 

the  objects  of  each.    The  announced  aims  of  the  California  Association  were: 

"ist.  To  disseminate  knowledge  concerning  the  cause,  prevention,  and 
treatment  of  tuberculosis  in  every  town  in  California. 

"2d.    To  secure  needed  legislation  for  the  relief  and  prevention  of  tuberculosis. 

"3d.  To  establish  visiting  nurses,  open  air  schools,  and  clinics  wherever 

"4th.  To  urge  the  construction  of  proper  sanatoria  in  every  county  of  the 

"5th.  To  cooperate  with  its  local  associations,  State  and  local  Boards  of 
Health,  in  all  matters  pertaining  to  tuberculosis. 

"6th.  The  State  Association  stands  for  service  to  the  people  of  California, 
to  aid  them  in  every  way  in  matters  relating  to  the  White  Plague,  either  directly 
or  indirectly." 

The  aims  announced  by  the  San  Francisco  Association  were: 

"isr.  To  make  housing  and  living  conditions  such  as  will  prevent  tubercu- 

"2d.  To  that  end,  to  show  people  how  to  live. 

"3d.  To  locate  every  case  of  tuberculosis. 

"4th.     When  located,  to  insure  the  cure  while  there  is  still  time." 

The  San  Francisco  Association  contributed  a  series  of  lectures. 
The  attendance  at  this  exhibit  during  July,  August,  and  September  was 
over  42,000. 


And  when  misfortune  came  to  the  woman  wage  earner  in  the  form  of 
tuberculosis,  there  was  the  Arequipa  Sanatorium  for  her  near  Fairfax,  Cah- 
fornia,  where  she  could  have  the  best  sort  of  care  at  a  dollar  a  day,  and 
learn  to  earn  it  making  the  beautiful  pottery,  specimens  of  which  were  on 
exhibition  in  the  Arequipa  booth.  The  patient  in  the  early  stages  became 
self-supporting  after  a  brief  apprenticeship,  and  with  mind  at  rest  and  hands 
usefully  employed  she  had  a  grand  chance  of  recovery.  There  was  a  model 
of  the  sanatorium,  and  there  were  charts  showing  the  improvement  made 
by  the  patients,  both  workers  and  non-workers.  Orders  were  taken  for 
the  pottery  and  a  great  deal  of  it  was  sold.  The  Exposition  collected  no 
percentage  on  these  sales. 


ONCE,  all  the  pupils  in  the  same  school  had  to  learn  the  same  things. 
That  seemed  to  be  the  ideal  of  pedagogy.  It  was  not  a  very  good 
training  for  life  work.  You  thumbed  the  same  old  Swinton's  Word 
Book  or  some  other  word  book,  and  learned  how  horribly  English  words  were 
spelled,  and  you  spelled  them  that  way.  It  was  the  same  with  arithmetic 
and  geography.  Mentally  you  had  to  be  just  as  much  like  everybody  else 
in  that  school  as  the  teacher  could  make  you.  If  you  had  a  thought  or  an 
impulse  of  your  own,  you  were  not  approximating  the  standard  of  perfection, 
and  moreover  you  were  a  nuisance  and  were  interfering  with  the  routine  or 
the  discipline  or  the  deportment,  or  whatever  else  the  holy  old  thing  was; 
and  there  was  grave  danger  that  you  would  not  be  able  to  pass 
the  sacred  examinations,  and  your  parents  could  not  come  and  pedaeosy 
sit  proudly  in  their  stiff  new  clothes  and  see  you  "graduate  from 
the  grammar  school."  You  grew  in  this  pedagogical  straight-jacket  like  a 
Chinese  woman's  foot,  or  one  of  those  unfortunates  the  monster-makers  raise 
in  a  vase  for  exhibition.  The  intellect  of  the  country  to-day  ought  to  suit  the 
"efficiency"  peddlers,  for  it  has  been  atrociously  standardized. 

Col.  Roosevelt  found  there  was  nothing  sacred  about  Johnsonian  ortho- 
graphy as  exhibited  by  Swinton,  or  even  Noah  Webster,  and  he  proceeded 
to  smash  it  with  his  club.  He  spread  the  knowledge  that  you  could  spell 
through  t,  h,  r,  o;  if  you  wished  to.  Some  did.  Fortunately  he  omitted 
to  improve  the  multiplication  table.  In  attacking  orthographic  orthodoxy 
the  Colonel  was,  and  not  for  the  first  occasion,  a  voice  of  his  times.  Thought- 
ful people  were  tired  of  rigid  formularies  and  standardized  mentality,  and 
longed  for  a  return  of  those  conditions  of  intellectual  freedom  and  even 
outlawry  that  had  exercised  the  blazing  geniuses  of  the  Renaissance. 

What  could  have  been  more  fitting  than  to  have  had  help  in  practical, 
effective  form  come  from  the  land  of  the  Renaissance  itself?  So  Madame 
Dr.  Maria  Montessori's  methods  flashed  on  the  world  from  Rome.  She 
took  the  foremost  place  of  her  time  in  kindergarten  work.  She  seemed  to 
begin  at  the  beginning.     Perhaps  her  method  could  be  best  briefly  defined 

VOL.  IV— S  65 


as  specialization  to  fit  the  individual  case.     The  old-fashioned  system  of 
making  every  child  learn  the  same  things,  in  just  the  same  way, 
Montessori    ^^^  conform  to  the  same  mythical  standard  of  perfection,  was, 
Methods  ■'  i-iii  r- 

under   her   plan,   relegated   to   pre-medieval    darkness.      Every 

child  was  to  be  encouraged  to  develop  spontaneously,  through  natural 

Her  method  had  an  immense  vogue.  Her  book  was  translated  into 
Japanese,  as  well  as  into  most  of  the  tongues  of  Europe,  and  teachers  from 
all  civilized  lands  visited  her  to  learn  the  secret  of  her  success  with  infants. 
She  was  urged  to  visit  schools  all  over  the  world.  She  chose  the  Exposition 
as  the  best  method  of  conveying  her  message  to  the  largest  number  of 
interested  people  in  the  shortest  space  of  time,  and  on  August  i  she  opened  a 
training  course  of  four  months  in  the  Department  of  Education. 

An  advisory  committee  of  eminent  educators  acted  as  patrons,  and  no 
event  connected  with  the  Department  of  Education  attracted  more  atten- 
tion from  a  wider  circle  of  specialists.  The  first  material  requisite  con- 
sisted of  children.  About  35  tots  of  three  to  six  years,  unspoiled  by  machine 
pedagogy,  were  admitted  to  the  little  glass-walled  school  room,  outside 
which  sat  dozens  of  fascinated  parents  and  other  spectators  like  tourists  at 
an  aquarium,  watching  to  see  whether  any  visible  effects  would  break  out. 

The  children  were  set  at  various  tasks,  but  not  crowded  at  them.  They 
were  given  lacing,  color  matching,  outlines  to  fill  with  colored  crayons,  letters 
to  learn  in  groups  by  sight  and  feeling,  numerical  relations  to  master  by 
rods  of  different  lengths,  cloths  to  lay  across  tables,  articles  to  dispose  upon 
them,  cloths  with  rows  of  buttons  to  be  persuaded  into  their  corresponding 
buttonholes,  and  all  sorts  of  small  odd  jobs  to  put  through.  These  things 
helped  that  careful  training  of  the  senses  which  was  a  foundation-stone  of 
the  system.  Sometimes  the  buttons  and  buttonholes  refused  to  come  out 
even,  and  the  puzzled  kiddy  was  not  shown  the  mistake  but  was  urged  to 
try  it  again  until  they  did.     So  critical  self-judgment  grew. 

There  was  a  delightful  absence  of  compulsion,  and  especially  a  delightful 
absence  of  repression.  Some  natural  battlers  of  three  or  four  years  had  to 
be  diverted  from  the  objects  of  their  hate,  but  the  method  of  doing  it  seemed 
to  be  that  of  the  Spanish  bull-fighter — the  young  lady  attendant  showed 
them  something  else,  thus  leaving  the  natural  endowment  of  pugnacity 
unimpaired,  to  be  brought  under  control  by  the  child  himself 
Making  the  ^^^^  ^^  ^^^  learned  that  its  explosion  didn't  usually  pay. 
i>elj-jtarter  ,.,  ,1,  i-  rn  lj 

Otherwise,  from  9  o  clock  to  12,  thmgs  went  peacefully  enough  and 

the  children  did  their  own  work,  work  chosen  by  themselves,  pretty  much  in 
their  own  way — the  purpose  apparently  being  to  develop  persons  of  initia- 




tive,  the  only  persons  in  a  community  that  ever  have  a  value  much  in  excess 
of  their  immediate  personal  requirements.  Miss  Helen  Parkhurst,  of  the 
Wisconsin  State  Normal  School  at  Stevens  Point,  who  had  studied  under 
Dr.  Montessori  at  Rome,  conducted  the  school  for  the  Dottoressa,  who 
had  not  yet  mastered  sufficient  English. 

Coordination,  control,  judgment  were  evolved.  At  the  end  of  36  days, 
many  of  the  children  were  writing  and  composing  words.  Unruly  children 
took  on  a  business-like  air  of  occupation.  For  long  stretches  they  hardly 
noticed  the  spectators,  so  well  were  their  wits  concentered  on  their  work. 
The  glass-enclosed  school  room  was  beautified  with  flowers  and  green  things, 
but  they  were  probably  bait  for  sentimental  mothers;  they  did  not  seem  to 
be  a  very  vital  part  of  the  apparatus,  which  was  designed  for  a  more  serious 
purpose  than  the  cult  of  prettiness. 

Inasmuch  as  the  Montessori  method  promised  to  supplant  a  great  deal 
that  had  long  been  accepted  in  kindergarten  practice,  and  to  make  its  way, 
at  least  in  general  principle,  into  the  higher  grades,  some  brief  statement  of 
its  character  may  not  be  amiss  here,  especially  as  its  more  general  introduc- 
tion into  the  United  States  will  date,  in  the  main,  from  the  Exposition. 

It  was  intended  to  produce,  not  a  repressed  and  standardized  child 
governed  from  above,  but  an  individual  child,  self-governed. 

It  was  meant  to  give  full  play  to  the  individual's  initiative;  as  long  as  he 
kept  the  peace. 

There  were  no  collective  lessons,  but  short  individual  ones,  so  that  the 
teacher  could  start  the  child  on  a  long  task,  which  he  could  finish  for  himself. 
The  teacher  did  not  do  much,  restraining  herself  by  violent  effort  from  inter- 
ference or  assistance. 

The  apparatus,  the  "didactic  material,"  of  the  Montessori  system,  was 
designed  to  do  this  work,  after  experiment  to  determine  just  what  sort  of 
thing  would  do  it.  It  was  a  matter  of  a  designed  environmental  factor  for  a 
definite  purpose. 

Within   the   classroom,  and   among   this  material,  the  child  was  free. 
What  he  did  was  spontaneous,  not  by  command  of  the  teacher. 
Only  the  most  necessary  orders  were  given.     Commands  were  not     xhemsdves 
part  of  system;  except  self-command,  which  the  child  developed 
as   the  result  of  having  a  desire  to  accomplish  something  that  required 
it  and  thus  brought  it  into  practice. 

Dissipation  of  attention  is  the  result  of  tedium  and  boredom.  Concen- 
tration results  from  interest  in  the  job.  Dissipation  results,  also,  from  the 
child  being  incessantly  amused  and  kept  at  play.  The  Montessori  method 
was  essentially  a  method  of  teaching  by  work.      But  the  child  worked  by  his 


own  will,  and  unconsciously  practiced  and  developed  that  orderly  conduct 
which  alone  makes  people  free  and  socially  serviceable  and  worth  while. 
The  good  old  domestic  Peck  method,  which  consisted  in  pecking  at  the 
infant  from  morning  to  night,  was  not  much  in  evidence — in  fact  not  at  all, 
shocking  though  it  might  seem  to  some  conscientious  parents. 

From  work  under  such  conditions  the  idea  was  that  the  child  would  de- 
rive a  fine  excitement  of  faculty  and  an  added,  because  exercised,  power  of 
mental  concentration.  The  writer's  personal  observation  would  seem  to 
confirm  that  theory.  Practical  teachers  declared  that  with  a  few  months  of 
it,  self-discipline  appeared  in  marked  degree,  that  the  children  become 
orderly,  their  obedience  coming  from  free  choice  and  recognition  of  its 
necessity,  like  the  self-discipline  of  intelligent  and  well-disposed  citizens. 

A  training-school  of  two  large  classes  in  the  Montessori  system  was  con- 
ducted by  the  Dottoressa,  through  an  interpreter,  in  the  Nevada  Building, 
after  August  i,  lasting  until  December.  Some  of  the  other  State  buildings 
were  used  for  some  of  the  lectures,  but  the  Nevada  Building  was  the  main 
"college."  From  this  school  teachers  went  forth  to  introduce 
%^1^  the  new  ideas  and  methods  into  the  schools  of  California  and 

other  States.  Yet  those  ideas,  fundamentally,  are  hardly  new. 
They  have  been  lurking  in  the  minds  of  the  English  speaking  races  in  some 
dim,  uncertain  and  unorganized  way,  since  the  days  of  King  Edward  Long- 
shanks,  and  before,  sometimes  getting  into  a  Declaration  of  Independence,  or 
a  Constitution  or  some  such  little  thing,  and  helping  preserve  the  English, 
and  American,  taste  for  individualism  and  private  initiative,  and  liberty; 
and  warring  by  instinct  on  paternalistic  systems  and  old  repressive  tyrannies 
of  whatever  sort. 

From  the  Children's  Bureau  activities,  one  could  properly  infer  that  the 
Departments  of  Education  and  Social  Economy  did  not  content  themselves 
with  still  exhibits.  Things  in  that  Palace  were  always  working,  and  people 
were  always  learning,  not  merely  about  advanced  methods  of  pedagogy,  but 
things  of  practical  value,  whether  they  were  teachers  and  school  board 
members  or  not. 

One  of  the  busiest  hives  about  the  place  was  the  Standard  Commercial 
School.  This  was  a  unique  exhibit,  a  complete  business  college,  "under 
glass,"  where  over  forty  pupils  selected  for  their  especial  promise,  received 
the  instruction  of  a  valuable  commercial  course  at  no  expense  except  the 
sacrifice  of  their  Saturday  holidays  and  their  Summer  vacation — for  the 
school  opened  in  March  and  ran  until  September.  It  was,  by  the  way, 
the  first  time  such  a  thing  had  been  done  in  an  exposition. 

The  idea  of  a  live  educational  exhibit  germinated  at  a  gathering  of  school 


men  late  in  19I4.  A  number  of  the  teachers  present  being  in  the  field  of 
commercial  education,  the  discussion  centered  on  the  possibility  of  a  com- 
mercial school  wherein  the  pupils  should  be  equipped  to  meet  modern 
business  requirements.  Mr.  David  I-ever,  former  high  school  teacher  and 
at  one  time  business  manager  of  the  Sierra  ILducational  News, 
undertook  the  enterprise  and  carried  it  through  to  a  grand-prize  a  Demand 
success.  The  equipment,  of  the  latest  types,  was  furnished  by 
firms  that  had  something  to  contribute  to  commercial  education — 
such  houses  as  the  Gregg  Publishing  Company,  the  A.  N.  Palmer  Com- 
pany, the  Southwestern  Publishing  Company,  the  Remington  Typewriter 
Company,  the  Yawman  &  Erbe  Company  and  the  C.  F.  Weber  Company. 
Mr.  John  Robert  Gregg,  of  the  Gregg  Publishing  Company,  became  con- 
vinced of  the  value  of  the  plan,  and  assumed  the  financial  responsibilities, 
so  that  the  other  companies  participating  made  their  contributions  through 

To  obtain  pupils  it  was  announced  in  the  high  schools  of  San  Francisco 
and  the  nearby  cities  that  certain  students  capable  of  qualifying  could  ob- 
tain a  commercial  education  and  admittance  to  the  Exposition  without  cost. 
A  date  was  set  for  examinations  and  the  successful  applicants  were  enrolled. 

The  courses  included  stenography,  penmanship,  typing,  bookkeeping, 
business  English,  commercial  arithmetic,  office  practice  and  public  speaking, 
with  lectures  on  commercial  law.  But  in  preparation  for  the  teaching  of 
these  things,  many  business  men  were  consulted  as  to  just  what  they  re- 
quired of  their  office  assistants,  and  what  should  be  taught  to  give  them 
direct  value  in  a  business  organization. 

A  gallery  overhung  the  main  classroom,  to  which  visitors  could  ascend 
and  whence  they  could  watch  the  instruction  in  the  Palmer  method  of  pen- 
manship, or  the  Gregg  system  of  shorthand,  or  see  how  rapidly  typing  can  be 
mastered  under  competent  instruction.  The  pupils  were  very  much  in 
earnest,  and  in  their  uniform  white  sweaters  were  an  animated  and  an  ani- 
mating feature  of  the  Palace  of  Education  throughout  the  Summer.  In  all 
branches  taught,  very  satisfactory  results  were  obtained,  according  to  ex- 
perts, and  in  shorthand  and  typing  the  progress  of  the  class  was  said  to  be 
quite  remarkable;  "uncommonly  high  for  the  time  the  class  has  been  at 
work."  Such  was  a  judgment  pronounced  after  six  weeks  of  the  "term. 
The  progress  was  "  the  more  notable  since  the  work  has  been  done  amid  the 
necessarily  distracting  surroundings  and  influences  incidental  to  a  great 
public  Exposition." 

The  school  held  a  real  college  commencement,  with  43  students  in  the 
graduating  class,  in  the  Court  of  Abundance  on  August  30.     Manager  Lever 


was  in  charge.  Miss  Margaret  Gustavson  delivered  the  valedictory.  Pope, 
Chief  of  the  Department  of  Education,  presented  an  Exposition  medal  to 
the  President  of  the  student  body,  Ernest  Wilkins,  President  ex  officio  of  the 
first  Alumni  Association  an  exposition  ever  started.  And  Clyde  E.  Blan- 
chard,  the  principal  of  the  school,  presented  a  medal  to  Mrs.  F.  E.  Raymond, 
who  had  been  largely  instrumental  in  establishing  this  unique  institution. 

The  latest  phase  of  art  teaching,  that  is,  applied  art,  was  demonstrated  in 
the  exhibit  of  Fine,  Applied  and  Manual  Arts  in  the  Palace  of  Education. 
Representative  work  in  all  lines  was  selected,  so  that  there  was  little  or  no 
repetition  in  the  large  and  beautiful  collection  of  objects  brought  together 

On  the  walls,  in  the  cases,  and  in  the  model  rooms,  you  saw  the  work  of 
primary,  grammar,  intermediate  and  high  school  pupils.  Perhaps  the 
deepest  interest  was  in  the  model  rooms,  for  these  indicated  the  relation  of 
art  to  domestic  life  in  such  compositions  as  the  colonial  sitting 
Art  as  Used  room  of  the  Springfield  High  School,  and  the  dining  room  shown 
by  Oakland,  Cal.  The  room  of  the  Los  Angeles  High  School  was 
very  fine,  although  more  a  show  room  than  any  particular  unit  of  a  house, 
and  the  same  thing  was  true  of  the  room  put  in  by  the  San  Francisco  schools. 

The  San  Jose' Normal  School  put  in  a  child's  play  room,  in  modern  Vien- 
nese style,  and  the  California  School  of  Arts  and  Crafts  was  represented  by 
an  ideal  studio.  The  Pratt  Institute  had  an  excellent  wall  exhibit  of  graphic 
art,  and  Newcomb  College  showed  pottery,  embroidery,  and  jewelry.  Book- 
binding, metal  work,  drawing  and  modeling,  embroidery,  and  leather  work 
were  much  in  evidence,  in  the  bold,  free,  modern  forms.  Harvard  Univers- 
ity was  represented  by  a  display  of  plans  for  landscape  gardening,  and  the 
Chicago  Art  Institute  by  paintings  and  drawings.  Some  sculptures  from 
different  art  schools,  with  murals  from  the  Chicago  Academy  of  Fine  Arts 
and  from  the  California  School  of  Arts  and  Crafts,  added  interest.  The 
exhibit  was  collected  by  Robert  Harshe,  Assistant  Chief  of  the  Department 
of  Fine  Arts,  and  Superintendent  of  Fine,  Applied  and  Manual  Art  Educa- 
tion in  the  Exposition's  Department  of  Education.  It  was  installed  by 
Prof.  F.  H.  Meyer,  of  the  California  School  of  Arts  and  Crafts  in  Berkeley. 

California's  educational  exhibit  was  a  remarkable  demonstration  of  what 
can  be  done  by  the  cinema  film  to  depict  the  development  of  such  a  con- 
stantly growing  institution  as  a  great  educational  system,  for 
ofTsLte  through  it  were  shown  all  the  late  phases  of  school  life,  and 
visitors  were  enabled  to  inspect  the  whole  school  system  of  CaH- 
fornia  from  their  opera  chairs.  Some  striking  features  disclosed  were  the 
technical  equipment  in  high  schools,  now  grown  common,  whereas  ten  years 



before  there  was  only  one  polytechnic  high  school  in  the  State.  Other 
phases  were,  modern  school  buildings  in  country  districts,  the  consolidation 
of  country  districts,  playgrounds  with  apparatus  for  physical  development, 
and  the  settlement  work  through  which  a  knowledge  of  sanitation,  domestic 
science,  and  care  of  the  children  were  extended  to  immigrants  that  in  many 
cases  had  not  yet  learned  English. 

There  is  not  space  in  this  book,  and  there  would  not  be  in  twenty  books 
to  set  forth  all  the  significant  features  of  all  the  exhibits  in  the  palaces,  so  we 
have  selected  those  that  seemed  best  to  indicate  the  nature  and  influence  of 
the  Exposition  itself.  But  besides  those  mentioned  above  there  were  in  the 
Palace  of  Education  many  that  were  important  as  illustrations  of  the  infinite 
variety  of  the  human  mind  and  the  wide  range  of  subjects  about  which  it 
worries.  Many  new  forms  of  religion,  of  reformatory  propaganda,  and  of 
proprietary  philosophy,  appeared  in  the  booths  and  invited  the  attention  of 
the  serious  or  the  merely  curious.  In  some  inexplicable  way  the  more 
speculative  of  these  new  phases  of  intellectuality  and  the  moral  urge  found 
themselves  near-neighbors  along  a  certain  aisle  which  became  known  to  the 
frivolous  as  "Nut  Alley."  History  cannot  approve  so  dubious  a  title;  it  is 
lacking  in  dignity  and  even  in  respect.  But  the  fact  that  this  particular 
section  of  the  Palace  was  so  known  may  properly  be  recorded,  for  it  shows 
what  a  grand,  free  forum  the  Exposition  was  for  the  presentation  of  every 
aspect  of  human  thought. 


THE  ingenuity  of  Man  in  getting  his  own  way  despite  the  limitations 
of  nature,  his   modification   of  his  environment  to  bring  himself 
comfort,  or,  what  amounts  to  the  same  thing  and  gives  it  grander 
scale,  to  sell  comfort  to  others,  the  fruits  of  his  creative  and  beneficent 
cupidity,  and  the  stage  he  had  reached  by  the  year  191 5  in  this  sort  of 
meddling  with  mundane  design,  appeared  more  distinctly  in  the  Palace  of 
Liberal  Arts  than  in  any  other  building  or  department  of  the  Exposition. 
Great  developments,  magnificent  examples  of  industrial  evolu- 
flin         tion,  were  exhibited  in  the  Palace  of  Mines,  and  in  the  Palaces 
of  Transportation,  of  Agriculture,  and  of  Manufactures;  but  in  the 
Palace  of  Liberal  Arts  you  saw  the  exemplifications  of  inventive  genius  a 
great  exposition  gathers  together,  even  more  distinctly  than  in  the  other 

In  this  palace,  Kipling  might  have  written  his  great  poem  of  modern 
romance  "The  Miracles."  It  was  full  of  wonders.  You  went  wondering 
through  its  aisles,  from  one  wonder  to  another,  until  amazement  became  a 
sustained  mood.  You  might  have  wondered  before  how  any  man  could  ever 
have  learned  to  play  the  violin,  and  closed  with  the  conviction  that  no  man 
would  ever  invent  a  machine  that  could  so  delicately  agitate  those  strings 
and  make  them  sing  that  way.  Yet  here  in  a  little  booth  was  the  machine 
that  did  it.  And  the  violin  was  synchronized  with  an  automatic  piano, 
making  the  Violano- Virtuoso,  a  world  wonder. 

You  might  have  recovered  from  your  early  astonishment  at  the  tele- 
phone, and  become  patronizing  about  it,  and  might  have  said: 

"Oh,  yes,  it's  well  enough  in  its  way,  for  gossiping  around  town  and 
transacting  local  business,  and  giving  orders  to  the  grocer.  But  real  long 
distance — that's  different — have  to  telegraph." 

Well,  you  could  sit  in  the  cozy  auditorium  of  the  American  Telephone 
and  Telegraph  Company,  in  a  comfortable  opera  chair,  and  hear  "New 
York  talking"  over  a  transcontinental  line,  as  distinctly  as  you  could  hear 
Oakland,  or  Berkeley,  or  Alameda. 



As  for  telegraphing,  here  were  exhibits  of  apparatus  that  made  trans- 
continental telegraphy  practicable  without  any  wires.  And  you  may  re- 
member that  they  opened  the  Exposition  by  "wireless,"  from  Washington. 

And  phonographs — they  were  all  about,  the  most  effective  and  delicate 
sound  producers,  in  the  most  beautiful  cabinets,  for  it  seemed  that  the  more 
they  cost,  the  more  people  bought  and  the  bigger  the  business  grew;  and  for 
those  that  could  not  afford  the  expensive  kinds,  creative  cupidity  again  had 
supplied  a  good  talking  machine  for  $  1 2,  and  that  fact  was  an  economic  wonder. 

But  these  machines  reproduced  sounds  previously  recorded  on  discs  or 
cylinders  in  grooves  in  which  a  needle  traveled,  so  that  inasmuch  as  the 
needle  required  a  little  room,  and  the  groove  had  to  have  some  width,  there 
was  a  limit  to  the  length  of  composition  it  was  practicable  to  register.  The 
twelve-inch  disc  was  about  the  largest  size,  running  about  four  minutes, 
roughly  speaking,  and  thus  limiting  a  reproduction  to  compositions  of 
that  duration.  Pretty  soon  you  stumbled  on  the  Telegraphone, 
an  invention  of  Vladimir  Poulsen  of  Copenhagen,  which  recorded  ^^  ^,^^g 
sounds  on  an  electrically  magnetized  iron  plate,  and  reproduced 
from  it — a  plate  on  which  nothing  could  be  seen,  or  felt,  and  from  which,  at 
your  pleasure,  all  record,  or  just  a  word  or  two,  could  be  erased.  You  could 
attach  this  apparatus  to  your  telephone  when  you  left  your  office,  and  when 
you  came  back  you  could  switch  a  key  and  hear  what  your  correspondent 
had  been  saying  to  you  when  you  were  out,  an  hour  or  so,  or  a  week  or  so, 
before.  Or  you  could  record  letters  on  it,  and  use  it  as  a  dictaphone  is  used. 
And,  as  if  the  magnetized  iron  plate  were  not  enough,  the  apparatus  would 
take  a  record  on  a  magnetized  wire,  so  that  you  might  have  a  whole  opera 
reeled  on  a  spool,  arid  you  could  reel  it  off  to  another  spool  and  listen  to  it 
for  two  or  three  hours. 

Synthetic  chemistry?  In  its  infancy.  The  chemist's  kernel  would  not 
sprout.  Complex  organic  compounds  could  be  taken  apart  in  the  laboratory, 
but  it  was  hard,  in  some  cases  impossible,  and  in  most  cases  financially  waste- 
ful, to  put  them  together  again  in  imitation  of  nature.  Yet  here  was  a  large, 
hollow  chunk  of  camphor,  as  big  as  a  bucket,  shaped  like  an  old-fashioned 
boarding-house  napkin  ring,  not  distilled  from  leaves,  twigs  and  gum  by 
ancient  Oriental  processes  but  wrested  by  a  wizard  chemistry  from  coal  tar, 
a  substance  as  unlike  it  as  night  is  unlike  day;  and  it  was  cheaper  and 
stronger  than  the  natural  sort.  In  other  respects  it  was  identical,  and  now 
reposes  in  the  museum  of  the  University  of  California,  authenticated  and 
certified  by  the  head  of  the  Department  of  Chemistry.  It  was  the  product 
of  the  Chemische  Fabrik  auf  Actien,  vormal  Schering,  of  Berlin,  and  was 
exhibited  by  Schering  &  Glatz  of  New  York. 


The  Palace  of  Liberal  Arts  embodied  the  spirit  of  modernity.  Not  only 
did  it  illustrate  the  stage  that  man  had  reached  mechanically  and  scienti- 
fically and  commercially,  but  it  bore  a  bit  on  the  change  in  his 
Secular  mental  state  and  his  theological  opinions.  Not  many  years  ago 
it  would  have  been  a  sinful  spot — say,  in  the  days  when  the  old 
fellow  in  Scott  refused  to  winnow  his  wheat  by  machinery  because  God  had 
produced  wind  for  that  purpose. 

Besides  the  wonders  it  displayed,  its  exhibits  of  commercial  product  had 
a  wide  range  of  interest;  from  the  musical  instruments  of  such  makers  as 
Conn  of  Elkhart,  Indiana,  and  Monzino  &  Son  of  Milan,  to  the  diving  suits 
of  A.  Schrader's  Son,  of  London,  New  York,  and  Chicago. 



THE  methods  by  which  the  equipment  of  the  Exposition's  emergency 
hospital  was  accomplished  (which,  by  the  way,  was  carried  out 
largely  under  the  direction  of  the  Department  of  Liberal  Arts), 
form  a  fair  example  of  the  way  in  which  the  Liberal  Arts  exhibits  were 
brought  together;  but  there  was  this  difference  between  the  two,  that  while 
the  exhibits  that  equipped  the  hospital  were  all  within  a  certain  definite 
field,  those  of  the  Department  of  Liberal  Arts  were  drawn  from  a  large 
number  of  different  fields. 

The  practice  involved  was  more  akin  to  that  of  a  business  house  with 
something  to  sell  than  in  the  Departments  of  Education  and  Social  Econ- 
omy, because  most  of  the  negotiations  were  with  firms  and  corporations 
organized  for  profit  and  accustomed  to  considering  anything  but  direct  and 
material  gains  as  beyond  their  limitations,  whereas  in  the  other  departments 
named,  a  larger  percentage  of  the  institutions  dealt  with  were  altruistic  in 
character,  and  could  see  in  the  Exposition  the  best  opportunity  of  serving 
their  purposes.  Yet  the  invitations  had  to  be  selective  of  the  best  in  each 
field.  And  the  methods  of  the  Liberal  Arts  Department  may  stand  as 
roughly  representative  of  those  employed  in  most  other  sections  of  the 
Exhibits  Division,  excluding,  of  course,  that  of  Fine  Arts. 

The  classification  for  this  Department  comprised  fifteen  great  groups  of 
arts  and  products:  typography  and  printing  processes,  books  and  publica- 
tions and  book  binding,  maps,  paper  manufacture,  photography,  instru- 
ments of  precision,  philosophical  apparatus,  coins  and  medals, 
medicine  and  surgery,  the  chemical  and  pharmacal   arts,  musical  p^^^ 

instruments,    theatrical    appliances    and    equipment,    electrical 
methods  of  communication,  civil  and  military  engineering,  models  and  plans 
and  designs  for  public  works,  architecture,  and  finally  architectural  en- 
gineering.    These  groups  were  subdivided  again  into   121   classes  of  the 
results  of  man's  skill,  ingenuity,  and  learning. 

Experience  in  other  expositions  suggested  to  the  Chief  of  Liberal  Arts, 
Theodore  Hardee,  about  where  and  how  to  begin.     It  was  necessary  to 



survey,  in  effect,  the  whole  kingdom  of  productive  energy  defined  by  the 
classification.  Trade  journals  were  searched  and  catalogues  were  collected, 
scientific  organizations  as  well  as  industrial  concerns  were  listed,  and  lists  of 
manufacturers  in  the  lines  sought  were  obtained  from  a  large  New  York 
addressograph  house.  Correspondence  was  opened  with  these  organiza- 
tions and  firms,  beginning  with  such  a  letter  as  the  following: 

"The  Panama-Pacific  International  Exposition  at  San  Francisco  in  1915  will 
display  in  a  most  comprehensive  manner  the  achievements  and  activities  of  man- 
kind during  the  last  decade.  Live,  working  exhibits  are  especially  desirable, 
showing  not  only  actual  products,  but  also  models  in  operation  to  illustrate  the 
apparatus  and  methods  employed  in  arriving  at  the  finished  article.  In  the  do- 
main of  Liberal  Arts  the  exhibits  will  be  notably  interesting  and  significant. 

"The  display  of  graphic  arts  will  be  complete  and  characteristic,  embrac- 
ing the  whole  range  of  this  broad  field.  The  equipment  and  various  processes  of 
printing,  engraving,  and  lithography,  newspapers,  magazines,  books,  and  book- 
binding, maps,  typewriters,  multigraphs,  advertising,  etc.,  will  be  shown  at  their 
highest  point  of  development  in  191 5.  Journalism,  the  prime  factor  in  moulding 
public  opinion,  will  be  fully  illustrated. 

"These  exhibits  will  be  housed  in  the  Palace  of  Liberal  Arts.  The  exhibits 
must  of  necessity  be  selective  in  character  because  of  the  comparative  limitation 
of  space  which,  by  reason  of  wider  participation  and  the  world's  more  extended 
productivity,  will  be  more  restricted  than  at  previous  International  Expositions. 
This  will  emphasize  the  advisability  of  applying  for  exhibit  space  as  soon  as 

"We  should  be  pleased  to  know  that  you  will  give  serious  consideration  to  the 
advisability  of  your  participation.  In  this  connection  permit  me  to  call  your 
attention  to  the  keen  interest  manifested  by  both  American  exhibitors  and  foreign 
governments,  which  assures  an  Exposition  of  the  most  representative  inter- 
national character.  Latin  America  and  the  Orient  will  take  very  prominent 
parts.  Twenty-six  foreign  countries  have  already  accepted  the  invitation  of  the 
President  of  the  United  States  to  participate,  and  thirty-five  States  have  also 

"The  opening  of  the  Panama  Canal  means  the  development  of  entirely  new 
avenues  of  commerce,  the  extent  of  which  it  is  impossible  to  overestimate.  The 
Orient  and  Latin  America  should  prove  large  and  profitable  markets  for  the 
GRAPHIC  ARTS,  and  the  Universal  Exposition  at  San  Francisco  in  191 5  will  afford 
a  rare  opportunity  to  bring  your  products  to  their  particular  notice.  Blank 
applications  for  space,  the  exhibits  classification  and  other  information  prepared 
for  the  guidance  of  exhibitors,  will  be  forwarded  on  request. 

"Yours  very  truly, 

"  (Signed)  Theodore  Hardee 

"Chiefof  Liberal  Arts." 


So,  selected  concerns  in  all  the  fields  it  was  sought  to  reach  were  invited; 
beginning  early  in  19 ij.  Subsequent  letters  carried  the  interest  further, 
still  later  ones  described  the  development  of  the  Exposition  as  a  whole, 
emphasized  its  importance,  presented  its  attractions,  accentuated  the 
advantages  to  be  derived  from  participation  in  it.  The  ruin  of 
stamps  and  stationery  was  tremendous.  Thousands  of  letters  the°Mail- 
went  out,  variously  composed  to  meet  changing  requirements  as 
the  Exposition  activity  developed,  and  as  the  developments  were  individ- 
ually followed  up  and  the  "prospects"  either  exhausted  or  laboriously 
brought  to  consummation. 

In  the  mere  exploitation  or  advertising  of  the  Department  the  numbers 
of  form  letters  used  was  very  large.  From  State  commissions  to  pipe  organ 
manufacturers,  the  whole  scale  was  run.  When  the  applications  for  space 
began  to  come  in,  they  involved  continual  adjustments  of  requirements, 
efforts  to  satisfy  the  exhibitor  that  he  would  have  things  to  his  liking,  meet- 
ing of  some  of  the  most  ingenious  and  apparently  impossible  conditions  the 
human  mind  could  evolve. 

The  general  difficulties  were  common  to  all  the  Exposition.  There  was 
a  universal  tightening  of  the  money  market  in  1913,  which  resulted  in  re- 
trenchment, and  curtailed  the  designs  of  many  a  business  house.  When  you 
need  cash  you  can  hardly  afford  to  invest  in  the  chance  of  benefits  remote 
and  indirect.  What  we  now  know  to  have  been  the  strain  of  coming  war 
began  to  make  itself  felt  in  Exposition  affairs  long  before  actual  war  was 
evident.  Then  it  came,  and  in  the  Palace  of  Liberal  Arts  alone  it  caused  the 
cancellation  of  applications  for  97,173  square  feet  of  exhibit  space  before  the 
end  of  1914;  and  over  8,600  feet  of  Liberal  Arts  space  in  the  Machinery 
Palace.     This  had  to  be  laboriously  filled  again. 

After  applications  for  space  began  to  arrive,  location  plans  had  to  be 
arranged,  and  the  applicants  enlisted  in  a  general  movement  for  good  booth 
construction.  Blue  prints  were  prepared  for  this  purpose.  The  general 
scheme  contemplated  the  locating  of  commercial  and  scientific 
exhibits  from  the  United  States  in  "industrial"  groups  corre-  theExhibifs 
sponding  to  the  official  classification  for  this  Department.  For- 
eign exhibits,  greatly  reduced  by  the  war,  were  grouped  by  nationalities. 
The  domestic  section  occupied  the  southern  half  of  the  Palace,  and  the  upper 
part  of  the  northeast  quarter.  The  foreign  groups  were  located  in  the 
northeast  quarter.  And  the  northwest  quarter  was  filled  with  the  United 
States  Government  exhibits.  Printing  presses,  linotype  machines,  road 
rollers,  and  similar  heavy  products,  some  noisy  in  operation  and  requiring 
power,  went  into  the  Palace  of  Machinery,  but  still  belonged  in  the  Liberal 


Arts  Department.  No  noisy  exhibits  were  permitted  in  the  Palace  of  Lib- 
eral Arts. 

Every  effort  was  made  to  have  booth  construction  and  exhibit  installa- 
tion completed  a  week  before  Opening  Day.  Booth  construction,  here 
as  elsewhere,  finished  in  an  awful  hurly-burly.  Contractors  took  work 
they  could  not  possibly  execute,  not  because  they  could  not  get  labor  but 
because  they  could  not  give  their  attention  to  more  than  two  or  three  booths 
at  once.  So  disappointments  were  many.  Because  of  tardiness  in  the 
completion  of  booths,  cases  of  exhibit  material  piled  up  amid  the  rubbish 
and  building  debris,  and  confused  and  delayed  the  already  delayed  work. 
It  was  hard  to  get  good  emergency  men,  in  spite  of  the  fact  that  labor  in 
general  was  plentiful.  Space  cancellations  came  in,  up  to  the  last  week,  and 
added  to  the  confusion.  Floor  superintendents  of  installation  worked  day 
and  night.  The  night  before  Opening  Day  nobody  on  the  Department  staff 
went  to  bed,  and  if  anybody  slept  he  did  it  standing  up  and  answering  ques- 
tions or  giving  orders.  Considering  all  these  things  the  result  was  most 
creditable;  the  installation  was  almost,  but  not  quite,  complete.  Said  the 
Chief  of  the  Department: 

"If  I  had  this  to  do  over  I  should  prepare  to  double  the  entire  force  dur- 
ing this  period  and  make  at  least  three  eight-hour  shifts.  I  should  be 
guarded  against  contractors  who  promised  to  do  things  and  could  not  live 
up  to  their  promises.  I  should  get  in  closer  touch  with  the  shippers'  end, 
the  railroads  and  the  transportation  companies. 

"I  would  particularly  warn  against  procrastination  by  managers  in 
charge  of  exhibits  who  feel  positive  in  most  cases  that  they  can  finish  on 
time,  whereas  we  found  very  few  of  them  who  were  able  to  judge  the  time 
it  would  take." 

This  place  of  great  invention,  which  bore  so  directly  on  human  life  that 
it  was  one  of  the  most  popular  of  the  palaces  and  was  constantly  thronged, 
was  470  by  585  feet  in  largest  extent,  and  cost  $325,447  to  build. 




GREAT  strides  In  the  communication  of  intelligence  that  had  been 
accomplished  in  the  Exposition  year,  had  their  exemplification  in 
the  Palace  of  Liberal  Arts.  Transcontinental  telephony  occurred 
for  the  first  time  on  January  25,  191 5  between  New  York  and  San  Francisco. 
On  that  date  Alexander  Graham  Bell,  inventor  of  the  telephone,  which  in 
its  feeble  infancy  had  been  exhibited  at  the  Centennial  Exposi- 
tion at  Philadelphia  in  1876,  sat  in  the  New  York  office  of  the  oo7uies 
American  Telephone  &  Telegraph  Company  and  talked  to 
Thomas  A.  W^atson  in  San  Francisco — the  same  Watson  who  had  been  on 
the  receiving  end  in  Boston  on  the  loth  of  March,  1876,  when  the  first 
spoken  words  went  over  a  wire. 

That  line  was  a  short  bit  between  two  rooms  in  the  same  house.  The 
transcontinental  line  of  less  than  forty  years  after  stretched  3,400  miles  and 
formed  part  of  a  system  comprising  9,000,000  instruments  connected  by 
21,000,000  miles  of  wire. 

And  then  they  did  it  without  the  wire.  On  September  29,  1915,  Theo- 
dore N.  Vail,  President  of  the  American  Telephone  &  Telegraph  Company, 
talked  over  a  wire  from  New  York  to  Arlington,  just  outside  of  Washington, 
D.  C,  where  the  Government's  great  radio  towers  are,  and  from  these 
towers  the  impulses  went  out,  without  wires,  through  the  imponderable 
ether  to  John  J.  Carty,  chief  engineer  of  the  company,  at  Mare  Island  on 
one  of  the  upper  reaches  of  San  Francisco  Bay,  and  the  words  of  Mr.  Vail 
were  distinctly  heard  by  Lloyd  Espenshied,  one  of  the  company's  engineers, 
at  Pearl  Harbor,  near  Honolulu,  over  2,000  miles  out  in  the  Pacific — a  total 
distance  of  4,900  miles. 

In  the  Palace  of  Liberal  Arts  the  telephone  company  built  a  large  booth 
containing  a  handsome  auditorium,  and  the  public  was  invited  to  sit  here 
and  "listen  to  New  York,"  over  the  transcontinental  wire  line.  Every  seat 
was  equipped  with  a  pair  of  receivers,  and  with  these  at  your  ears  you  could 
hear,  at  1 1  a.m.,  i  rjo,  2:30,  3:30  and  4:30  p.m.,  any  day  of  the  Exposition 
season,  readings  of  head-lines  from  the  New  York  evening  papers  of  that 



date,  phonograph  music,  and  the  waves  of  the  Atlantic  Ocean  breaking  on 
Rockaway  Beach.  At  times,  personal  conversations  across  the  contment 
were  arranged  for  distinguished  visitors;  such  as  Governor  Whitman  of  New 
York,  who  listened  to  the  rebellious  proclamations  of  his  three-months-old 
baby  boy  3,400  miles  away. 

The  thing  did  not  stop  with  the  demonstration  of  its  possibility.  In  the 
domain  of  the  physical,  few  things  are  of  value  to  humanity  until  they  have 
been  "  commercialized"— word  hated  of  the  reds  and  long-hairs,  but  repre- 
senting the  most  effective  and  economical  method  we  have  yet  evolved  of 
getting  things  into  general  use;  or  are  likely  to  evolve.  A  few  weeks  after 
the  opening  of  the  Exposition,  the  telephone  company  opened  the 
For  Public  transcontinental  wire  line  to  public  service.  The  person-to- 
Sermce  ^^^^^^  rate  between  San  Francisco  and  New  York  was  ^20.70 
for  the  first  three  minutes,  and  $6.60  for  each  additional.  At  this  writing 
several  calls  a  day  go  over  it.  For  important  business  conferences  it 
is  declared  by  some  to  be  superior  to  the  telegraph,  because  business 
men  with  critical  matters  to  arrange  have  an  opportunity  for  discussion  and 
for  deliberation  during  discussion  such  as  they  can  hardly  accomplish  when 
responses  are  delayed.  In  war,  its  importance  would  be  vast.  No  such  use 
as  yet  is  being  made  of  wireless  telephony. 

Many  causes  contributed  to  these  miracles:  political  solidarity  of  a 
great  continental  country,  consolidation  of  local  telephone  systems  into  a 
continental  unit,  extensive  public  patronage  and  support,  organization  of 
technical  experts,  the  American  energy  to  string  wires  over  deserts  and 
mountain  chains,  the  big,  far-seeing  American  vision  that  is  satisfied  to 
sacrifice  small  present  gains  for  the  chance  of  ultimate  grand  results. 

Altogether  there  were  so  many  obstacles,  and  so  many  causes  of  success, 
that  the  company  could  make  the  statement:  "  In  all  the  3,400  miles  of  the 
line  there  is  no  one  spot  where  a  man  may  point  his  finger  and  say:  '  Here  is 
the  secret  of  the  transcontinental  line;  here  is  what  makes  it  possible  to 
telephone  from  New  York  to  San  Francisco.'"  It  was  not  merely  a  ques- 
tion of  stringing  wires  on  poles.  The  difficulties  led  into  some  of  the  refine- 
ments of  physics  as  understood  in  the  early  part  of  the  twentieth  century, 
and  involved  all  the  subtleties  of  electrical  transmission  in  its  most  delicate 
form.  It  is  not  possible  here  to  discuss,  even  were  we  competent,  the 
baffling  phenomena  of  lagging,  crowding,  inductance,  and  other  caprices  of 
this  mysterious  and  slippery  form  of  energy,  nor  the  various  loadmg  coils 
and  relays  devised  by  the  technical  men  to  "speed  it  up"  and  make  it  do  its 
work.  There  was  one  device  exhibited  in  the  Palace  of  Liberal  Arts,  how- 
ever, and  thus  germane  to  our  task,  that  illustrated  the  extreme  subtlety  of 


technique  that  had  been  reached  at  this  date  by  inventors  in  the  electrical 
field.  This  was  the  audion  amplifier  of  Lee  De  Forest.  The  De  Forest 
Radio  Telephone-Telegraph  Company  exhibited  some  notable  radio  ap- 
paratus, among  the  rest  a  set  that  had  been  used  in  wireless 
telephony  on  the  Lackawanna  Railroad,  in  1914.  It  showed  Electricity 
wireless  telegraph  and  telephone  apparatus  with  the  audion 
amplifier,  audion  detector  and  ultraudion,  combined  detector  and  amplifier: 
devices  for  reenergizing  the  voice  impulses,  or  others,  whether  they  came 
by  wire  or  not. 

Inasmuch  as  the  audion  amplifier  was  a  step  forward  in" the  development 
of  radiography,  it  seems  worth  while  to  record  a  description  of  it  here.  We 
quote  in  part  the  exhibiting  company's  description: 

"The  audion  amplifier  consists  of  a  small  incandescent  lamp  bulb  ex- 
hausted of  air,  containing  in  addition  to  the  usual  filament  two  thin  plates 
of  nickel  about  an  eighth  of  an  inch  from  the  filament,  on  either  side.  Be- 
tween the  filament  and  the  plates  are  two  pieces  of  nickel  wire  bent  grid- 
shaped.  .  .  .  The  incoming  current,  to  be  repeated  and  amplified,  is 
connected  to  the  'grid'  wire.  The  outgoing  line  is  connected,  one  terminal 
to  the  plates,  the  other  to  the  filament.  In  this  circuit  is  found  a  battery. 
A  separate  battery  lights  the  filament  to  incandescence.  The  heated  gas 
becomes  then  a  conductor  of  the  local  current  from  the  battery,  which  can 
pass  from  the  cold  plates  to  the  hot  filament.  .  .  .  The  current  changes 
produced  in  the  outgoing,  or  plate,  circuit  are  exactly  similar  to  those  cur- 
rent changes  or  electrical  charges,  upon  the  'grid'  wires  which  produced 
them.  But  the  changes  in  current  thus  produced  are  many  times  the 
changes  in  current  which  caused  them.  .  .  .  The  one  most  essential  and 
completely  novel  element  in  the  whole  strange  device  is  the  'grid'  member, 
interposed  across  the  path  of  the  traveling  ions  (wanderers,  as  their  Greek 
name  implies)." 

The  audion  amplifier,  it  was  said,  intensified  telephone  and  telegraph 
signals  from  ten  to  1,000  times.  The  claim  was  made  that  it  had  been  an 
essential  element  of  transcontinental  telephony  but  whether  this  was  or  was 
not  the  fact  is  not  a  matter  for  adjudication  here. 

In  their  evolution  the  detector  preceded  the  amplifier.  Its  use  made 
possible  the  receipt  of  a  wireless  message  from  Nauen,  Germany,  at  the  De 
Forest  booth  in  the  Palace  of  Liberal  Arts,  caught  on  antenna;  hanging  from 
the  Tower  of  Jewels.  The  ultraudion  detector  caught  wireless  signals,  and 
at  times  persons  in  the  booth  could  hear  wireless  telephone  conversations 
from  wireless  phones  about  the  bay.  The  instrument  was  not  yet  domesti- 
cated, and  it  was  still,  in  1915,  cheaper  to  use  the  wire  system. 

VOL.   IV — 6 


In  those  days  of  highly  developed  office  organization  the  working  exhibit 
of  the  Turner  Interconversing  System,  put  into  the  office  of  the  Department 
of  Liberal  Arts  by  the  General  Acoustic  Company  of  New  York,  was  of 
much  interest.  By  it  the  president  or  general  manager  of  a  cor- 
^adfone  Po'"ation  could  converse  with  as  many  departments  under  his 
jurisdiction  as  desired,  all  together  or  at  different  times.  For 
the  instantaneous  transmission  of  a  general  order  it  was  like  getting  all  the 
department  heads  into  one  room.  And  if  any  were  not  concerned  with  the 
order,  his  office  could  be  cut  out  at  will,  by  a  switch.  Departments  could 
also  cut  off  their  own  lines.  The  same  company  exhibited  a  detective 
dictaphone,  such  as  you  read  of  in  the  detective  stories  of  the  day.  We  are 
glad  to  be  able  to  support  in  this  way  the  possibility  of  some  good  but  im- 
probable short  stories.  The  machine  would  catch  the  utterance  of  a  person 
20  or  30  feet  away  and  transmit  it  to  an  adjoining  room.  All  you  had  to  do 
was  to  get  the  villain  to  talk  in  his  sleep  and  you  had  him. 

The  Aero  Fire  Alarm  Company  had  a  working  exhibit,  with  its  central 
station  in  the  Palace  of  Liberal  Arts,  where  it  attracted  general  notice.  The 
Exposition  buildings  were  equipped  with  this  device,  which  constituted  part 
of  its  noteworthy  fire  protection  scheme.  In  this  system  the  mechanism 
giving  the  alarm  was  actuated  by  the  expansion  of  air  in  long,  thin  tubes, 
when  the  tubes  became  heated  in  case  of  fire.  They  ran  all  about  the  build- 
ings, and  because  of  their  extremely  small  calibre  the  air  in  them  would 
operate  from  a  very  slight  rise  of  temperature. 

The  fire  alarm  stations  and  police  telephones  throughout  the  grounds 
were  a  working  exhibit  of  the  Star  Electric  Company,  which  showed,  in  the 
Palace  of  Liberal  Arts,  a  fire  alarm  and  police  telephone  exchange. 

The  booth  of  the  Western  Union  Telegraph  Company  was  equipped  as  a 
modern  telegraph  office,  and  offered  a  complete  exhibition  of  telegraph 
service  by  wire,  as  far  as  an  office  could.  There  were  stock-market  tickers, 
a  commercial  wire,  a  complete  ocean  cable  outfit,  and  various  demonstrat- 
ing machines.     Visitors  were  handed  dated  copies  of  this  telegram : 

"This  message  was  sent  over  a  Western  Union  wire  equipped  with  the 
new  multiplex  automatic  system  by  which  eight  telegrams  may  be  trans- 
mitted independently  over  a  single  wire  and  all  printed  simultaneously." 

The  company  exhibited  a  relic  of  a  great  recent  event:  the  tele- 
graph instrument  with  which  President  Wilson,  on  October  10,  1913, 
blew  up  the  Gamboa  Dike  from  Washington  and  let  the  water  of  Gatun 
Lake  into  the  Culebra  Cut.  Although  this  act  did  not  complete  the 
Canal,  it  destroyed  the  last  barrier  in  it.  The  Western  Union  booth  con- 
tained another  exhibit  of  fascinating  historical  interest,   for  it  was   the 




grandfather  of  the  typewriter.     Some  description  of  it  will  be  found  in  the 
next  chapter. 

Telegraphing  with  a  typewriter  key-board  by  a  method  that  reproduced 
messages  "  in  Morse"  at  the  other  end  of  the  wire,  was  shown  by  the  exhibit 
of  the  Piersen  Telegraph  Transmitter  Company  of  Topeka,  Kansas.  A 
person  ignorant  of  the  Morse  code  could  send  messages  by  this  instrument; 
and  it  had  a  humane  quality,  for  it  promised  to  save  the  weary 
operator  nerve  and  muscle  strain  and  prevent  that  terror  of  the    ^  ,      "!^ 

'^  ^  .  /  ekgraphy 

telegrapher,  "glass  arm."  The  machine  embodied  a  "storage 
cylinder"  which  enabled  the  operator  to  store  from  one  to  71  characters 
before  releasing  them  on  the  wire,  so  that  certain  irregularities  in  sending 
were  obviated.  Coupled  with  the  storage  mechanism  was  an  erasure  key, 
which  would  remove  a  "misprint."  The  transmitter  also  spaced  between 
characters  and  between  words.  It  was  claimed  that  an  operator  that  could 
write  40  words  a  minute  on  a  typewriter  could  telegraph  as  rapidly  with  this 
instrument.     And  the  receiving  end  could  "take"  as  fast  as  it  came. 

Note — At  the  time  of  printing  this  history,  1920,  the  service  had  so 
expanded  that  there  were  three  telephone  circuits  working  between  San 
Francisco  and  eastern  points,  and  they  were  kept  so  busy  during  peak-load 
hours  that  the  company  contemplated  additions  even  to  these  facilities. 


THE  visitor  could  always  tell  when  he  was  inside  the  Palace  of  Liberal 
Arts,  by  the  great  telescope  slanting  upward  on  its  tall  pedestal 
under  the  central  dome.  It  was  a  20-inch  equatorial  made  for  the 
Chabot  Observatory  in  Oakland  by  the  Warner  &  Swasey  Company  of 
Cleveland.  This  was  said  to  be  the  seventh  largest  refracting  telescope.  It 
weighed  nearly  ten  tons,  and  if  pointed  vertically,  its  upper  end  would  have 
been  38  feet  from  the  floor;  so  it  made  quite  an  indoor  landmark  for  a  Palace 
filled  with  bewildering  ranks  of  booths.  The  new  development  it  signalized 
was  the  use  of  Jena  glass  for  the  object  lens— a  recently  discovered  optical 
glass,  of  superor  qualities  for  its  purpose.  The  optical  parts  of  the 
I'ensls  instrument  were  made  by  the  John  A.  Brashear  Company,  Ltd., 

of  Pittsburg,  Penn.,  whose  head  and  founder  was  probably  the 
country's  greatest  genius  in  the  production  of  instruments  of  precision. 

The  exhibiting  company,  the  Warner  &  Swasey  firm,  had  an  exhibit  of 
some  other  optical  and  astronomical  instruments  in  a  large  booth,  where  it 
showed  several  telescopes,  a  chronograph,  a  model  of  a  72-inch  reflecting 
telescope  for  the  Dominion  Astronomical  Observatory  at  Victoria,  and  a 
drawing  of  a  60-inch  reflecting  telescope  for  the  Astronomico  Observatorio  de 
la  Nacion  Argentina,  Cordoba,  Argentina.  In  conjunction,  there  were  some 
other  exhibits  by  the  Brashear  Company. 

And  it  was  in  this  Palace  that  you  saw  how  the  knowledge  of  optics  that 
had  developed  since  the  telescope  was  invented,  had  been  turned  to  the 
production  of  the  evil  eye  of  the  world,  that  sinister  thing  which  has  made 
the  submarine  the  world's  worst  instrument  of  destruction.  Without  the 
periscope  no  submarine  could  operate  with  enough  effect  to  pay 
V",^J"'^      for  building  her.     Without  the  periscope  the  "Lusitania"  would 

Eml  Eye  °  ,  i  i  i  i  l  i         i 

not  have  been  sunk,  the  war  would  have  been  pretty  much  local- 
ized, and  probably  it  would  have  ended  much  sooner  than  it  did;  although 
it  might  not  have  ended  to  the  satisfaction  of  the  nation  placing  most  re- 
liance on  it.  An  instrument  of  such  potency  over  the  affairs  of  man  is  worth 


A  specimen  shown  here  was  part  of  the  exhibit  of  Keuffel  &  Esser  of 
Hoboken,  manufacturers  of  surveying  instruments,  telescopic  sights,  peri- 
scopes, drawing  instruments  and  slide  rules. 

The  periscope  originally  had  a  very  limited  view,  and  the  tube  was  short. 
In  the  decade  preceding  the  Exposition  however,  it  had  been  developed, 
through  the  introduction  of  more  lenses  and  prisms,  to  make  it  a  double 
telescope,  one  of  which  received  the  image  reflected  downwards  from  the 
upper  prism,  but  reduced  it,  while  the  other  took  this  reduced  image  and 
magnified  it  again  to  proper  size.  An  ordinary  periscope  as  used  in  1915 
was  between  16  and  22  feet  long,  or  tall.  The  one  on  exhibition  was  17 
feet.  Looking  into  its  eye  piece  and  rotating  it,  you  had  a  good  view  of  the 
palace,  above  the  walls  of  the  booth.  This  firm  also  showed  a  photographic 
theodolite  for  topographical  surveying,  the  first  one  ever  made  in  this 
country,  to  be  combined  with  a  transit  and  camera. 

Bausch  &  Lomb  of  Rochester,  New  York,  also  showed  a  persicope,  and 
in  addition  a  range  finder,  that  gave  binocular  vision  between  "eyes"  several 
feet  apart.  This  firm  exhibited  parabolic  searchlight  mirrors  up  to  60-inch 
diameter,  balopticons  for  opaque  and  transparent  projection,  and  a  photo- 
micro-graphic  stand  and  equipment  for  taking  pictures  through  a  microscope. 
The  installation  was  striking,  and  the  display  of  lenses  had  a  beauty  of  its 

Whcxi  you  saw  the  crowds  gathered  about  a  huge  model  of  an  Under- 
wood typewriter  that  weighed  14  tons  or  so,  and  yet  was  operated  by  one 
young  woman,  printing  news  bulletins  on  a  web  of  print  paper  the  size  of  one 
of  those  rolls  used  in  the  Pancoast  color  press,  you  felt  how  curious  it  was 
that  so  many  people  were  interested  in  superlatives  of  size  and 
wanted  to  stare  at  the  "  Biggest"  typewriter  in  the  world.  Yet  it  j.  i^i"^ 
was  possible  that  their  interest  was  not  in  the  size  of  the  machine 
but  the  vigor  of  enterprise  that  built  it  for  exhibition  purposes.  Whatever 
the  cause,  it  received  a  great  deal  of  attention.  It  could  not  have  broken 
any  speed  records;  the  keys  were  too  heavy.  They  rose  and  fell  like  giant 
iron  legs,  and  about  as  stiffly,  under  motor  impulses  from  an  electrically 
connected  key-board.  But  their  action  was  a  fascinating  sight,  and  the 
thing  itself  was  a  great  advertisement.  Behind  the  model  some  beautiful 
dissolving  views  showed  clerical  work  from  the  days  of  the  old  Cruikshank 
clerk  with  a  quill  pen  and  tail-coat,  laboring  at  his  books  in  a  dimly  lighted 
office  full  of  dingy  ledgers,  to  the  spruce,  young,  intensely  feminine  thing 
operating  a  modern  writing  machine  at  a  handsome  desk  with  a  vase  of  roses 
on  it,  transcribing  her  notes  as  best  she  could  for  thinking  who  was  going  to 
take  her  to  Tait's  that  evening. 


All  about  were  the  real  writing  machines  of  this  company,  constituting  a 
Progress  Show  in  the  evolution  of  typewriting.  There  were  late  models  of 
calculating  and  bookkeeping  machines,  some  of  them  extremely  costly,  yet 
immensely  more  valuable  than  their  cost,  in  the  disposal  of  business.  One 
was  a  combined  writing  and  adding  machine,  in  itself  an  advanced  step  in 
office  efficiency. 

Even  more  interesting  in  a  historical  sense  was  the  exhibit  of  the  Reming- 
ton Typewriter  Company  in  the  Palace  of  Liberal  Arts.  It  was  a  clattery 
sort  of  place  because  there  was  an  electric  motor  attached  to  a  Remington 
machine  which  kept  writing  the  same  thing  over  and  over  again  many 
thousand  times,  perhaps  millions  of  times,  as  an  endurance  demonstration; 
wrote  the  same  message  for  300  days,  seven  hours  a  day,  and  was  oiled  only 
five  times.  But  better  yet  was  the  demonstration  of  the  endurance  of  the 
typewriter  idea,  for  here  you  saw  the  very  first  typewriter  ever  exhibited  at 
an  exposition:  a  Remington  that  had  been  at  the  Centennial  at  Philadelphia. 
It  sat  on  an  ancient  sewing  machine  table  with  legs  of  curly  cast  iron,  from 
the  age  of  American  art  when  beauty  was  supposed  to  dwell  in  curves,  and 
in  curves  alone.  The  whole  exhibit  was  reproduced  just  as  it  was  at  the 
Centennial,  with  the  operator  dressed  in  the  costume  of  the  period.  The 
human  typewriter  was,  however,  a  comparatively  new  one  of  a  very  attrac- 
tive model. 

With  this  display  were  facsimiles  of  the  first  typewriter  catalogue,  a 
wonderful  composition,  embracing  illustrations  of  sewing  machines,  rifles, 
and  plows.     There  was  a  picture  of  a  keyboard  for  the  instruction  of  those 

that  wished  to  approach  this  thing  cautiously,  and  make  sure 
Anhque        ^j^^^  could  operate  it  before  investing  their  money  in  it.     The 

arrangement  of  the  letters  and  "points"  was  very  like  the  modern 
one,  but  it  wrote  only  in  "upper  case."  There  was  the  tempting  bait  of 
early  salesmanship,  and  some  thrilling  testimonials.  The  revolutionary 
document  was  headed: 

"The  typewriter!  A  Machine  to  Supersede  the  Pen.  Manufactured 
by  E.  Remington  &  Sons,  Ilion,  N.  Y.  Sold  by  Remington  Sewing  Machine 
Company,  Price  $125.  Ministers,  lawyers,  authors,  and  all  who  desire  to 
escape  the  drudgery  of  the  pen,  are  cordially  invited  to  call  at  our  office  and 
learn  to  use  the  Type-Writer.     Use  of  machines,  paper,  and  instructions, 


Some  of  the  other  inducements  to  dally  with  this  new  temptation  read: 
"The  work  is  as  plain  as  the  plainest  print.     No  pen-writing  can  com- 

I'ilUlu  U\  eAUUl.\liLL\  IN1..ENT  COMPANY 



pete  with  Type-Writing  either  in  speedy  legibility,  or  price.  Stenographers 
can  come  to  our  office  and  dictate  to  operators,  from  their  shorthand  notes, 
and  thus  save  the  labor  of  transcription.  Dramatic  writers  will  see  the 
benefit  of  our  manifold  copying  in  the  fact  that  we  can  furnish  at  the  one 
writing  a  complete  cast  for  every  actor. 

"The  typewriter  in  size  and  appearance,  somewhat  resembles  the 
family  sewing  machine."  "It  is  graceful  and  ornamental,  a  beautiful  piece 
of  furniture  for  an  office,  study  or  parlor."  "Persons  traveling  by  sea  can 
write  with  it  when  pen  writing  would  be  impossible.  The  same  is  true  of 
persons  traveling  by  rail."  "No  lawyer  can  afford  to  be  without  one  of 
these  machines  as  all  legal  papers  can  be  copied  by  the  office  boy."  Finally, 
Mark  Twain  wrote  the  Company,  asking  that  his  use  of  the  typewriter  be 
kept  secret  because  it  excited  too  much  curiosity;  Oliver  Optic,  friend  of  our 
boyhood,  had  had  one  for  ten  days  and  testified  that  he  could  already  write 
two-thirds  as  fast  as  he  could  with  a  pen  and  hoped  to  write  much  faster 
some  day;  and  S.  N.  D.  North,  then  editor  of  the  Utica  Morning  Herald, 
declared  that  the  Type- Writer  relieved  newspaper  work  of  the  severe  physi- 
cal strain  that  was  "gradually  killing  off  our  best  editors."  That  last 
might  be  a  recommendation  and  might  not;  it  depends. 

In  short,  that  old  Remington-Sholes  was  some  machine,  and  its  effect 
during  the  intervening  years  has  been  to  introduce  into  office  work  some 
very  attractive  features.  The  name  of  the  machine  has  changed — dropped 
its  hyphen  and  become  a  regular  citizen  of  the  Republic  of  American  Letters. 

By  this  time  the  typewriter  is  becoming  a  household  implement,  like 
the  phonograph  and  the  mechanical  piano  player,  so  that  chirography  is 
threatened,  and  soon  a  person  that  writes  a  fine  hand  will  seem  to  possess  a 
curious  antique  distinction.  To  this  domestication  of  the  typewriter,  the 
portable  forms  of  it  have  contributed  heavily.  The  Remington  Company 
showed  a  small  portable  machine,  and  so  did  the  Corona  Typewriter  Com- 

Vestiges  of  the  typewriter's  early  development  appeared  in  the  exhibit  of 
the  Western  Union  Telegraph  Company,  where  you  could  see  the  second 
machine  ever  produced  for  sending  telegraphic  messages  by  means  of  per- 
forated paper.  It  was  a  key-board  machine,  said  to  have  been 
elaborated  by  Thomas  A.  Edison  and  Charles  L.  Sholes.  This  ^  '^Ancestor 
use  of  perforated  paper  was  probably  the  precursor  of  the  check 
protector,  the  automatic  piano  player,  and  any  device  in  which  paper  would 
receive  a  record  and  actuate  a  machine — even  the  Monotype  machine  from 
which  this  type  is  cast.  For  some  curious  reason,  automatic  telegraphy  has 
not  been  much  in  use.     But  one  day  Edison  went  back  to  his  old  idea  of  the 


paper  record  as  an  actuating  device,  and  from  his  practical  brain  the  talking 
machine  as  we  now  know  and  enjoy  it  leaped  into  being — after  innumerable 
unsuccessful  efforts  on  the  part  of  other  inventors  to  reproduce  human 
speech  by  imitating  the  vocal  organs.  And  Sholes,  it  was  said,  developed 
the  typewriter  from  the  keyboard  end  of  this  old  automatic  telegraphing 

Other  office  appliances  than  the  typewriter  were  a  notable  feature  of  the 
Liberal  Arts  exhibits;  so  many  and  various  in  plan  and  use,  and  apparently 
so  essential  to  business  that  you  wondered  how  in  the  world  old  Jacob  Fugger 
and  the  Medici  family  ever  made  any  money  at  all. 

There  was  the  Egry  Register,  which  would  make  three  full  identical 
copies  of  a  transaction,  two  of  which  were  discharged  from  the  machine, 
while  the  third  remained  under  lock  and  key  until  removed  by  the  person 
in  charge.  The  same  company  exhibited  a  roll-out  manifolder  to  make  either 
duplicate  or  triplicate  copies  at  one  writing.  There  was  the  Dupligraph 
which  issued  two  copies  from  the  register;  and  the  Memophone  for  recording 
telephone  messages,  or  orders  at  the  desk;  and  the  Total  Summary  Register, 
which  retained  under  lock  and  key  a  tabulated  record  of  transactions. 

The  H.  S.  Crocker  Company  showed  the  Addressograph,  the  Dick  Dupli- 
cator that  reproduced  drawings,  diagrams,  designs  and  the  like  without 
plates;  an  envelope  sealer  made  by  the  Acorn  Brass  Manufacturing  Com- 
pany that  had  an  electric  feed  and  moistened  and  sealed 
ffice Helps  g^ygj^p^g  yg^y  rapidly;  and,  to  serve  a  vast  expansion  of  corre- 
spondence in  recent  times,  perhaps  induced  by  the  development  of  the 
typewriter,  there  was  a  mechanical  letter  cutter  for  opening  envelopes  in 
wholesale  quantities. 

There  was  a  clever  check-protector  shown  by  the  Peerless  Check  Pro- 
tecting Company,  in  which  the  letters  were  written  in  vertical  shredding, 
heavily  inked.  It  could  be  operated  with  great  facility  and  speed.  The 
G.  W.  Todd  Company  showed  its  well-known  line  of  protectors.  The  Auto- 
matic Bookkeeping  Register  Company  showed  a  machine  that  would  record 
and  total  the  details  of  all  credit,  cash,  and  many  supplementary  trans- 
actions, and  could  be  turned  into  a  perfect  listing  machine. 

Then  there  was  the  young  but  vigorously  growing  family  of  computing 
machines,  apparati  that  would  perform  computations  without  error — pro- 
vided the  manipulator  performed  the  manipulations  without  error.  All 
they  lacked  was  something  to  insure  that.  The  Felt  &  Tarrant  Company 
featured  the  "Comptometer"  among  its  many  adding  and  calculating 
machines.  Exhibition  models  showed  the  evolution  of  such  instruments 
from  their  first  rudimentary  appearance  with  a  keyboard  in  1884. 


The  Burroughs  Adding  Machine  Company  showed  its  long  line  of  adding, 
subtracting  and  calculating  devices,  and  so  did  the  Dalton  Company.  The 
Marchant  Calculating  Machine  Company,  Inc.,  had  a  quite  magical  sort  of 
instrument  on  which  you  could  do  all  sorts  of  arithmetic  up  to  and  including 
square  root,  and  you  could  operate  it  either  by  hand  or  electric  motor. 

The  Angldile  Computing  Scale  Company  exhibited  scales  of  very  hand- 
some appearance,  that  enabled  the  tradesman  to  compute  his  profits  without 
other  bookkeeping.  The  "Toledo"  scales  exhibit  was  replete  with  modern 

The  National  Cash  Register  Company  occupied  a  conspicuous  loca- 
tion in  the  center  of  the  Palace,  where  it  exhibited  its  famous  devices 
for  the  "control"  of  sales  and  the  care  of  cash,  with  its  recently  invented 
automatic  registering  attachments,  showing  the  manufacture  of  a  cash  regis- 
ter through  the  assembling  of  all  its  parts.  What  was  of  far  greater  social 
significance  was  that  it  was  able  to  display,  and  considered  it 
worth  while  displaying,  some  very  extensive  and  scientific  welfare  ^w"'! 
work  undertaken  for  the  benefit  of  its  employees.  It  had  an 
attractive  auditorium  built  in  its  booth,  where  you  saw  moving  pictures 
of  these  things,  and  heard  them  explained  by  entertaining  lectures. 

The  United  Autograph  Register  Company  showed  a  register  on  which 
sales  checks  were  entered  autographically,  with  duplicate  copies,  thus 
protecting  the  merchant  against  loss  in  the  sales  room. 

For  swift  change-making  in  public  entertainment  places,  railway  stations 
and  the  like,  the  Coin  Machine  Manufacturing  Company  exhibited  mechani- 
cal change  makers  that  would  enable  you,  on  pressure  of  the  right  keys,  to 
produce  in  a  flash  the  proper  change  for  any  coin  or  bill  offered.  This  was, 
we  believe,  the  invention  of  Potter  who  developed  the  turn-stiles  used  by  the 
Exposition.  It  supplied  about  everything  necessary  to  a  correct  result 
except  the  brains  to  press  the  right  keys. 

Among  the  instruments  of  precision  were  those  of  W.  &  L.  E.  Gurley, 
who  put  in  a  complete  line  of  surveyors'  and  civil  engineers'  instruments, 
standard  weights  and  measures,  and  finely  graded  thermometers. 

The  A.  Lietz  Company  showed  a  long  line  of  nautical  and  surveying 

There  was  a  notable  collection  of  medical  and  surgical  appliances,  too 
many  for  full  recital  here;  but  we  may  mention  the  exhibit  of  the  De  Zeng- 
Standard  Company  of  Camden,  N.  J.,  which  showed  the  latest  examples  of 
diagnostic  equipment,  and  electrically  lighted  eye,  ear,  nose,  and  throat 
diagnostic  helps.  The  Bristol  Company  showed  blood  pressure  gauges  and 
similar  refined  appliances  for  the  detection  of  disease. 


Not  spectacular,  but  of  great  scientific  significance,  was  the  radium- 
mesothorium  exhibit  of  Dr.  Richard  Sthamer  of  Hamburg,  exhibited  by 
Hugo  Lieber.  The  radio-activity  of  certain  mineral  substances  had 
attracted  the  attention  of  the  scientific  world  during  the  preceding  few  years, 
and  by  191 5  there  had  been  much  research  in  this  field.  Application  of  the 
knowledge  of  the  phenomenon  to  the  cure  of  disease  was  the  next  step  of 
development,  and  something  of  what  was  being  done  in  this 
A  Radium  ^gp^rtment  of  applied  science  was  what  the  booth  in  part  repre- 
^''"  '  sented.  The  exhibit  covered  all  stages  of  the  production  of 
radium-mesothorium  and  other  radio-active  substances.  It  contained  some 
of  the  original  specimens  produced  by  Mme.  Curie,  whose  researches, 
together  with  those  of  her  husband,  had  first  disclosed  this  unsuspected 
manifestation  of  nature,  and  by  Profs.  Marckwald,  Kasch,  Schmidt,  and 
others.  Some  of  the  specimens  represented  the  various  experimentations 
and  tests  of  the  investigators;  and  there  were  reproductions  of  the  experi- 
ments made  with  the  Lieber  slides,  coatings,  and  tubes. 

There  were  radio-tellurium  materials.  There  were  wax  models  showing 
the  physiological  and  metabolistic  effects  of  the  application  of  radio-active 
substances  on  diseased  tissues;  and  a  very  complete  collection  of  the  appli- 
ances through  which  radium  had  been  used  for  microscopical,  biological, 
pharmacological  and  medicinal  purposes  and  experimentation.  The  booth 
contained  a  library  on  the  subject.  Much  was  said  at  the  time  on  the  vast 
values  represented  by  the  substances  collected  here,  but  there  was  probably 
no  way  of  appraising  them  definitely,  and  cost  in  money  would  be  a  poor 
measure  of  their  importance.  Physicians  and  physicists  were  intensely 
interested  in  this  exhibit,  which  was  complete,  unique,  and  would  have  been 
impossible  to  duplicate  at  that  time. 

The  Radium  Therapy  Corporation  of  New  York  exhibited  porous  terra 
cotta  rods  and  tablets  for  charging  radium  emanations  to  produce  radio- 
active waters  of  uniform  strength  for  the  treatment  of  rheumatism  and  gout. 

The  Solvay  Process  Company  of  Syracuse  had  an  important  exhibit  of 
alkali  products.     This  was  one  of  the  largest  companies  in  its  field. 

The  West  Disinfecting  Company  of  New  York  showed  disinfectants  and 
insecticides,  and  a  full  line  of  apparatus  for  their  use. 

There  was  an  interesting  and  commercially  important  showing  of  toilet 
speciaHties  by  various  manufacturing  drug  houses.  An  exhibit  of  especial 
local  and  intrinsic  interest  was  the  perfumery  exhibit  of  Paul  Rieger&  Com- 
pany, of  San  Francisco,  perfumers,  who  showed  a  complete  and  beautifully 
labeled  line  of  California  scents. 




THE  Palace  of  Liberal  Arts  held  treasure  to  fascinate  the  bibliophile. 
Paul  Elder  &  Company  exhibited  some  beautiful  bindings,  standard 
works,  and  a  long  list  of  books  on  California.  Rare  volumes,  leaflets, 
cards,  and  brochures  from  Elder  &  Company's  shop  down  town,  one  of  the 
most  artistic  in  the  country,  charmed  the  visitor  that  delighted  in  the 
element  of  beauty  in  book  production.  The  booth  suggested  a  Gothic 
cloister,  and  produced  the  perfect  bookish  atmosphere. 

John  Howell,  importer  and  merchant  of  old  and  rare  books,  made  the 
largest  exhibition  of  them  ever  shown  at  any  exposition,  and  did  it  in  an  old 
book  shop  that  looked  as  though  it  had  been  transplanted  bodily  from  the 
London  of  Ben  Jonson's  day.  A  large  part  of  this  exhibit  was 
borrowed  from  some  of  the  important  private  libraries  of  the  ""volumes 
State,  and  in  this  way  was  gathered  such  a  collection  as  no  one 
library  in  the  country  possessed,  for  there  was  none  that  had  all  the  items 
exhibited.  To  mention  but  a  few  of  the  treasures,  there  was  a  first  folio 
Shakespeare,  from  the  collection  of  Mrs.  William  H.  Crocker;  a  first  edition 
"Don  Quixote"  and  a  first  edition  "Vicar  of  Wakefield"  from  the  same 
collection;  there  was  an  illuminated  "Book  of  Hours"  of  the  fifteenth 
century,  from  the  collection  of  Mrs.  Francis  Carolan;  a  first  folio  edition  of 
Beaumont  and  Fletcher,  of  1647,  and  a  first  edition  of  Burton's  "Anatomy 
of  Melancholy,"  of  162 1,  from  the  library  of  Charles  W.  Clark;  Mr.  Temple- 
ton  Crocker's  first  collated  edition  of  Shakespeare's  poems,  from  1640;  some 
interesting  books  from  the  library  of  Napoleon,  and  some  documents  signed 
by  him,  from  the  collection  of  Mrs.  W.  L.  Duff;  a  first  edition  of  the  "San 
Francisco  Directory,"  1850,  and  a  Reed's  City  Dispatch  postage  stamp, 
very  rare,  loaned  by  Miss  Alice  Hager. 

You  could  not  have  found  in  the  British  Museum  a  Ptolemy's  Geography 
with  the  first  map  of  America  in  it,  but  you  could  see  it  in  the  Howell  exhibit; 
loaned  by  Dr.  J.  W.  Robertson.  With  it  was  a  first  edition  Nuremburg 
"Chronicle"  of  1493,  and  a  Caxton's  "Doctrine  of  Sapyence,"  of  1489,  one 
of  the  first  books  printed  in  England.     Even  older  were  some  Buddhist 



sermons  loaned  by  Mrs.  Anson  S.  Blake.  "Jean  Grolier — His  Life  and  His 
Library,"  came  from  the  collection  of  Morgan  Gunst.  Judge  Harry  A. 
Melvin  contributed  an  original  manuscript  of  Abraham  Lincoln's  lecture 
on  "Discoveries  and  Inventions."  There  were  many  beautiful  illuminated 
mauscripts  that  ante-dated  the  art  of  printing  in  Europe.  The  books  fit 
the  shop;  the  shop  was  just  the  sort  in  which  such  books  had  been  sold  when 
they  were  part  of  the  ordinary  "  book  trade  "  of  London. 

Next  door  was  the  open  booth  of  the  San  Francisco  "Chronicle,"  where 
there  was  an  interesting  demonstration  of  the  modern  processes  of  printing 
a  newspaper,  including  original  drawings  from  the  art  department,  and 
exemplifications  of  the  manner  in  which  they  are  made  ready  for  reproduc- 
tion. Here  were  half  tone  plates,  matrices,  cast  cylinder  plates,  and  plates 
for  color  printing.  You  could  see  a  copy  of  the  "Dramatic  Chronicle,"  of 
1867,  from  which  the  San  Francisco  Chronicle  of  to-day  sprang. 
^,'^'^^  ,■       It  carried  an  advertisement  of  the  Metropolitan  Theater  announc- 

Journahsm     ..,,-,  t  1  ..  •    j     u  "       1  J 

mg  the  Japanese  Jongleurs,  accompanied  by  musical  and 
dancing  girls — indicating  the  ancient  attraction  of  the  girl-show  for  the 
tired  business  man.  Maguire's  Opera  House  and  the  Martinelli  Family 
were  advertised. 

A  facsimile  of  a  copy  of  the  "  Dramatic  Chronicle,"  as  published  in  1 867 
was  distributed,  from  the  advertisements  in  which  one  could  learn  the 
amusement  resources  of  the  San  Francisco  of  the  past — could  learn  that  at 
Hayes  Valley,  for  example,  "the  fashionable  and  popular  place  of  resort,"  a 
grand  ball  would  be  given  every  Sunday,  and  here  you  could  see  the  Lima 
Sheep,  the  Alpaca,  the  Vicuna  and  the  American  Eagle.  Dan  Setchell  was 
playing  "The  Babes  in  the  Woods"  at  Maguire's,  while  Bianchi's  Great 
Italian  Opera  Troupe  was  holding  forth  at  the  Metropolitan  in  Montomery 
Street,  in  a  superb  performance  of  "1-ucia  Di  Lammermoor."  At  the  same 
time  the  Academy  of  Music  in  Pine  Street  announced  Maguire's  Italian 
Opera  Troupe  in  "Rigoletto."  A  "powerful  chorus"  would  appear.  San 
Francisco  always  was  fond  of  opera.  Will  &  Finck  were  dealing  in  cutlery 
at  613  Jackson  Street,  and  Bradley  &  Rulofson  had  a  photograph  gallery  at 
the  corner  of  Sacramento  and  Montgomery. 

One  of  the  great  exhibits  in  the  Department  of  Liberal  Arts  was  in  the 

Palace  of  Machinery.     It  would  have  been  in  the  Palace  of  Liberal  Arts 

if  it  had  not  been  of  a  noise-producing  breed  of  machine,  and  if  it  had  not 

required  power.     This  was  the  largest  color  press  in  the  world; 

A  Modern        j^  ^^  ^^  ^^^  greatest  printing  press  of  modern  times;  invented, 

Color  Press  5^.  .      ,  ,  c  l      /-> 

as  to  many  of  its  vital  processes  and  performances,  by  George 
E.  Pancoast,  for  several  years  mechanical  superintendent  of  the  Hearst 


publications.     It  was  built  by  R.  Hoe  &  Co.,  of  New  York  City,  shipped, 
through  the  Panama  Canal,  the  first  of  all   presses   to  travel  that  way, 
and  exhibited  in  the  Department  of  Liberal  Arts  by  the  San  Francisco 
'Examiner"  and  its  builders. 

It  was  an  enormous  thing,  where  it  throbbed  and  rumbled  in  the  north- 
east corner  of  the  Machinery  Palace;  nine  feet  wide  and  48  feet  long,  with 
two  man-high  stories,  demarked  by  a  staging  like  that  in  a  boiler  room,  and 
these  stories  in  turn  divided  by  rectangular  sections  of  the  frame,  so  that  it 
looked  like  a  cut-open  model  of  a  boarding  house  inhabited  by  wheels  and 
equipped  with  rollers  for  endless  roller-towels.  Through  the  wheels  and 
over  the  spindles  ran  mile  after  mile  of  paper  which  emerged  covered  with 
printing  in  black  and  in  colors — colored  Sunday  supplements,  which  were 
perhaps  the  distinguishing  physical  feature  of  American  journalism  in  the 
year  of  which  we  are  writing,  and  had  been  for  a  few  years  preceding. 

In  fact,  this  was  the  largest  color  press  in  the  world  in  191 5,  and  so,  in  the 
interest  of  the  history  of  printing,  some  more  particular  record  of  it  may  well 
be  entered  here. 

The  designing  of  it  began  September  5,  19I4,  and  the  press  was  com- 
pleted on  January  5,  191 5.  It  arrived  at  the  Exposition  one  month  later 
and  was  all  ready  for  work  in  a  week.     As  erected,  there  were  130  tons  of  it. 

If  run  at  full  capacity  and  top  speed  on  work  in  one  color,  this  press 
could  print  1,728,000  newspaper  pages  an  hour,  folded.  It  did  not  run  so  at 
the  Exposition,  for  instead  of  being  equipped  with  96  plates  it  had  but  74, 
and  these  in  different  colors:  12  yellow,  12  red,  8  blue,  two  orange  and  40 
black.  It  used  four  rolls  of  paper  at  a  time,  one  of  them  66  inches  wide, 
which  was  practically  a  double  roll,  and  which  was  split  by  the 
"slitter,"  so  that  half  made  the  comic  section  and  half  the  outer  of  Papers 
pages  of  the  magazine  section.  And  its  normal  consumption  of 
paper,  for  the  colored  sections  of  a  Sunday  issue,  came  to  no  rolls,  28  of 
which  were  66  inches  wide,  and  each  of  which  was  over  2^2  miles  long. 
Figure  out  the  rest  of  it  yourself,  but  this  much  is  already  figured:  An 
edition  of  the  Sunday  "Examiner,"  of  80  pages,  250,000  copies,  required 
more  than  3,400  miles  of  paper  a  page  wide,  or  enough  to  reach  across  the 
continent  and  float  quite  a  way  out  to  sea.  From  the  point  where  it  entered 
the  press  to  the  point  of  emergence  was  a  distance,  on  the  "web,"  of 
104  feet,  and  it  issued,  printed,  at  the  rate  of  340  feet  a  minute  as  run 
during  the  Exposition,  and  could  have  beaten  that  badly,  under  other 

The  Universal  Pancoast  Unit  Press  could  handle  eight  colors  in  one  run. 
Two  days  a  week  were  devoted  to  press  "make-ready,"  an  interesting  and 


expert  process  involving  great  care.  The  other  five  days,  the  public  could 
watch  the  long  stream  of  white  paper  flow  in,  circulate  through  the  mechan- 
ism, and  come  out  ready  for  breakfast.  This  press  was  one  of  the  most 
fascinating  exhibits  in  the  whole  Machinery  Palace,  and  was  almost  always 
surrounded  by  a  solid  bank  of  spectators.  Many  of  the  developments  it 
embodied  were  suggested  or  invented  by  San  Franciscans  connected  with 
the  press  room  of  the  "Examiner." 

Another  Liberal  Arts  Exhibit  was  that  of  the  American  Automatic  Press 
Company,  which  showed  the  latest  improved  Hoag  Automatic  Printing 
Press.  This  was  an  innovation,  which  would  feed,  print,  deliver  and  auto- 
matically fold  in  one  operation.  It  was  a  machine  capable  of  much  economy 
of  labor.  The  Lisenby  Manufacturing  Company  exhibited  the 
aWnce"'""  Multicolor  Press,  which  printed  three  difi'erent  colors  as  the  public 
commonly  supposes  they  are  printed:  at  one  time,  or  in  one  run. 
Heretofore  the  public  has  been  wrong  about  it,  for  ordinary  color  work 
requires  a  different  impression  for  each  color,  and  two  or  more  to  make  one 
blended  tint. 

The  Mergenthaler  Linotype  Company  showed  the  development  of 
Mergenthaler's  revolutionary  invention.  The  George  Russell  Reed  Company 
formed  a  collective  exhibit  of  all  kinds  of  printing  machinery — binders,  type- 
setters, rollers,  and  printers'  requisites. 

This  printing  machinery  and  material  was  in  the  Palace  of  Machinery, 
although  classified  and  entered  in  the  Liberal  Arts  Department. 

To  return  to  the  Palace  of  Liberal  Arts:  all  the  processes  of  making  and 
binding  a  book,  from  the  time  it  leaves  the  anxious  author's  hands  until  it  is 
ready  for  sale,  were  illustrated  by  the  Methodist  Book  Concern,  which  also 
exhibited  periodicals,  charts,  Sunday  school  publications,  new  editions,  and 
fine  bindings. 

The  Encyclopedia  Britannica  exhibited  new  and  old  examples  of  this 
gigantic  work,  then  in  its  eleventh  edition.  There  were  samples  of  every 
edition  thus  far  issued.  Bindings,  stampings,  and  paper  products  were 
illustrated,  and  both  the  Encylopedia  and  the  Century  Dictionary  were 
shown  on  India  paper. 

The  G.  &  C.  Merriam  exhibit  showed  editions  of  "Webster's  Diction- 
ary," from  1806  to  1915,  with  pictorial  representation  of  its  making,  from 
the  stock  room  to  the  dealer's  shelf.  It  led  you  to  the  conclusion  that  even 
dictionaries  must  grow  or  die,  for  this  fine  work  had  been  kept  abreast  of 
progress  by  many  rigorous  revisions. 

A  noted  scholar  once  remarked  that  the  great  improvement  the  Ameri- 
cans had  made  in  dictionaries  was  their  illustration;  the  pictures  were  the 






largest  imaginable  aid  to  definition,  and  exhibited  the  subject  itself.     Funk 
&  Wagnalls  made  an  exceptionally  complete  exhibit  of  the  pro- 
cesses of  reproducing  the  pictures  in  their  "  Standard  Dictionary."        pic/argi 
This  firm  exemplified  also  the  making  of  the  "Standard"  from 
the    manuscript,    through    the    editorial    rooms    to    the    finished    book. 

Collier  &  Son  exhibited  the  Harvard  Classics,  Dr.  Eliot's  five  foot  shelf 
of  books  containing  the  essentials  of  modern  education,  and  a  collection  of 
cover  designs  from  Collier's  Weekly. 

Lithography  was  well  illustrated  in  the  exhibit  of  the  Schmidt  Litho- 
graph Company.  The  number  of  its  uses  in  bill-heads,  letter-heads,  circu- 
lars, cartons,  folders,  booklets,  calendars,  and  all  kinds  of  decorative  and 
illustrative  work  on  paper  was  bewildering. 

The  "Oakland  Tribune"  Publishing  Company  had  a  fine  exhibit  of 
newspapers  and  binding  work.  The  "Sunset  Magazine"  showed,  through 
prints  and  illustrations,  much  of  the  modern  life  of  the  Pacific  Slope. 

The  Grolier  Society  exhibited  the  "Book  of  Knowledge,"  the  children's 
encyclopedia,  a  noble  effort  to  answer  the  inquiries  of  the  childish  mind. 

Photography  in  its  modern  phases,  which  have  put  it  within  the  power  of 
nearly  every  one  to  practice  the  art  wherever  and  whenever  he  will,  and  can 
get  his  friends  to  stand  still  long  enough,  was  strikingly  demonstrated  as  one 
of  the  pervasive  developments  of  modern  life.  Every  variety  of  Kodak  ever 
conceived  in  the  dreams  of  the  wildest  Kodaker  was  on  exhibition,  and  in  a 
booth  so  beautiful  that  it  looked  like  some  Renaissance  temple 
done  in  travertine;  one  of  the  handsomest  things  in  any  of  the  °°^forAll 
exhibit  palaces.  Latest  developments  in  color  photography  were 
exemplified  here.  The  line  of  Kodachrome  pictures,  in  color  plates  illumin- 
ated from  behind,  was  very  beautiful. 

The  Ansco  Company  showed  some  of  the  most  attractive  possibilities  of 
the  camera,  in  a  wall  exhibit  of  American  beauties.  It  exhibited  tripods, 
fine  lenses,  shutters,  and  all  sorts  of  photographic  supplies. 

In  a  rustic  sort  of  booth,  Kathryn  Hopkins  exhibited  some  most  artistic 
and  effective  character  portraiture. 

E.  N.  Sewell,  showed  a  large  collection  of  landscape  photographs,  most  of 
which  were  of  the  beautiful  scenes  to  be  found  in  and  about  San  Francisco. 
W.  E.  Worden's  collection  of  landscape  photographs  in  the  same  neighbor- 
hood was  in  every  way  worthy  of  note.  The  Sprague-Hathaway  Studios  of 
Boston  had  a  very  beautiful  exhibit  of  portraiture  and  of  sepia  enlargements, 
which  are  a  highly  developed  speciality  of  this  firm.  Norman  T.  A.  Munder 
&  Company  exhibited  paintings,  statuary,  frescoes,  etchings,  and  photo- 
graphs of  nature  and  of  architecture.     There  were  many  attractive  subjects 


of  decorative  and  educational  value  by  old  and  modern  masters,  and  various 
examples  of  typogravure. 

A  whole  collection  of  pictorial  photography  by  amateurs  and  profes- 
sionals was  assembled  by  the  Department  of  Liberal  Arts,  and  it  made  a 
beautiful  gallery  of  pictures.  Among  those  that  exhibited  were  Henrietta 
E.  Kibbe,  of  Portland,  Laura  Adams  Armer  of  Berkeley,  Maud  Jay 
Wilson  of  Palo  Alto,  Bessie  L.  Meiser  of  Richmond,  Indiana, 
^^^■2  Edward  H.  Weston  of  Tropico,  California,  Bianca  Conti  of  San 
Francisco,  Miss  Imogen  Cunningham  of  Seattle,  Francis  Brugiere 
of  San  Francisco,  Anne  Brigman  of  San  Francisco,  W.  E.  Dassonville  of  San 
Francisco,  George  H.  Seeley  of  Stockbridge,  Massachusetts,  Dwight  A. 
Davis  of  Worcester,  Massachusetts,  Jeanne  E.  Bennett  of  Baltimore, 
Charles  H.  Barnard,  Clarence  H.  White,  Dr.  Amasa  Day  Chaffee,  Karl 
Struss,  Dr.  D.  J.  Ruzika,  William  G.  Shields,  and  Arthur  D.  Chapman  of 
New  York,  Angelo  Romano  of  Philadelphia,  H.  A.  Latimer  of  Boston. 

Even  moving  pictures  had  been  brought  within  the  field  of  the  amateur, 
and  the  Simplex  Photo  Products  Company  showed  a  small  moving-picture 
camera  with  materials,  projectors,  printing,  and  developing  outfits,  enlarg- 
ing lamps  and  apparatus  for  taking  at  night.  At  $35,  the  camera 
^at'tlme  ^^^  within  reach  of  almost  anyone  that  could  go  in  for  photo- 
graphy at  all.  The  Precision  Machine  Company  showed  the 
latest  inventions  in  moving  picture  projecting  apparatus. 

A  great  many  talking  machine  companies  exhibited  in  this  Palace. 
Close  to  the  big  telescope  in  the  center  of  the  building  the  Victor  Talkmg 
Machine  Company  had  a  beautiful  auditorium,  in  which  people  could  sit 
and  hear  the  most  exquisite  music  from  handsome  Victrolas  on  the  stage. 
This  company  also  engaged  Mile.  Le  Gai  with  her  troupe  to  give  classic 
dances  in  the  Court  of  Palms  at  stated  times  to  the  accompaniment  of  the 

The  Sonora  Phonograph  company  showed  talking  machines  in  all  styles 
of  cabinet,  and  with  five  different  types  of  motor.  A  special  feature  was  its 
multi-playing  jewel  needle,  good  for  three  months  without  removing,  it  was 

An  exhibition  of  much  interest  to  musicians  was  that  of  the  Cheney 
Talking  Machine  Company,  which  showed  an  attachment  for  reproducing 
the  perfect  singing  scale.  Another  was  the  exhibit  of  the  Columbia  Grapho- 
phone  Company,  which  in  addition  to  showing  its  fine  musicial  reproducers, 
demonstrated  its  methods  for  teaching  languages.  The  Edison  Talkmg 
Machine  was  exhibited  by  the  Filers  Music  House,  and  showed  the  use  of  the 
diamond-tipped  needle.     The  corrugations  that  reproduced  the  music  were 


in  the  bottom  instead  of  on  the  sides  of  the  grooves,  and  the  needle  was 
mechanically  fed  toward  the  center  as  the  record  revolved  instead  of  being 
drawn  toward  it  by  the  side  of  the  groove  itself.  In  the  Eilers  auditorium, 
the  organ  accompanied  solo  records  and  gave  delightful  entertainment  to 
hundreds  of  people  daily.  How  record  rolls  for  automatic  pianos 
can  be  made  was  demonstrated  at  the  Eilers  exhibit  booth  by  the  p^ano'^RMs 
Master-roll  Perforating  Machine.  People  were  always  crowded 
about  to  see  how  the  trick  was  done.  Here,  too,  you  could  see  a  harpsi- 
chord supposed  to  have  been  played  by  Liszt. 

The  exhibiting  firm  represented  the  American  Piano  Company,  Auto- 
piano  Company,  Chickering  &  Sons,  the  W.  W.  Kimball  Company,  the 
Peerless  Piano  Player  Company,  the  Marshall  &  Wendell  Piano  Company, 
and  the  Auto-pneumatic  Action  Company. 

People  were  about  ready  for  a  new  sensation  in  popular  music  at  the  time 
of  the  Exposition,  and  the  sweet  voices  of  the  Hawaiians  raised  in  those 
haunting  minor  melodies  you  heard  at  the  Hawaiian  Building  and  the  Palace 
of  Horticulture  were  enough  to  start  another  musical  vogue. 
To  this  the  exhibit  of  Jonah  Kumalae  of  Honolulu  ministered,  forhe  pianos 
showed  Hawaiian  ukuleles  and  taro-patch  fiddles.  In  addition 
he  had  card  trays,  napkins  rings,  small  calabashes  and  jewel  boxes  made 
from  Koa  wood,  the  mahogany  of  the  islands. 

Galeazzi  &  Sons  had  on  exhibition  a  full  line  of  accordions  and  of  stringed 
instruments,  and  a  magical  sort  of  device  in  the  shape  of  a  transposing 
organ,  on  which  it  was  possible,  by  the  setting  of  a  dial,  to  play  a  melody  in 
one  key  and  have  the  organ  produce  it  in  another. 

E.  H.  Cary  &  Sons  showed  a  line  of  drums  and  musical  accessories,  and  a 
very  fine  one  it  was.     This  was  a  California  concern. 

Among  the  musical  instruments  entered  in  this  Department  was  the 
great  40,000-dollar  organ  in  Festival  Hall,  which  was  transferred  after  the 
close  of  the  Exposition  to  the  Exposition  Auditorium  in  the  Civic  Center. 
This  was  an  exhibit  in  Liberal  Arts,  obtained  by  the  Liberal  Arts  Department 
and  was  one  of  the  grandest  and  finest  of  the  world's  great  organs.  It  was 
made  by  the  Austin  Organ  Company  of  Hartford,  Conn.,  and  is  described 
elsewhere  in  this  history. 

Byron  Mauzy,  San  Francisco  piano  manufacturer,  specialized  in  piano 
parts,  making  what  was  to  musicians  a  most  interesting  demonstration  of 
piano  production. 

When  the  world  was  flat  and  nobody  knew  much  geography,  it  was  easy 
to  map,  but  as  soon  as  it  was  discovered  to  be  "round,  like  an  orange,"  the 
cartographers  were  in  trouble.     When  we  contemplate  the  desperate  shifts 

TOL.  IV — 7 


to  which  they  have  resorted,  from  Mercator  down,  we  are  forced  to  conclude 
that  the  old  thing  was  not  made  to  be  mapped  on  a  flat  surface.  Mercator 
did  it— but  he  had  to  tell  some  whoppers  to  make  it  fit.  He  spread  the  meri- 
dians apart,  top  and  bottom,  and  then  because  one  falsification  leads  to 
another  he  had  to  do  the  same  thing  to  the  parallels  of  latitude,  and  so 
stretched  Greenland  out  in  both  directions  until  it  looks  five  times  the  size 
of  India,  whereas  it  is  about  of  the  same  area;  and  our  children  save  them- 
selves from  the  deception  only  by  paying  no  attention  to  what  they  are 
taught.  True,  teacher  might  explain  it  to  them,  but  in  most  cases  she 
doesn't  understand  it  herself,  so  she  keeps  still. 

A  great  many  "projections"  have  been  tried,  to  get  around  the  illusions 

of  Mercator's,  but  they  all  embody  illusions  of  their  own.     A  recent  attempt 

at  truthful  representation  of  the  world,  on  a  plane  surface,  was  that  of  B.  J. 

S.  Cahill,  F.R.G.S.,  one  of  San  Francisco's  well   known  architects,  who 

thought  if  it  was  "  round  like  an  orange"  he  would  just  split  it  open  like  one: 

and  he  did,  into  four  parts,  carrying  the  splits  pretty  well  through  the  seas, 

or  through  land  areas  that  didn't  matter,  and  in  this  way  producing  what  he 

termed  the  Butterfly  Map.     This  was  exhibited  in  the  Depart- 

Mapping      ^^^^  ^f  Liberal  Arts,  and  attracted  much  attention.     People 

"  ^'"^^         asked  what  it  had  to  be  done  that  way  for,  and  what  was  the 

matter  with  the  old  map,  and  for  the  first  time  became  skeptical  of  their 

early  learning,  which  is  a  great  educational  gain.     The  Butterfly  Map 

preserved  the  convergence  of  all  the  meridians  that  counted,  by  making  wide 

separations  between  those  that  did  not,  and  thus  it  presented  both  the 

relative  sizes  and  the  shapes  of  the  tracts  of  low-grade  real  estate  lying 

around  the  poles.     In  this  way  it  satisfied  that  mad  desire  for  precision  and 

truth  which  has  done  so  much  for  the  comfort  and  service  of  man,  and  made 

the  modern  world  such  a  dry  place  in  which  to  live. 

Mr.  Cahill's  effort  had  strong  endorsements  from  eminent  men  of  letters 
and  of  science.  Ernst  Haeckel  said:  "Your  excellent  Butterfly  Map  shows 
the  true  relations  of  the  continents  much  better  than  the  older  attempts  of 
cartographers."  Ambrose  Bierce  declared:  "  Cahill's  Projection  is  undoubt- 
edly the  right  one."  And  said  Dr.  Max  GroU  of  Berlin:  "The  development 
is  exceedingly  original— the  map  represents  the  surface  of  the  earth  with  but 
little  distortion."  The  indorsements  were  exhibited  with  their  subject,  and 
altogether  made  a  display  that  was  mentally  stimulating  to  a  great  many 

In  the  group  of  architectural  design,  a  large  plaster  model  of  the  Wool- 
worth  building  in  New  York  was  much  admired  as  an  example  of  the  beauty 
it  is  possible  to  produce  in  the  construction  of  that  most  utilitarian  thing,  the 




modern  office  building.  The  Woolworth  has  the  majesty  of  old  cathedrals, 
and,  externally  at  least,  Cass  Gilbert's  masterpiece  is  Gothic;  an  adaptation 
that  contributes  importantly  to  the  art  of  modern  building.  It  was,  in  1915, 
the  tallest  building  in  the  world,  rising  46  stories,  750  feet  above  the  curb. 

A  conspicuous  exhibit  in  the  group  of  Models,  Plans,  and  Designs  for 
Public  Works  was  the  topographical  map  and  model  entered  by  the  State  of 
New  York,  showing  the  New  York  Barge  Canal,  a  fine  showing  of  water 
transportation  facilities  from  Lake  Erie  to  the  Hudson. 

Transfusion  of  blood,  transplanting  of  tissue,  repair  of  severed  nerves, 
had  become  commonplaces  of  surgery  in  191 5,  but  as  yet  no  surgeon  could 
make  a  new  limb  grow  in  place  of  a  lost  one.  Artificial  limbs,  however,  had 
reached  a  remarkable  stage  of  development,  which  was  demonstrated  in  the 
booth  of  the  Carnes  Artificial  Limb  Company.  This  firm  ex- 
hibited  arms   and   hands  made   of  willow  fiber,  actuated   in   a    ,   ^f^^°\ 

,     ,  ,  11-1  '"^  Maimed 

remarkable   manner    by    rawhide    cords    attached    to    supports 
stretched  across  the  back,  to  furnish  tension.     Visitors  were  astonished  at 
the  way  these  devices  could  be  made  to  work. 

Perhaps  when  we  get  beyond  our  interest  in  all  the  other  Liberal  Arts 
we  shall  still  be  interested  in  the  production  of  artificial  teeth.  Those  made 
until  very  recent  times  have  advertised  themselves  all  too  loudly.  Though 
it  was  a  matter  of  interest  mainly  to  their  owners  and  operators,  they  have 
screamed  their  artificiality  to  an  inquisitive  world.  It  was  not  so  much  that 
they  clacked  in  use,  but  that  they  asserted  an  unnatural  regularity  and  a 
uniformity  of  pearly  beauty  that  few  people  in  this  country  of  tooth  brushes 
and  good  dentists  display  before  the  age  of  fifty  years.  It  had  long  been  felt 
by  the  judicious  that  this  was  all  wrong,  and  if  artificial  teeth  could  be  made 
with  more  carelessness  and  abandon,  and  then  set  a  bit  staggered  in  their  coral 
rubber  foundations,  they  would  deceive  more  people,  and  fewer  children 
would  demand  to  be  shown  them  in  public.  By  the  time  of  the  Exposition 
much  had  been  done  in  this  field  of  moral  uplift,  and  some  of  the  best  results 
were  exhibited  by  the  Columbus  Dental  Manufacturing  Company  and  the 
Dentists'  Supply  Company  of  New  York.  The  samples  were  very  realistic, 
and  encouraged  the  hope  that  it  would  not  be  long  before  rubberset  teeth 
would  fool  everybody  but  their  owners,  except  when  actually  separated 
from  them. 


IN  the  Palace  of  Liberal  Arts  you  could  bend  a  bar  of  solid  steel  five  inches 
thick  and  four  feet  long  with  your  fingers,  and  see  how  much  you  had 
bent  it;  and  you  did  not  have  to  be  a  giant,  nor  possess  any  magic 
spectacles  other  than  those  supplied  by  the  United  States  Bureau  of  Stand- 
ards. Of  course,  you  couldn't  bend  it  much,  nor  permanently,  and  if  any 
one  needed  a  five-inch  bar  of  steel  bent  there  were  better  ways  of  doing  it. 
But  comparatively  few  people  are  aware  that  any  such  little  job  can  be  done 
by  hand  at  all. 

It  was  in  a  small  dark  room  of  the  United  States  Section  of  the  Palace. 
A  mirror  was  fixed  to  the  center  of  the  bar,  and  a  glass  was  attached  to  a 
steel  girder  above,  which  rested  upon  supports  at  the  ends  of  the  bar.  The 
reflecting  surfaces  of  glass  and  mirror  were  a  32nd  of  an  inch  apart.  Light 
of  a  single  color  (yellow  rays  from  an  electrical  discharge  through 
/«gg/i«g  helium),  partly  reflected  from  the  upper  glass,  and  partly  from  the 
'^  mirror,  "interfered,"  the  waves  colliding  and  neutralizing  one 

another  at  some  distances  and  coinciding  at  others,  thus  forming  concentric 
light  and  dark  fringes,  "Newton's  rings,"  when  seen  through  an  eye-piece. 
Where  the  distance  between  the  reflecting  surfaces  was  an  odd  number 
of  half-wave  lengths  there  was  a  dark  band,  and  where  it  was  an  even  number 
there  was  a  bright  one.  So,  a  change  of  half  a  wave-length  would  turn  the 
dark  bands  light  and  the  light  bands  dark.  The  wave-length  of  the  yellow 
light  being  about  23  millionths  of  an  inch,  it  required  a  change  of  but  half 
23  millionths,  or  11 3^  millionths,  of  an  inch  in  the  distance  between  the  re- 
flecting surfaces,  or  between  the  center  of  the  bar  and  the  girder  above  it, 
to  produce  beautiful  coalescences,  and  transformations  of  the  light  rings 
into  dark  and  the  dark  into  light;  so  the  arrangement  formed  a  most  sensi- 
tive microscopic  detector  of  the  deflection  of  the  bar.  You  could  see  the 
formation  of  the  new  circles  as  you  lifted  with  your  fingers  from  below,  and 
the  reappearance  of  the  old  ones  as  you  released  the  pressure,  like  ripples 
from  a  stone  flung  into  a  pool. 

There  were  other  wonders  in  the  same  booth.    By  a  similar  device  you 


were  enabled  to  perceive  how  much  the  warmth  of  your  finger  tips  had 
caused  the  surface  of  a  pane  of  glass  to  expand  into  lumps  just 
where  the  fingers  had  been  applied.    Here,  too,  was  a  thermopile  -^tor 

so  sensitive   it  would  measure   the  radiation   from   the  faintest       Detectors 
visible  stars. 

The  McMichael  device  for  measuring  the  viscosity  of  liquids  was  ex- 
hibited in  this  section,  and  aroused  much  comment  on  the  part  of  engineers 
and  other  practical  scientists. 

Probably  the  exhibit  of  this  Bureau  will  be  remembered  by  most  visitors 
as  the  place  where  they  had  the  false  weights  and  measures,  confiscated  by 
the  United  States  Government  and  the  State  governments  in  various  parts 
of  the  country.  This  section  of  the  exhibit  was  very  popular,  for  it  touched 
that  part  of  the  Bureau's  activity  which  appeals  to  the  pocket  of  the  average 
citizen.  Under  the  direction  of  Dr.  S.  W.  Stratton,  who  was  a  member  of 
the  Government  Exhibit  Board  of  the  Exposition,  the  Bureau  of  Standards 
has  become  one  of  the  show  places  of  Washington,  and  a  fine  photograph 
at  the  exhibit  showed  the  Bureau's  buildings  as  they  stood  surrounded 
by  beautiful  grounds  and  overlooking  the  Capitol.  The  exhibit  at  San 
Francisco  contained  models  of  the  standard  kilogram  and  meter,  and  stand- 
ards of  candle  power,  temperature,  electricity,  and  other  things.  To  keep 
all  the  original  standards  correct,  as  the  material  of  them  changes  with  the 
years,  requires  the  services  of  hundreds  of  scientists.  A  big  temperature 
chart,  an  exhibition  which  gave  the  temperatures  of  many  things,  from 
boiling  helium,  450  degrees  below  zero,  to  that  of  the  stars,  say  60,000 
degrees  above,  took  years  of  investigation  and  research  to  compile. 

Here,  too,  were  twisted  and  distorted  beams  and  columns  of  concrete 

and  steel,  tested  to  failure  in  a  10,000,000-pound  machine,  so  that  engineers 

might  know  just  how  much  reliance  could  be  placed  on  similar  beams  and 

columns  when  used  in  bridge  or  other  building.    There  were  railroad  rails 

that  had  failed  in  service  and  caused  loss  of  life.    In  fact,  the 

^     1     •      1  •  /-J  •  1  Museum 

technical   requirements  ot  modern  construction  were  extremely      gf  physics 

well    illustrated.     Scientists   and   engineers   haunted  this  booth 

from  the  first,  and  with  laymen  it  increased  its  interest  as  time  went  on, 

and  ultimately  became  very  popular.     At  a  rough  guess  we  should  say 

there  was  enough  material  in  it  to  repay  two  months'  study  and  suggest 

twenty  years'  more. 

The  whole  United  States  Section  in  the  Palace  of  Liberal  Arts  was  most 

imposing  and  important.    It  occupied  55,000  square  feet,  nearly  a  quarter 

of  the  building,  and  with  its  handsome  installation,  in  open  areas  behind 

balustrades  bearing  bright  banners  on  fasces,  surmounted  by  the  eagle,  it 


attracted  general  attention,  and  held  it.  The  exhibits  were  strikingly 
impressive  in  range  and  scope,  and  of  fascinating  interest,  but  in  large  part 
too  technical  for  full  description  here.  We  can,  however,  refer  (E.  and  O. 
E.),  to  a  few  items  as  illustrations  of  the  stage  of  certain  arts  in  the  year 


One  of  the  most  attractive  features  was  the  exhibit  of  the  Panama  Canal. 
There  was  a  large  topographical  model  of  the  Zone,  on  a  horizontal  scale  of 
I  to  5,000  and  a  vertical  of  i  to  2,500,  which  depicted  all  main  features;  and 
there  were  detail  models  for  those  that  escaped  the  larger  one.  Models  of 
dredges,  rock  breakers,  unloaders,  track  shifters  and  locomotives  were 
shown.  Detail  drawings  of  many  parts  of  the  work  were  available  for  those 
especially  interested.  A  sanitary  exhibit  included  a  model  of  a  Zone  hos- 
pital, and  the  appliances  for  exterminating  mosquitoes,  with  pathological 
specimens.  The  large  model  cost  $15,000  to  construct.  A  detail  model  of 
Gaillard  Cut  cost  $4,000.  There  was  a  complete  set  of  Canal  Records,  and 
of  the  annual  reports  of  the  Commission.  Physicians  found  great  interest 
in  the  sanitary  exhibit. 

The  Library  of  Congress  sent  out  some  matter  of  interest  to  dwellers  on 
this  Coast,  and  especially  in  California.  There  were  some  ancient  maps  of 
America,  displayed  on  screens.  One  was  Arnoldo  di  Arnoldi's,  done  in  1 562, 
and  very  fair  as  a  representation  of  the  general  features  of  the  continent. 
Another  was  a  Mercator  map  of  1595.  Then  there  was  a  map  of  California 
by  J.  Tattonus,  on  which  Point  Reyes  appears  in  Lower  California,  and 
which  contains  other  information  equally  valuable.  There  was  a 
CaHographv  "^^P  ^^  ^he  world,  made  by  N.  Geilekerck  in  161 8.  Geilekerck 
got  the  Mediterranean  Sea  in  about  the  right  place,  as  they  had 
had  that  a  long  time,  but  thought  Mexico  was  in  Canada.  He  had  a  couple 
of  railroads  running  across  the  world,  which  he  probably  meant  for  the 
equator  and  the  ecliptic. 

Seller's  map  of  1626  showed  California  as  a  fine,  large  island,  starting 
with  Cape  Blanco,  about  opposite  the  Island  of  Vancouver,  and  extending 
to  Cape  San  Lucas.  San  Francisco  he  obligingly  took  oflF  the  island  of 
California,  and  located  on  the  west  coast  of  Newe  Granada,  where  Utah  now 
is.  He  omitted  the  Great  Lakes.  But  what  are  a  few  little  things  like  the 
Great  Lakes  to  a  mapologist  like  Seller?  San  Francisco  was  lucky  to  get  on 
the  map  at  all,  at  that  early  date. 

In  1663,  N.  Visscher  shifted  San  Francisco  back  to  California  Island, 
and  put  the  name  "  Draco  "  under  it.  He  accomplished  this  change  without 
any  great  disturbance  of  realty  values,  because  the  name  San  Francisco  at 
that  time  merely  designated  what  we  now  know  as  the  Gulf  of  the  Farallones. 




But  California  herself  was  drifting  dangerously  about,  in  sore  need  of  better 
discovery  and  anchorage.  In  1664,  Du  Val  tried  to  get  San  Francisco  ashore 
again  by  bending  back  the  continent,  and  almost  broke  it,  but  was  un- 
successful. In  1713,  Gueudeville  showed  Capes  Blanco  and  Mendocino  and 
the  Port  of  Sir  Francis  Drake,  but  the  wanderings  of  San  Francisco  he 
settled  by  pitching  it  off  the  Island  of  California  altogether.  In  1720, 
according  to  Delisle,  California  had  grown  fast  to  the  mainland;  and  he  had 
Hudson's  Bay  and  the  Great  Lakes  and  a  few  other  little  decorations  of  that 
sort,  including  Capes  Blanco,  Mendocino,  and  San  Lucas,  and  a  small  stub 
end  of  the  Santa  Fe  railway,  or  something  that  looked  just  like  it;  but  San 
Francisco  had  been  mislaid  again. 

It  was  discouraging.  And,  correspondingly,  it  was  a  relief  to  turn  to  the 
"Facsimile  of  the  Articles  of  Association  of  the  First  Continental  Congress, 
1774,  October  20,  with  Signatures  of  the  Members."  Here  was  something 
definite.  Their  penmanship  was  painful,  but  at  least  they 
didn't  try  to  make  maps.  There  were  some  proceedings  of  the  Documents 
Annapolis  Convention  of  1786,  which  called  the  Constitutional 
Convention  at  Philadelphia  in  1787,  and  thenceforth  everything  is  all  right 
historically,  and  well  cared  for. 

The  exhibit  of  the  Library  of  Congress  was  designed  to  instruct  the  public 
in  the  Library's  resources,  scope,  and  cooperation  with  other  libraries.  The 
inter-library  loan  feature,  whereby  books  could  be  obtained  from  the  Library 
of  Congress  through  the  medium  of  a  local  library,  was  the  link  that  brought 
the  national  library  in  touch  with  the  people,  and  this  feature  was  explained 
by  the  attendant  and  outlined  in  a  publication  that  could  be  read  at  the  booth. 

The  State  Department  exhibited  important  State  papers.  The  first 
draft  of  the  Declaration  of  Independence  appeared  in  the  handwriting  of 
Thomas  Jefferson,  with  corrections  thought  to  have  been  made  by  John 
Adams  and  Benjamin  Franklin. 

What  bright  little  boy  in  school  ever  stops  to  think  where  the  originals 
of  those  great  instruments  of  liberty,  the  Declaration  and  the  Constitution, 
maybe.''  Not  one.  The  printed  catalogue  of  the  State  Department  exhibit 
told.  The  Declaration,  engrossed  on  parchment  and  signed  by  all  members 
of  Congress  present  on  August  2,  1776,  was,  in  1894,  after  having  suffered 
some  deterioration,  hermetically  sealed  between  sheets  of  glass,  and  put  in  a 
steel  cabinet,  with  the  original  signed  copy  of  the  Constitution,  and  neither 
is  shown  except  on  direct  order  of  the  Secretary  of  State. 

Some  important  treaties  were  exhibited.  There  were  exhibits  of  designs 
for  the  Great  Seal  of  the  United  States.  Forms  of  diplomatic  correspon- 
dence were  illustrated;  and  passports  and  commissions. 


The  vast  compilations  of  the  Bureau  of  the  Census  were  exemplified  by 
exhibits  of  those  diabolically  clever  contrivances  whereby  90,000,000  to 
100,000,000  personal-fact  cards  are  almost  literally  ground  into  statistical 
tables  by  machinery. 

The  original  material  turned  in  by  United  States  marshals  taking  the 
census  for  the  first  time  in  1790,  was  on  exhibition;  queer  old  books  of  various 
sizes,  without  uniformity  or  thought  of  standardization  for  wholesale  handl- 
ing. Only  five  points  of  information  were  then  sought:  the  number  of  white 
males  over  16,  the  number  under  16,  the  number  of  females,  of  all  other  free 
persons,  and  of  slaves.    Those  were  happy  days. 

To-day  about  30  questions  are  put.  Perforated  cards  show  the  answers, 
and  the  machine  makes  electrical  contacts  through  the  perforations,  and 
thus  registers  the  various  items  of  information.  A  card-punching 
Si  machine  will  handle  3,000  cards  in  seven  hours.  A  sorting  ma- 
"^  '  ^  chine  actuated  by  electricity  and  compressed  air  will  sort  cards 
for  any  desired  item  of  information,  and  give  totals— age,  race,  or  any  other 
kind  of  fact  embraced  in  the  inquiries  of  the  Census  Bureau. 

These  uncanny  things  were  shown  in  operation,  and  one  of  the  most 
uncanny  powers  displayed  was  the  ability  of  one  of  them  to  reject  inconsis- 
tencies that  might  have  crept  into  the  work  of  the  enumerators.  Let  us  say 
for  example,  that  a  person  was  listed  as  two  years  old  and  the  father  of  a 
family.  Such  statements  are  often  turned  in,  and  it  is  not  a  violent  assump- 
tion that  they  are  not  correct.  The  skeptical  machine,  busy  as  it  was  tabu- 
lating some  millions  of  orderly  and  consistent  facts  at  the  rate  of  150,000 
cards  a  day,  would  detect  that  inconsistency  and  spew  the  statement  out  of 
its  metal  mouth.  Mr.  Burns  couldn't  beat  it.  The  devices  were  the  prop- 
erty of  the  Census  Bureau,  and  were  designed  and  built  by  Census  Bureau 
employees.  In  the  style  exhibited,  they  first  came  into  use  for  the  compila- 
tion of  vital  and  population  statistics  in  the  census  of  1910. 

Of  much  interest  to  navigators,  and  to  surveyors  and  engineers,  was  the 
exhibit  of  the  United  States  Coast  and  Geodetic  Survey.  Here  were  a  model 
and  picture  of  the  drag  that  finds  sunken  rocks  in  channels.  It  consisted  of  a 
suspended  wire  that  would  travel  in  a  practically  horizontal  position  at  any 
desired  depth,  like  a  mine  sweep,  and  snare  the  offending  obstacle.  It  had 
been  in  use  about  three  years.  There  was  a  rack  of  publications  of  interest 
to  navigators,  with  tide  tables  and  route  information.  There  was  a  large 
collection  of  harbor  charts.  Refined  instruments  to  assist  navigation  were 
shown:  the  magnetometer,  for  example,  for  measuring  the  horizontal  in- 
tensity of  the  earth's  magnetism  and  determining  the  direction  of  that  shifty 
institution,  the  magnetic  meridian. 


Then,  there  was  the  Precise  Level.  With  this  instrument  148  miles  of 
double-leveled  lines  had  been  run  in  a  month  with  a  maximum  discrepancy 
of  less  than  yi  of  an  inch  between  two  measurements  of  any  section  a 
mile  long.  There  was  an  electric  tide  indicator,  connected  with  a  float 
and  sending-set  at  the  tide  house  on  the  Government  wharf.  The 
collection  of  surveying  and  nautical  instruments  and  apparatus  was  very 

The  Department  of  Commerce  "staged"  a  small  commercial  museum — 
just  a  sample  of  what  might  be  done  to  instruct  the  American  manufacturer 
and  merchant  in  the  kinds  of  product  needed  and  bought  abroad.  There 
were  glass  cases  full  of  the  sort  of  stuff  that  is  sold  in  the  bazaars  of  India, 
articles  formerly  purchased  in  certain  parts  of  Europe,  but  which  might  be 
made  here.  The  Bureau  of  Foreign  and  Domestic  Commerce 
exhibited  a  map  of  the  world  showing  the  locations  of  American  Commerce 
representatives  abroad,  including  Ambassadors,  Consuls  and 
Consular  Agents  of  the  Department  of  State,  and.  Commercial  Attaches  and 
Traveling  Commercial  Agents  of  the  Department  of  Commerce,  charged 
with  the  task  of  gathering  and  forwarding  to  the  Department  all  the  com- 
mercial information  they  can  acquire. 

The  Government  Printing  Office,  the  largest  printing  office  in  the  world, 
in  addition  to  showing  photographs  and  samples  of  printing  and  binding, 
issued  through  the  Superintendent  of  Documents  a  booklet  on  the  Govern- 
ment publications,  describing  how  they  have  been  made  available  at  nominal 
prices,  and  the  methods  of  procuring  them  through  the  mails.  The  United 
States  Government,  more  than  that  of  any  other  country,  engages  in  pre- 
senting the  results  of  scientific  investigation  in  popular  printed  form  for  the 
instruction  and  use  of  the  people.  The  price  lists,  however,  are  the  only 
publications  that  are  supplied  free.  The  volume  of  work  in  the  office  of  the 
Superintendent  of  Documents  was  shown  statistically  as  follows: 

Average  daily  letter  mail,  about 1,000 

Average  monthly  sale  of  documents,  over 200,000 

Average  monthly  shipments  of  documents,  including  shipments  of 

departments,  about 3,500,000 

Increase  of  business  of  1914  over  that  of  1913  was  about 23  per  cent 

Totals  for  year: 

Letters  received  and  handled,  about 300,000 

Documents  sold,  over 2,000,000 

Documents  handled,   including   distribution   for  departments 

over 42,000,000 


The  exhibit  of  the  United  States  Public  Health  Service  in  the  Palace  of 
Liberal  Arts  made  one  feel  that  the  Government  of  Uncle  Sam  was  still 
facing  the  facts  about  disease  and  doing  its  best  to  save  us  from  ignorance 
and  neglect.  Everything  in  the  exhibit  was  carefully  labeled,  but  it  was 
found  that  a  large  percentage  of  visitors  to  an  exposition  do  not  take  the 
trouble  to  read  labels,  or  do  not  understand  them,  so  demonstrators  were  in 
attendance  to  indicate  just  what  was  meant. 

The  most  realistic  models  imaginable  showed  bubonic  rats  at  work 
burrowing  through  a  dwelling  and  feasting  in  its  neglected,  open  garbage 
can.  Other  models  showed  how  to  rat-proof  a  house  by  running  strips  of 
galvanized  sheet  iron  under  partition  walls,  extending  wire  netting  between 
double  floors,  concreting  the  basement,  covering  the  garbage  can,  and  in 
other  relatively  inexpensive  ways  insulating  the  inhabitants  from  their 
dangerous  animal  neighbors.  These  were  not  pleasant  sights,  but  they  were 
a  great  deal  pleasanter  than  an  epidemic  of  bubonic  plague. 

Much  use  had  been  made  of  models  in  wax  and  glass,  and  some  of  them 
were  marvelous  in  their  power  to  depict  healthy  and  diseased  human  tissues 
and  the  insects  and  bacteria  that  produce  disease.  The  progress  of  vaccina- 
tion was  shown  in  this  way — the  cleanliness  of  modern  methods  of  produc- 
ing vaccine,  and  its  safety  in  use.  And  close  by  were  wax  models  of  human 
hands  and  feet  and  faces  ravaged  by  the  most  loathsome  disease 
Smafl-Po"^  we  know  anything  about  except  leprosy  and  syphilis— the  small- 
pox. The  contrast  was  impressive.  No  sensible  person  would 
hesitate  in  his  choice.  A  chart  that  spoke  as  loudly  as  any  model,  showed 
the  deaths  from  small-pox  per  million  in  countries  that  had  compulsory 
vaccination,  compared  with  those  that  did  not.  Those  that  enjoyed  com- 
pulsory vaccination  were  Sweden,  with  one  death  from  small-pox  per  million; 
Ireland,  with  one  per  million;  Scotland,  with  three  per  million;  Germany, 
with  3.5  per  million,  and  England  with  16  per  million:  the  cases  probably 
being  due  to  evasions  of  the  law.  In  those  countries  where  vaccination  was 
merely  voluntary  the  deaths  per  million  from  small-pox  were  represented  to 
'  be:  in  Switzerland,  18.5  per  million;  Belgium,  161;  Russia,  231;  Austria, 
510;  Italy,  536;  Spain,  963. 

In  another  model,  an  allegorical  dragon  representmg  four  preventable 
diseases  was  taking  money  out  of  the  pocket  of  an  allegorical  Uncle  Sam  at 
these  rates  per  annum:  Tuberculosis,  $2,272,488,988;  Typhoid  Fever, 
fc25>534>355;  Syphilis,  $185,  404,474;  Malaria,  $178,965,208;  Total,  $2,982,- 
393,025  a  year  for  what  might,  by  intelligent  cooperation  of  all  the  people 
and  their  local  governments,  be  prevented. 

Enlarged  models  of  the  various  insect  transmitters  of  disease,  such  as  the 




fly,  mosquito,  flea,  tick,  and  louse  attracted  much  attention,  and  no  doubt 
gave  thousands  of  people  a  clearer  conception  of  the  role  played  by  these 
small  enemies  in  spreading  incapacity  and  death.  The  blown-glass  models  of 
microscopic  organisms  were  of  especial  interest  to  physicians  and  biologists, 
particularly  the  "planktons."  They  were  very  beautiful,  sinister  though 
their  subjects  were. 

There  were  other  models,  too,  and  many  of  them.  The  old  well  out  by 
the  barn,  that  supplied  the  neighborhood  with  its  typhoid  fever,  was  faith- 
fully portrayed,  and  charts  showed  how,  the  disease  once  contracted,  the 
most  respectable  habits  of  personal  proximity  helped  to  distribute  it.  The 
agency  of  the  house  fly  in  this  work  was  exposed.  Statistical  matter  repre- 
sented the  economic  effects,  and  showed  also  that  where  there  were  good, 
preventive  measures  against  typhoid,  other  diseases  too  were  far 
less  prevalent.  Contact  infection  in  spreading  typhoid  was  illus-  uistributors 
trated  by  a  model  of  a  boarding  house,  in  which  the  husband, 
who  had  contracted  the  disease,  was  nursed  by  his  wife,  who  went  from  the 
sick  room  to  the  dining  room  and  kitchen  to  serve  the  boarders.  A  descrip- 
tive label  showed  how  infection  of  several  of  the  boarders  could  have  been 
avoided  by  sending  the  patient  to  a  hospital,  which  is  organized  to  handle 
that  sort  of  thing. 

So,  by  models  and  charts,  and  transparencies  and  labels  and  mounted 
specimens,  the  lesson  was  taught,  in  relation  to  the  contagious  whose  cause 
and  means  of  spread  are  understood.  There  was  a  model  of  a  house  fly,  3- 
times  natural  size,  and  a  large  number  of  small  vials  were  prepared  in  which 
were  fastened  fly  eggs,  larvae,  pupae,  and  adult  flies.  These  vials  were  dis- 
tributed to  health  officers  and  physicians  as  souvenirs,  and  formed  a  vest- 
pocket  exhibit  of  the  life  cycle  of  the  fly. 

There  was  an  exhibit  of  a  portable  hypochlorite  plant  for  the  treatment 
of  contaminated  water  supplies.  It  was  designed  by  the  Minnesota  State 
Board  of  Health,  for  immediate  shipment  to  localities  suffering  from  water- 
borne  epidemics,  and  was  capable  of  treating  supplies  of  1,000,000  gallons 
a  day.  Proper  sewage  disposal  was  well  expounded.  The  malarial  mos- 
quito was  exposed  in  all  his  hideous  aspects  and  perilous  habits;  and  methods 
of  destroying  him  were  depicted. 

Let  us  pass  to  more  beautiful  ( but  not  more  necessary),  work.  The  Recla- 
mation Service  of  the  Government  exhibited  a  diorama  of  an  irrigated  plain 
— the  Shoshone  irrigation  project  in  Park  and  Bighorn  counties,  Wyoming. 
The  dam  was  328  feet  high,  and  there  were  in  the  picture  280  miles  of  canals, 
irrigating  42,000  acres  of  a  valley  that  was  4,500  feet  above  sea  level.  Trans- 
parencies gave  scores  of  views  of  reclamation  projects  and  irrigation  scenes. 


The  main  exhibit  of  the  War  Department  was  in  the  Palace  of  Machin- 
ery, but  the  Palace  of  Liberal  Arts  housed  a  very  fine  supplement  to  it. 
There  was  a  pavilion  whose  exterior  was  composed  to  represent  the  archi- 
tecture of  the  United  States  Military  Academy  at  West  Point,  and  which 
represented,  within,  the  accommodations  for  cadets — the  plain,  little  Spar- 
tan rooms  in  which  the  scientific  and  efficient  United  States  Army  officer  is 
developed  from  the  raw  material  of  the  congressional  districts.  Pictures  of 
great  American  military  figures  in  the  cadet  stage  hung  about  the  walls  of 
the  entresol — such  men  as  Grant  and  Meade — and  with  them  one  James  A. 
McNeill  Whistler. 

Photographs  depicted  the  growth  of  recruits  into  soldiers,  and  a  paint- 
ing and  some  figures  showed  what  manner  of  person  the  American  enlisted 
man  was  in  191 5,  compositely:  30.9  years  of  age,  weighing  147-09 
Sotdie^fs  pounds,  standing  67.4  inches  high,  measuring  34.07  inches  about 
the  chest  at  expiration  of  the  breath.  Other  photographs  showed 
the  work  of  the  Medical  and  Hospital  Department  of  the  Army— the  erad- 
ication of  hookworm  in  Porto  Rico,  inoculation  against  typhoid  fever, 
samples  of  typhoid  vaccine,  and  the  various  kinds  of  rice  that  were  studied 
in  connection  with  the  labors  of  stamping  out  beriberi  in  the  Philippines. 
Army  rations  were  illustrated. 

All  about  were  cut-open  models  of  big  guns  and  their  charges;  from  old 
smooth-bores  throwing  huge,  round,  and  solid  shot,  to  modern  rifles  with 
their  shells  lying  snugly  in  the  rifling.  These  were  part  of  the  exhibit  of  the 
Navy  Department,  which  included  a  model  of  the  Annapolis  Naval  Academy, 
and  models  of  ships  of  great  historic  interest:  the  frigates  "Constitution," 
"North  CaroHna,"  and  "St.  Lawrence,"  and  of  the  "Maine,"  sunk  in 
Havana  harbor  in  1898.  And  there  was  a  large  oil  painting  of  the  "Oregon" 
as  she  steamed  into  the  Santiago  fight.  Another  souvenir  of  the  Spanish 
War  was  the  bow  ornament  of  the  "Olympia,"  Admiral  Dewey's  flagship 
at  Manila  Bay.  Then  there  was  the  figurehead  of  the  "Constitution"; 
with  other  historic  relics.  Some  six-pounder  rifles  stood  about,  and  there 
were  some  very  interesting  specimens  of  knotting  and  splicing  and  weaving 
by  midshipmen  of  the  Navy  and  apprentices  of  the  training  stations. 

In  the  presence  of  this  war  material,  man's  aspiration  to  be  compassion- 
ate and  helpful  shone  with  the  greater  brilliance  in  the  exhibit  of  the  Ameri- 
can Red  Cross,  under  Government  supervision  since  the  act  of 
Workoj  January  5,  1905;  the  expression  of  a  hope;  the  demonstration  that 
'^L  Cross  i"  spite  of  appearances  men  really  are,  in  part,  somewhat  better 
than  the  brutes:  some  men.  The  original  purpose  of  the  Red 
Cross  societies  under  the  Geneva  Convention  was  to  supplement  the  medical 


services  of  armies  in  war  time.  But  war  is  not  the  only  disaster  tliat  befalls 
the  featherless  bipeds  trying  to  maintain  a  foothold  on  the  capricious  surface 
of  the  earth,  and  many  of  the  Red  Cross  societies  extended  their  functions 
to  include  relief  operations  in  time  of  peace. 

Some  of  the  items  of  the  exhibit  were  of  philosophical  importance  as 
pictures  of  what  nature  sometimes  does  to  helpless  men,  women,  and  child- 
ren. Here  was  a  wonderful  diorama  of  Messina,  after  the  Italian  earthquake 
of  1908,  with  one  of  two  villages  of  2,400  houses  built  by  the  American  Red 
Cross  to  shelter  those  made  homeless  by  the  disaster.  The  other  village  was 
erected  on  the  mainland  of  Calabria.  Toward  this  work  of  relief  Congress 
appropriated  $800,000  and  the  American  public  contributed  over  a  million. 

Since  1905  the  American  people  have  contributed  through  their  National 
Red  Cross  about  $12,000,000  for  the  relief  of  suffering,  and  it  took  maps  of 
all  the  continents  to  show  where  this  relief  had  been  rendered.  There  was  a 
picture  of  a  flood  refugee  camp  in  China,  with  its  hordes  of  people  saved 
from  starvation.  The  men  were  given  work  repairing  the  levees,  and  were 
paid  by  the  Red  Cross  in  grain.  A  map  of  the  great  flood  and  famine  district 
along  the  Huai  River  in  North  Kiangsu  and  North  Anhui  showed  the  plan 
of  proposed  work  to  prevent  a  recurrence  of  these  disasters. 

You  did  not  have  to  go  to  China  for  floods.  There  was  a  reproduction 
of  the  havoc  wrought  in  Chillicothe,  Ohio,  by  the  flood  of  19 13,  and  some 
demonstrations  of  relief  work  there.  There  was  also  a  reproduction  of 
Refugee  Camp  No.  5,  in  Golden  Gate  Park,  San  Francisco,  after  the  earth- 
quake and  fire  of  1906,  showing  the  arrangement  and  the  methods  of  living. 

There  was  a  model  of  the  St.  Paul  coal  mine  at  Cherry,  111.,  illustrating 
the  mine  fire  of  November,  1909,  when  256  men,  half  the  male  population 
of  the  town,  lost  their  lives.  The  model  showed  how  it  happened — a  load  of 
hay  for  the  mules  coming  into  contact  with  a  torch,  which  was  being  used 
because  of  a  temporary  stoppage  in  the  supply  of  electric  current.  Relief 
work  was  done  for  the  widows  and  orphans  of  the  men  that  lost  their  lives, 
and  pensions  are  still  being  paid  in  the  cases  of  some  of  the  very  young 

Some  of  the  instructive  items,  from  a  practical  standpoint,  were  the 
models  of  houses  built  for  refugees  after  disaster  had  destroyed  their  own. 
Following  a  great  forest  fire  in  Michigan,  houses  were  built  at  Red  Cross 
expense  for  material,   on   the  "building   bee"   plan:   neighbors 
building  for  each  of  the  group  in  turn.     In  this  way  62  families  shelter 

were  furnished  with  dwellings  at  a  cash  cost  of  $50  each.     First 
aid  to  the  injured  was  shown  by  transparencies  and  by  exhibits  of  model  first- 
aid  materials.    Panoramas  illustrated  the  work  done  by  the  nursing  service. 

1  lO 


Altogether  it  was  a  most  impressive  exhibit  of  what  a  little  money  and  a 
good  organization  will  do  to  mitigate  the  severities  of  fate. 

The  Smithsonian  Institution,  through  its  various  bureaus,  entered  ex- 
hibits of  fascinating  interest— especially  the  large  glass  cases  of  the  National 
Museum,  showing  primitive  families  of  the  Caribs  of  British  Guiana,  the 
Dyaks  of  Borneo,  South  African  Zulus  and  the  Alaskan  Eskimo.  Four  glass 
cases  illustrated  the  evolution  of  tools.  Of  greatest  modern  significance, 
however,  was  the  Smithsonian's  model  of  the  Langley  experimental  aero- 
plane, which  in  1896  made  the  first  flight  of  a  heavier  than  air  machine;  and 
photographs  of  the  Langley  man-carrying  gasoline-driven  aeroplane,  which 
was  launched  unsuccessfully  in  1903,  and  after  lying  neglected,  as  a  mere 
curiosity,  in  the  Smithsonian  laboratory  for  over  ten  years,  was  successfully 
flown  by  Glenn  Curtis  at  Hammondsport  in  L914:  a  mournful  tragedy  of 
invention,  for  poor  Langley  was  dead. 

Perhaps  the  most  valuable  thing  the  Smithsonian  showed  was  the  In 
ternational  Catalogue  of  Scientific  Literature,  a  classified  index,  of  which 
about  1 80  volumes  have  been  issued,  of  the  scientific  literature  of  the  world. 
The  great  undertaking  is  now  carried  on  in  33  countries,  the  Smithsonian 
doing  the  work  for  the  United  States. 

Here  you  saw  the  Government  in  action,  for  it  had  its  main  lecture  room 
and  motion-picture  theater  in  the  Palace  of  Liberal  Arts.  Pictures  were 
displayed  and  lectures  delivered  daily,  except  Mondays.  (Experience 
demonstrated  that  Sunday  was  the  best  day  of  all  for  the  Government 
exhibits).  At  10:30  this  theater  was  opened  and  pictures  were  thrown  on 
the  screen  relating  to  subjects  to  be  discussed  in  the  afternoon  lectures.  At 
I  P.M.,  there  would  be  a  lecture  on  the  "Progress  of  the  Indian," 
^""mIZI"  ^y  ^'■^-  ^-  ^-  Hutchison,  special  agent  of  the  United  States  Indian 
Office.  At  1:35  there  would  be  another  on  "Road  Building"  by 
George  D.  Marshall,  Superintendent  of  Road  Construction,  United  States 
Office  of  Public  Roads  and  Rural  Engineering.  This  would  be  followed  by 
a  talk  on  "What  the  Geological  Survey  Does,"  by  R.  W.  Stone,  Assistant 
Geologist,  United  States  Geological  Survey.  At  3:15  C.  J.  Blanchard, 
Statistician  of  the  Reclamation  Service,  would  tell  about  "Uncle  Sam's  Free 
Irrigated  Farms."  And  then  Don  Carlos  Ellis,  in  charge  of  educational  co- 
operation for  the  Forest  Service,  would  describe  "Fighting  a  Forest  Fire." 

Thousands  of  people  heard  these  lectures  during  the  season,  and  many 
of  them  took  away  with  them  an  entirely  new  conception  of  the  nature  and 
work  of  their  Government. 




SOMETHING  of  an  index  to  world  progress  In  the  applied  sciences 
appeared  in  the  Palace  of  Liberal  Arts.  The  Philippine  Islands  again 
illustrated  their  general  advancement,  through  their  exhibits  in  this 
Department,  especially  in  the  group  relating  to  typography  and  cartography. 
The  Bureau  of  Forestry  and  the  Bureau  of  Science  at  Manila  put  in  some 
beautifully  executed  maps  and  models.  There  were  fine  examples  oi papier 
mach'e  work  and  raw  paper  pulp,  besides  the  finished  product,  exhibited  by 
the  Mercantile  College  of  Manila,  the  Bureau  of  Agriculture  and 
the  Bureau  of  Forestry.  Excellent  samples  of  photography  were  pl-r^jj''^ 
exhibited  by  various  government  bureaus  and  the  University  of 
Santo  Tomas.  Perfumes  were  shown  under  the  chemical  and  pharmacal 
group.  The  exhibit  of  musical  instruments  was  large  and  interesting,  es- 
pecially in  the  strings.  There  were  striking  photographs  and  models  illus- 
trating sanitation  in  the  islands. 

Argentina  exhibited  some  very  fine  work  in  typography  and  book  pub- 
lication, and  showed  remarkable  recent  progress  in  artistic  photography  and 
in  the  graphic  arts  applied  to  commercial  purposes.  Advertising  posters 
were  bold  and  well-colored.  But  the  most  striking  of  her  exhibits  in  this 
Palace  was  what  she  showed  in  models,  plans,  and  designs  for  public  works, 
the  development  of  ports  and  improvement  of  river  beds  carried  out  by  the 
Argentine  Government,  and  a  photograph  of  the  fascinating  city  of  Buenos 
Aires,  taken  from  a  balloon.  Perhaps  her  best  exhibits  here,  from  the  stand- 
point of  finish  of  execution,  were  the  sheets  of  topographic  maps  of  the 
country,  as  worked  out  by  the  Third  Division  of  the  Argentine  Army.  And 
there  were  some  very  instructive  exemplifications  of  the  work  of  the  National 
Department  of  Railroads,  an  office  under  the  Department  of  the  Interior, 
whose  function  it  is  to  protect  the  interests  both  of  the  public  and  of  the 
railroad  companies  which  are  thus  brought  under  government 
inspection.  Journalism  has  had  agreat  development  in  the  Argen-  the'stan 
tine,  and  copies  of  "La  Prensa"  and  "La  Nacion,"  with  their 
admirable  foreign-news  services,  were  on  exhibition.     For  a  number  of  years. 



Argentina  has  been  contributing  to  astronomical  science  the  vast  labor  of 
mapping  the  stars  of  the  southern  hemisphere,  and  the  fruits  of  this  work 
were  shown  in  charts  of  the  southern  skies. 

China's  exhibit  in  Liberal  Arts  was  strong  in  samples  of  fine  paper— gold 
dust,  glass,  mulberry  skin,  bamboo,  and  other  artistic  productions  in  this 
field'of  manufacture.  What  she  showed  in  architecture  had  peculiar  and 
haunting  historical  significance.  There  was  a  model  of  the  temple  dedicated 
to  Confucius  in  Kirin,  and  another  of  the  famous  Lukao  Bridge,  known  to 
Europeans  as  the  Marco  Polo  Bridge,  with  its  thirteen  semicircular  marble 
arches.  There  was  a  model  of  the  White  Tower  Pagoda  of  the  Winter  Palace 
at  Pekin,  and  one  of  a  section  of  the  Great  Wall.  Music  was  represented  by 
a  case  of  antique  instruments  side  by  side  with  the  latest  inventions  of  the 
modern  music  master.  There  were  sacred  antique  harps,  flutes,  and  other 
instruments  that  were  in  use  centuries  ago.  A  Chinese  compass 
An  Ancient  ^^^^  ^,^^^^  ^j^^  ^^g  represented  by  a  model.  There  were  old  sun- 
Compass  ^^^^^^  ^^^  weights  and  measures  and  surveying  instruments. 
Photographs  of  famous  scenes,  and  of  pagodas,  were  shown.  There  were  old 
robes  of  state,  with  gorgeous  golden  embroideries  and  brocades.  A  red  sedan- 
chair  suggested  the  ride  of  the  Chinese  bride.  There  were  priestly  robes  for 
the  temple  service,  and  a  Tientsin  firm  engaged  in  supplying  theatrical 
materials  exhibited  stage  costumes,  including  some  representations  of  an- 
cient armor. 

Germany,  in  addition  to  her  typographical  exhibits,  which  were  very 
fine,  showed  some  of  the  miracles  of  her  chemistry— the  synthetic  camphor 
to  which  we  have  alluded  above,  the  radium  and  mesothorium  exhibit,  and 
the  Assur  colors  from  coal  tar  for  coloring  photographs  and  for  other  delicate 
uses.  Theatrical  appliances  and  equipment  were  exhibited  by  Leichner  of 
Berlin,  and  musical  instruments  by  Hohner  of  Trossingen.  Eight  concerns 
exhibited  in  chemicals  and  pharmacal  material.  The  Permutit  Company  of 
Berlin  and  New  York  showed  a  new  water-softening  process.  The  German 
exhibits  were  not  official  but  represented  a  voluntary  movement  among 
commercial  firms,  promoted  by  the  Exhibits  Division  of  the  Exposition. 

Italian  paper,  exceptional  in  quality  and  color,  was  exhibited  by  four 
Italian  firms.  Large  cases  of  musical  instruments  by  Italian  makers  were 
shown,  and  there  were  good  examples  of  photography.  Chemicals,  soaps,  and 
perfumes  were  on  exhibition  in  most  attractive  form. 

Here  as  elsewhere  the  Japanese  exhibits  were  interesting  and  were  dis- 
played with  fine  effect.  To  illustrate  typography  and  printing  processes  the 
Department  of  Communication  exhibited  a  collection  of  postage  stamps. 
In  paper  manufacture  the  Japanese  exhibits  showed  remarkable  mastery 


of  the  paper-making  art.  Seismological  recorders,  the  work  of  Japanese 
geologists,  were  made  on  ingenious  plans  for  the  detection  and  location  of 
distant  earthquakes.  The  Department  of  Communication  exhibited  wire- 
less apparatus,  and  the  Department  of  Civil  and  Military  Engineering 
showed  a  most  interesting  model  of  Osaka  Castle,  by  the  Osaka  municipal- 
ity. The  cities  of  Osaka,  Kobe,  Yokohama,  and  Tokyo  had  models  of  various 
public  works  on  view.  The  exquisite  models  of  the  shrines  at  Nikko,  ex- 
hibited in  the  Japanese  Pavilion  were  entered  as  an  exhibit  in  the  Liberal 
Arts  Department.  Printing  by  the  wood-block  method  has  been 
highly  developed  in  Japan,  and  some  beautiful  exemplifications  Prints 

of  it  appeared  in  the  Palace  of  Liberal  Arts.  Masterpieces  by 
Japanese  painters  were  faithfully  reproduced  in  the  original  colors,  some- 
times as  many  as  300  blocks  being  used  for  the  reproduction  of  a  single 
picture.  The  violin  and  cello  exhibit  by  Suzuki  of  Nagoya  attracted  much 
attention  for  delicacy  of  workmanship  at  a  small  price.  This  maker's  family 
for  generations  had  produced  Japanese  musical  instruments,  and  after  the 
outbreak  of  the  European  war  its  representative  had  a  large  demand  for 
Japanese-made  violins.  An  interesting  exhibit  to  farmers  was  that  of  the 
Tohoku  University,  which  illustrated  the  improvement  that  has  been  made 
in  strains  of  Japanese  horses  by  the  introduction  of  American  stock.  There 
were  extensive  exhibits  of  matches,  fireworks,  insect  powders,  models  of 
animal  organisms,  gymnastic  apparatus,  and  chemicals.  The  Formosa 
Government  made  a  fine  showing  of  camphor. 

The  Netherlands  exhibited  in  the  Palace  of  Liberal  Arts  some  magnifi- 
cent specimens  of  prints  and  types  from  the  firm  of  Enschede  &  Sons,  and 
there  was  a  great  exhibit  of  surgical  instruments,  bandages,  and  first-aid 
appliances,  from  Uetermohlen  &  Company.  Mouton  &  Company,  of  The 
Hague,  showed  some  fine  examples  of  bookbindings.  The  exhibit  of  maps 
and  marine  charts  was  very  comprehensive.  The  booth  in  which  these 
exhibits  were  made  was  beautifully  designed. 

The  Liberal  Arts  Palace  contained  the  only  exhibit  from  Peru:  a  collec- 
tion of  colored  photographs  by  Vargas  Hnos. 

Spain  exhibited  here  books,  and  magazines,  chemicals,  and  musical 

Uruguay  made  an  exhibit  of  interesting  albums  of  impressions  and  mono- 
grams, with  political  publications,  bulletins,  reviews,  and  reports,  besides 
many  fine  books.  The  Bureau  of  Standard  Weights  and  Measures  at  Monte- 
video put  in  an  exhibit.  Four  exhibitors  showed  maps,  graphic  charts,  and 

VOL.  IV — 8 


THE  varied  types  of  mind  they  enlist  and  present  to  one  another  and 
the  public— the  student,  the  traveler,  the  teacher,  the  technical 
man,  the  specialist,  the  explorer  in  new  fields  of  science — would 
alone  make  international  expositions  great  agencies  of  advancement.  Thor- 
darson,  the  Icelander,  with  his  bold  assault  on  the  rebelliousness  of  high 
voltages  was  an  instance.  Lee  De  Forest,  master  of  radiography,  was  another. 
There  were  Burbank  and  Brashear  and  Edison.  And  another  was  Farran 
Zerbe,  who  illustrates  the  point  better  than  most. 

Zerbe  was  once  a  newsboy  in  Tyrone,  Pa.    He  had  a  bank  account.    He 

was  very  proud  of  it,  and  proud  also  of  the  accuracy  with  which  he  made  out 

his  deposit  slips  and  conducted  his  other  small  transactions.    One  day  he 

took  in  change  a  queer  piece  of  money.    It  was  a  silver  coin  about 

A  Fateful     ^     .      ^^  ^  ^j^^  ^^^  j^  ^^^^  ^^^  misspelled  words,  which  to  the 

gimlet-eyed  newsboy  meant  nothing.  There  was  upon  it,  how- 
ever, the  legend  "  50  cent."  So  it  was  a  half  dollar,  although  a  bit  stunted 
in  its  growth,  and  he  counted  it  for  a  half  dollar  and  tried  to  deposit  it  for 
a  half  dollar.    But  the  cashier  said: 

"What  are  you  trying  on  us,  Farran?  You're  fifty  cents  short.  And 
you've  got  a  piece  of  French  money  here.    That's  no  good  in  this  country." 

Farran  Zerbe  was  a  numismatist,  but  he  didn't  know  it  yet— wouldn't 
have  known  the  difference  between  a  numismatist  and  a  counterfeiter. 
That  was  the  first  time  it  had  come  to  his  attention  that  there  were  more 
kinds  of  money  than  Uncle  Sam  made,  and  he  was  a  bit  incredulous.  If 
there  had  been  any  other  kinds,  of  importance,  people  would  have  known 
about  them  and  they  would  have  circulated  on  the  streets  of  Tyrone,  Pa.; 
but  he  had  never  heard  of  any.  Yet  there  was  his  troublesome  dime,  marked 
"  50  cent."  when  it  wasn't.  He  had  an  itching  curiosity  to  know  how  it  had 
come  about. 

He  began  to  ask  questions.  The  cashier  was  glad  to  answer  them.  Then 
Zerbe  began  to  read  everything  he  could  get  hold  of  about  coins  and  medals 
and  the  strange  things  people  had  used  in  primitive  stages  of  civilization  as 








media  of  exchange.  He  got  acquainted  with  those  people,  ancient  and 
modern.  Being  a  numismatist  involved  a  great  deal  he  had  never  contem- 
plated. It  was  worse,  really,  than  being  a  philatelist.  It  led  him  into 
strange  fields.  He  could  never  read  Old  Sleuth  like  the  other  boys;  he  was 
sleuthing  through  a  translated  Hesiod,  trying  to  find  out  what  the  ancient 
Greeks  used  for  money,  and  why  they  did. 

Being  a  numismatist  he  became  a  geographer,  an  anthropologist,  an 
archaeologist,  an  historian,  an  economist,  a  student  of  governments,  and 
political  systems, and  religions,  and  mythology,  and  symbolism, and  heraldry, 
and  art.  He  collected  coins,  currency,  medals.  He  corresponded  with 
scholars,  and  societies  of  scholars.  He  became  President  of  the  American 
Numismatic  Association,  a  member  of  the  United  States  Assay  Commission, 
publisher  of  the  "Numismatist." 

For  Farran  Zerbe,  that  50-centime  piece  was  the  gateway  into  a  broad 
and  liberal  intellectual  life,  a  life  of  absorbing,  unending  interest;  and  money 
in  general  became,  not  riches,  nor  especially  a  thing  to  buy  luxuries  or  liqui- 
date debts,  nor  yet  a  thing  to  propagate,  but  a  documentary  record  of  the 
progress  of  man  and  the  stages  of  his  civilization  at  difl^erent  epochs.  Coins 
were  imperishable  metal  documents,  and  types  of  art  indicative  of  the  re- 
finement and  mental  energy  of  the  nations  producing  them.  The  money  of 
civilized  peoples  became  a  chain  reaching  back,  unbroken,  3,000  years, 
correcting  history  and  contributing  to  it;  and  reaching  back  with  some 
breaks  and  interruptions  not  yet  linked  up,  for  2,000  years  more. 

Zerbe  never  cared  to  acquire  a  coin  or  a  medal  for  its  rarity,  but  only 
for  what  it  could  tell.  In  spite  of  that  limitation  his  collection  grew  very 
large.  Because  of  that  limitation  it  became  one  of  the  notable  collections  of 
the  world.  He  could  tell  you  things  about  coins  and  medals  you  never 
thought  of  before:  trifling  things  that  might  become  clews  to  lost 

•  J  tflks  "WltJl 

episodes  in  the  lives  of  nations,  economically  fundamental  things  the  Past 
about  the  essential  nature  of  a  medium  of  exchange,  the  persistent 
element  of  popular  valuation  found  in  all  media  of  exchange  from  the  plough- 
beasts  of  Ulysses  to  California  "slugs."  He  knew  the  mint  marks  and  the 
marks  of  the  great  coin  designers.  He  knew  the  delight  the  scholar  derives 
from  getting  hold  of  a  contemporary  portrait  of  Cassar  or  of  Alexander, 
passed  by  the  sitter  and  stamped  by  the  government;  and  how  when  such  a 
portrait  is  a  good  piece  of  art  it  authenticates  the  genius  of  a  people  that 
could  breed  artists  capable  of  such  work. 

He  added  some  notable  borrowings  to  his  collection  and  brought  them 
all  to  San  Francisco.  The  exhibit  was  installed  in  the  Palace  of  Liberal  Arts, 
in  which  Department  it  belonged  under  the  classification,  making  as  a  whole 


the  greatest  index  to  money  ever  collectively  displayed,  and  the  most  note- 
worthy numismatic  exhibit  ever  seen  at  an  American  exposition. 

There  were  about  20,000  original  specimens  of  what  man  at  the  main 
stages  of  his  evolution  and  in  all  known  countries  has  used  as  money,  and 
the  whole  collection  represented  a  one-time  value  of  at  least  $50,000,000. 
Examples  of  many  shapes  and  fabrics  told  the  story  of  the  instruments  of 
commerce,  which  means  the  distribution  of  goods,  for  three  thousand  years, 
with  some  items  attributed  to  dates  two  thousand  earlier  than  that. 

There  were  clay  tablets  of  accounts  from  Nippur,  constituting  a  record  of 
values  measured  in  labor,  live  stock,  and  grain.  There  were  implement- 
shaped  metal  pieces  from  China,  meant  to  be  the  fixed  price  of  the  article 
represented,  for  even  in  ancient  times  people  befuddled  themselves  with  the 
supposition  that  government  could  fix  prices  permanently— a  knife-shaped 
coin,  for  example,  standing  for  the  price  of  a  razor,  but  without 
^j!""^  power  to  enlarge  or  diminish  itself  in  response  to  the  ever-chang- 

'^"^  ing  relation  of  razor  supply  and  demand.  A  similar  idea  and  use 
of  such  original  token  money  was  found  among  the  Aztecs,  indicating  either 
some  early  connection  between  the  peoples  of  the  two  continents  or  else  a 
mere,  common  coincidence  of  fallacious  ideas. 

There  were  "plugs"  of  brick  tea,  stamped  by  the  Russian  Government, 
notched  so  they  could  be  broken  into  small  change,  and  circulating  among 
the  people  of  Thibet;  long  black  strips  of  licorice-soaked  tobacco,  pierced 
so  they  could  be  strung  for  necklaces,  made  in  Petersburg,  Va.,  and  circu- 
lating as  money  in  certain  South  Pacific  Islands,  where  they  would  buy  more 
than  anything  else  you  could  take  there;  a  slab  of  copper  two  feet  long,  a 
foot  wide  and  an  inch  or  so  thick,  which  was  once  eight  dollars  in  Sweden; 
and  gold  coins  of  some  Indian  State  that  were  no  larger  than  a  pinhead. 
There  was  leather  money,  paper  money,  shells,  wampum  of  all  descriptions, 
rubber  money,  condensed-milk  money,  bone,  fiber,  clay,  coal,  glass,  cloth, 
and  pasteboard,  and  there  were  linen  notes,  and  iron  coins  in  the  shape  of 
fish  hooks  and  musket  balls.  There  were  Russian  platinum  coins  minted 
when  platinum  was  so  little  valued  it  was  thought  only  good  to  make  jitneys 
with.  There  was  every  kind  of  wildcat  note,  including  the  money  of  John 
Law  and  his  Mississippi  Bubble.  There  were  interesting  historical 
and  Notes  ^"'^  financial  documents— checks  of  many  presidents,  from  Wash- 
ington to  Lincoln.  There  was  a  check  for  half  a  cent,  and  a  photo- 
graph of  the  Government  voucher  for  $40,000,000  in  payment  for  the  French 
interests  in  the  Panama  Canal.  There  were  notes  redeemable  in  rum.  And 
there  were  private  coinages  such  as  the  50-dollar  slugs  of  California,  beaver 
coins  of  Oregon,  Mormon  issues  of  Utah,  and  Bechtler  coins  of  the  South. 


There  were  coins  here  that  showed  something  about  the  art,  architecture, 
mythology,  religion,  sports,  and  pleasures  of  every  period  of  Greece  in  her 
glory,  and  Rome  to  her  fall.  The  deterioration  that  followed  the  universal 
tragedy  of  a  dead  empire  was  reflected  in  the  barbarous  crudities  of  the  coins 
of  the  Dark  Ages.  There  was  siege  money  in  all  its  variety;  the  devices  of 
besieged  cities  to  carry  on  business  in  spite  of  war.  It  told  sometimes  of  lost 
causes,  of  nations  going  down;  it  suggested  civilizations  destroyed  and 

The  collection  aroused  great  interest  in  the  subject  of  numismatics,  and 
well  it  might.  It  was  one  of  the  most  definite  educational  factors  of  the 


ON  a  basis  of  Federal  legislation  providing  for  an  Exposition  memorial 
coinage,  the  Exposition  instituted  an  official  Coin  and  Medal  Depart- 
ment, and  put  it  under  the  direction  of  Farran  Zerbe.  The  Act  of 
Congress  provided  that  a  series  of  commemorative  coins,  a  souvenir  medal, 
the  award  medal,  and  the  diplomas,  were  to  be  produced  by  the  Government 
and  delivered  to  the  Exposition  at  par  for  the  coins,  and  cost  for  the  other 
items.  There  were  to  be  not  over  three  thousand  gold  coins  of  the  denomina- 
tion of  l5oeach,  ten  thousand  of  the  denomination  of  $2.50  each,  25,000  gold 
dollars,  and  200,000  silver  fifty-cent  pieces.  They  were  to  be  of  standard 
weight  and  fineness.  Half  the  50-dollar  pieces  were  to  be  octagonal,  like 
the  "slugs"  privately  coined  in  San  Francisco  before  the  local 
f  "^n''{j-     branch  of  the  Mint  was  established.     The  50-cent  pieces  and  the 

Our  Daddies  ,        .    ,       ,  ...  ,  .  •  •  111 

souvenir  medal  might  be  corned  by  the  machmery  mstalled  as 
part  of  the  Government  exhibit.  The  Secretary  of  the  Treasury  was  au- 
thorized to  obtain  suitable  designs;  but  the  Exposition  had  no  voice  in  the 
selection  of  them,  and  did  not  know  what  the  coins  would  look  like  when 
they  were  finally  delivered. 

Owing  to  the  lateness  of  the  date  on  which  the  Act  of  Congress  was 
passed — it  was  not  approved  until  January  16,  1915— it  was  impossible  to 
have  any  of  the  coins  produced  until  about  three  months  after  the  opening 
of  the  Exposition.  In  order  to  have  them  then,  dies  for  the  gold  dollar  were 
made  by  a  private  concern  at  the  Exposition's  expense,  and  they  were  prob- 
ably the  first  United  States  coin  dies  to  be  made  by  other  than  Government 
employees  since  the  practical  organization  of  the  Mint;  the  San  Francisco 
octagonal  and  some  oblong  coinage  before  that  event  having  been,  as  we 
have  indicated  above,  due  to  private  enterprise,  and  accepted  by  business 
as  a  relief  from  the  too  great  uncertainties  of  dealing  with  nuggets  and 
In  spite  of  this  handicap,  the  Coinage  Department  took  in  $179,506  in 
the  Exposition  period,  and  151,966  in  the  post-Exposition  period.  The 
whole  net  return  of  the  Exposition's  coin  and  medal  business  after  deducting 




cost  of  material  and  all  administration  expense  came  to  ^65, 555.09.    This 
table  accounts  for  the  coins  handled: 

Half  Two-and-one-  Fijty  Dollars  Fifty  Dollars 

Dollars  Dollars  Half  Dollars  Octagonal              Round 

Coined 60,000  25,034            10,017  1,509                  i>5io 

Used  for  Assay              34  34                    17  9                        1° 

Available 59,966      25,000  10,000  1,500  1,500 

Sold 27,100     25,000  6,750  646  483 

Destroyed  at 

Mint 32,866  3,250  854  1,017 

The  production  of  the  souvenir  medals,  which  were  sold  about  the 
grounds,  began  with  the  opening  of  the  Exposition.  Robert  I.  Aitken's  design 
was  very  artistic  and  beautiful,  and  its  symbolism   was   thus  interpreted: 

"The  obverse  shows  a  winged  Mercury,  the  Messenger  of  Heaven,  the  first  of 
inventors,  the  furtherer  of  industry  and  of  commerce,  opening  the  locks  of  the 
Canal  through  which  passes  the  Argo,  symbol  of  navigation.  Upon  her  canvas 
the  setting  sun  is  reflected  as  she  sails  for  the  west. 

"The  quotation  'On!  Sail  On!'  from  Joaquin  Miller's  poem  to  Columbus,  is 
used  as  a  suggestion  of  the  uninterrupted  voyage  made  possible  by  the  Canal. 
There  is  also  the  inscription,  'To  commemorate  the  opening  of  the  Panama  Canal, 


"Upon  the  reverse  is  shown  the  central  motive,  The  Earth,  around  which  are 
entwined  two  female  forms  suggesting  the  two  hemispheres,  holding  in  their  hands 
cornucopias  typifying  abundance  These  are  so  arranged  in  the  design  as  to 
become  one,  the  idea  being  that  the  Canal  brings  together  the  wealth  of  the  world. 

"Below  these  flying  forms  is  shown  the  sea-gull,  the  bird  of  the  Canal  Zone. 
The  inscription  upon  this  side  reads,  'The  Panama-Pacific  International  Exposi- 
tion, San  Francisco,  California,  mcmxv.'" 

Beautiful  and  expressive  as  the  design  was,  it  had  an  unfortunate  and 
unforeseen  defect,  from  the  commercial  point  of  view.  The  artist  had  pre- 
sented Mercury  just  as  that  pilfering  messenger  used  to  flit  about  among  the 
gods  on  Olympus,  looking  ready  for  his  bath,  so  that  many  well-conducted 
persons,  not  sufficiently  inured  to  the  manners  of  Olympian  deities, 
hesitated  to  buy  the  medals  for  home  use.  They  were  cheap  enough  obstacle 
for  such  beautiful  things:  25  cents  for  the  bronze  in  fancy  finish, 
and  $1  for  the  silver.  On  special  days  the  bronze  were  sold  at  ten  cents. 
And  they  were  thicker  and  larger  in  diameter,  and  the  silver  ones  were 
of  a  better  grade  of  silver,  than  had  been  the  case  at  any  exposition  before. 


Yet  the  Department  of  Coins  and  Medals,  coming  into  contact  with  the 
public  through  its  sales  agents  about  the  grounds,  found  that  particular 
feature  of  the  design  to  which  we  have  alluded  an  obstacle  to  many  sales. 

These  medals  were  produced  as  a  coining  demonstration  in  the  Govern- 
ment exhibit  in  the  Palace  of  Mines  and  Metallurgy,  and  in  the  process 
every  step  from  the  melting  of  the  crude  bullion  to  the  turning  out  of  the 
finished  piece  was  shown. 

All  of  the  commemorative  Exposition  coins  were  struck  at  the  San  Fran- 
cisco Mint  and  bear  the  local  Mint's  mark — the  letter  "s."  They  were  the 
first  special  coins  struck  in  the  United  States,  by  the  Government,  outside 
the  Philadelphia  Mint.  The  Treasury  Department  did  not  consider  it 
practical  to  coin  the  half-dollars  at  its  exhibit  on  the  grounds,  as  permitted 
by  the  bill,  because  of  the  lack  of  the  safeguards  that  should  have  surrounded 
an  exclusive  Government  building.  The  large  number  of  pieces  authorized, 
200,000,  was  to  provide  ample  demonstration  for  the  public,  had  the  coins 
been  struck  on  the  grounds.     Sixty  thousand  were  coined. 

For  the  coining  of  the  $50  gold  pieces,  a  special  hydraulic  press  weighing 
fourteen  tons,  with  a  striking  power  of  four  hundred  and  fifty  tons,  ordina- 
rily used  at  the  Philadelphia  Mint  for  striking  medals,  was  delivered  to  the 
San  Francisco  Mint. 

The  striking  of  the  first  octagonal  50-dollar  gold  piece,  the  largest  coin 
ever  authorized  by  the  Government,  and  the  first  of  any  other  shape  than 
circular,  was  made  a  notable  occasion  at  the  Mint,  as  the  passage  of  the 
act  authorizing  it  was  a  rare  tribute  to  California  and  the  Exposition.  The 
Superintendent  Mr.  T.  W.  H.  Shanahan,  extended  invitations  to  represen- 
tatives of  the  Government,  the  State,  and  the  city,  to  officers  of  the 
Exposition,  representatives  of  foreign  governments,  and  members  of  the 
American  Numismatic  Association,  to  be  present  at  eleven  o'clock  on  the 
morning  of  June  21,  1915,  when  the  first  of  these  coins  was  struck.  The 
Treasury  Department  was  represented  by  Dr.  F.  P.  Dewey,  Acting  Director 
of  the  Mint,  Washington,  D.  C. 

Superintendent  Shanahan  produced  the  first  piece,  saying  he  was  about 
to  strike  the  first  50-dollar  coin  ever  issued  under  authority  of  law  in  the 
United  States,  and  that  it  should  be  of  particular  interest  to  all  Californians, 
as  it  not  only  commemorated  the  greatest  of  world  expositions, 
T  ,  but  the  historic  50-dollar  slug  of  pioneer  days.    He  then  pulled 

the  lever  and  handed  the  resultant  coin  to  President  Moore  for  in- 
spection. President  Moore  operated  the  lever  for  the  second  piece,  and  other 
members  of  the  party  took  their  turns  at  making  money,  keeping  up  the 
delightful  exercise  until  lunch  time.    In  all,  1,500  of  each  shape  were  coined. 


Designs  for  the  silver  half-dollar  and  the  gold  a^^-dollar  piece  were  by- 
Charles  E.  Barber  of  the  United  States  Mint.  The  half-dollar  was  one  of  the 
most  beautiful  coins  ever  made  in  this  country.  The  gold  dollar  was  de- 
signed by  Charles  Keck,  a  New  York  sculptor.  The  designs  for  the  50- 
dollar  pieces  were  by  Robert  I.  Aitken,  formerly  of  San  Francisco,  and  were 
practically  the  same  for  both  shapes,  the  round  and  the  octagonal.  Of  the 
gold  2^-dollar  pieces,  10,000  were  coined. 

The  gold  dollar  was  very  popular.  It  bore  on  the  obverse  side  an  ideal 
head  of  Labor,  through  whose  efforts  the  Panama  Canal  became  a  reality: 
the  first  time  Labor  had  been  so  honored  on  the  coinage  of  the  country.  Of 
this  piece,  25,000  were  coined  and  sold. 

The  coins  were  in  good  demand,  the  advance  orders  amounting  to  a  sales 
value  of  $40,000. 

Prices  were:  half-dollar,  silver,  $1  each,  or  6  for  $5;  one  dollar,  gold,  $2 
each,  or  6  for  $10;  two-and-one-half-dollars,  gold,  $4.  each,  or  6  for  $20;  fifty 
dollars,  gold,  round  and  octagonal,  |ioo  each.  Complete  sets  mounted  in 
metal  frames  or  leather  cases  sold  for  $200.  That  both  shapes  of  the  fifty- 
dollar  pieces  were  of  the  same  design  was  a  disappointment  and  in  many 
instances  limited  the  sale  to  one  coin.  On  this  account,  towards  the  close 
of  the  Exposition,  sets  with  choice  of  one  fifty-dollar  piece  were  sold  at  $100 

Many  sales  were  made  to  banks  throughout  the  country.  Usually  these 
were  of  sets,  mounted  in  metal  frames.  There  was  a  by-product  of  thousands 
of  columns  of  publicity  for  the  Exposition  from  this  part  of  the  business,  for 
the  banks  put  the  coins  on  view,  and  the  local  newspapers  wrote  compli- 
mentary articles  about  them.  Although  the  number  of  coins  sold  at  San 
Francisco  was  smaller  than  at  some  of  the  other  expositions,  the  sale  as  a 
whole  was  successful  beyond  any  other,  inasmuch  as  it  produced  the  largest 
net  revenue. 

With  the  close  of  the  Exposition  this  exhibit  was  moved  to  the  Palace  of 
Fine  Arts,  where  it  looked  very  much  at  home,  and  continued  as  a  sales 
agency  for  the  Exposition  coins  over  the  post-Exposition  period  to  May  i, 
191 6.  The  Department  was  continued  on  a  mail-order  basis  down  to 
November  i,  1916;  when,  at  the  request  of  the  Exposition  and  by  authority 
of  the  Secretary  of  the  Treasury,  the  coins  remaining  unsold  were  returned 
to  the  Mint  and  destroyed. 


IF  the  royal  shade  of  the  richest  king  that  sat  on  any  throne  a  century 
ago— even  old  Crcesus  himself,  who  was  somewhat  more  antique  than 
that— could  have  returned  to  visit  the  Palaces  of  Manufactures  and 
Varied  Industries  he  would  have  had  to  admit  that  he  was  born  too  soon, 
and  that  he  would  have  had  more  solid  comfort  in  life  if  he  had  postponed 
it  and  entered  the  twentieth  century  as  an  ordinary  American  citizen  earn- 
ing a  fair  salary,  or  just  good  wages. 

Our  royal  and  hypothetical  spook  would  have  learned  some  surpnsmg 
things.  We  can  imagine  his  inspecting  hundreds  of  articles  of  beauty  and 
use  that  ministered  to  the  comfort  of  life  at  hundreds  of  points  where  he  had 
been,  in  the  flesh,  decidedly  uncomfortable,  and  envying  the  royal  person- 
ages and  millionaires  of  the  present  for  whom  these  things  had  been  made. 
And  we  can  imagine  his  shock  of  surprise,  and  his  indignant  m- 
^^^^"  credulity,  when  informed  by  one  of  the  gray-uniformed  Exposi- 

"■^'"^  tion  guides,  that  carpenters,  and  bookkeepers,  and  reporters,  and 
physicians,  and  janitors,  and  stevedores,  and  lawyers,  and  school  teachers- 
plain,  ordinary  folk  like  that— could  possess  and  enjoy  many  of  these  per- 
fectly finished  and  beautiful  wares  that  he  had  never  seen  before,  and  had 
been  unable  to  come  at  through  any  use  of  money  and  power  whatever. 

Here  was  the  wealth  of  the  many.  It  was  scattered  all  through  the  Ex- 
position, of  course,  but  especially  it  was  here  in  the  Palaces  of  Manufactures 
and  Varied  Industries;  beautifully  finished  stuff  to  meet  competition  and  to 
express  the  artistic  impulse  of  the  manufacturer  when  he  had  that  impulse, 
and  much  of  it  cheap,  to  meet  the  market.  For  there  was  more  money  in 
working  for  the  modern  market  than  for  the  ancient  king,  more  in  serving 
the  people;  and  better  goods  could  be  made  doing  it,  and  had  to  be  made; 
better  every  year,  better,  as  a  rule,  by  machinery  than  by  hand,  better  and 
in  the  long  run  cheaper  in  hundred-thousand  lots  for  hundreds  of  thousands 
of  consumers  than  in  handmade  unique  articles  for  a  single  sale.  Industry 
for  the  people,  real  comfort  for  the  people,  wealth  produced  for  the  people 
by  the  organizers  of  industry;  that  was  the  tremendous  lesson  of  the  Depart- 




ment  of  Manufactures   and   Varied   Industries,  and   deeply  it  impressed 

itself.    If  old  Adam  Smith  could  have  come  out  of  his  Canongate 

grave  and  met  Edison  and  gone  about  those  Palaces  with  him       ^    .^'■^' 

and  observed  the  aspects  of  modern  commercialism  he  would  have 

seen  a  new  economic  heaven  and  a  new  economic  earth,  and  he  would  have 

liked    them. 

The  Palaces  of  Manufactures  and  of  Varied  Industries  housed  one  de- 
partment under  a  single  chief,  Mr.  Charles  H.  Green.  Those  affairs  of  the 
Palace  of  Varied  Industries  that  required  immediate  attention  were  looked 
after  by  Mr.  Walter  T.  Sweatt,  who  was  appointed  on  April  i,  1914  to  a 
position  in  this  Department,  and  who  spent  several  months  thereafter  at  the 
New  York  headquarters  of  the  Exposition  where  he  was  successful  in  interest- 
ing a  large  number  of  manufacturers  and  producers.  Later  he  became 
Superintendent  of  Varied  Industries. 

Mr.  Green's  wide  knowledge  of  the  manufacturing  field  and  his  per- 
tinacity in  interesting  and  attracting  producers  resulted  in  bringing  together 
at  San  Francisco  one  of  the  most  remarkable  exhibitions  of  manufactured 
products  ever  seen.  The  examples  were  selected  for  their  merit  and  signifi- 
cance, their  installations  were  effective  and  complete  in  almost  all  cases, 
and  their  number  was  very  large:  in  the  two  palaces  there  were  over  1,000 
domestic  exhibitors,  and  an  astounding  variety  of  exhibits  from  30  foreign 

The  Palace  of  Manufactures  was  470  by  552  feet  in  largest  extent  (but 
with  three  large  corners  cut  out  by  courts)  and  cost  J3 17,436;  and  it  was  full 
to  the  doors  with  things  that  people  need  and  that  make  life  more  livable. 
It  was  not  confined  to  the  crassly  utilitarian,  for  it  was  to  this  place  that  the 
English  sent  their  matchless  potteries  and  the  Italian  dealers  brought  their 
beautiful  marble  statuary,  copies  of  classic  art  turned  out  in  vast  quantity 
for  the  embellishment  of  numberless  homes.  And  here  the  Japanese  ex- 
hibited their  culture  pearls,  "manufactured"  by  a  surgical  operation  on  the 

The  classification  assigned  to  this  Department  such  things  as  carpet, 
tapestries,  upholsterers'  decorations,  hunting  equipment,  clocks,  silver- 
smiths' and  goldsmiths'  wares,  brushes,  leather  articles,  basketwork,  cutlery, 
stationery,  travelers'  articles,  rubber  and  gutta-percha  products,  cast-  and 
wrought-iron  objects,  fishing  equipment,  toys,  hardware,  and  wooden  ware, 
electro-thermal  apparatus,  ceramics,  equipment  and  processes  used  in  the 
manufacture  of  textiles  and  of  wearing  apparel  of  various  kinds,  threads, 
silk,  and  its  products,  leather  and  leather  goods,  safety  appliances,  gas  manu- 
facture and  distribution,  and  the  exemplifications  of  many  other  arts.    The 


exhibitors  included  representatives  of  Japan,  Italy,  France,  Great  Britain, 
and  Persia.  The  exquisite  products  of  the  "  Pearl  of  Asia"  glorified  the  place. 
Kings  never  did  have  to  bother  much  about  the  housework;  the  Queen, 
we  understand,  frying  for  breakfast  any  of  the  pudding  left  over  from  the 
night  before — or  so,  at  any  rate,  it  was  in  good  King  Arthur's  day.  The 
exhibit  of  the  General  Electric  Company,  the  "Home  Electrical,"  made  it 
look  as  if  in  a  short  time  nobody  else  would  have  to  bother  much  about  the 
housework,  either.      As  an  exhibition  of  the  number  of  domestic  uses  to 

which  electricity  has  been  harnessed  it  was  a  revelation.  A  hand- 
W^r*^^  some  little  Spanish-California  bungalow  was  built  in  a  corner  of 

the  Palace,  and  equipped  with  every  known  device  that  could  be 
used  in  a  home  and  actuated  by  electricity.  It  was  lighted,  heated,  and 
cooled  by  the  industrious  fluid.  There  was  apparatus  to  take  care  of  the 
work  of  the  butler,  the  maid,  the  cook,  the  masseur,  the  valet,  the  iceman, 
the  laundress,  the  furnace-tender,  the  coal  man  and  the  music  teacher. 
You  could  almost  afford  to  go  home  and  discharge  them  all.  The  rooms  had 
plenty  of  sockets  for  the  insertion  of  the  connecting  plugs,  because  trans- 
mission of  the  current  still  depended  on  wires;  some  day  it  may  not.  Every 
room  was  completely  furnished  and  decorated.  There  was  a  delightful 
absence  of  tricks  and  stunts.  The  sound  purpose  of  the  exhibit  was  to  show 
what  electricity  could  do  to  lighten  household  drudgery. 

In  the  bathroom  was  a  drying  apparatus  that  made  the  exertion  of 
toweling  your  hair  unnecessary;  a  blast  of  hot  air  did  the  work,  and  perhaps 
saved  you  a  cold  in  the  head.  There  were  patent  ventilating  mechanisms  in 
the  bedrooms  that  changed  the  air  without  making  a  draft.  In  the  livmg 
room  were  an  electric  grate  and  an  electric  piano.  The  dining  room  contamed 
handy  little  cooking  devices  for  light  repasts.  In  the  butler's  pantry  was  an 
electric  plate-warmer  that  made  things  hot  for  you  if  you  were  late  to  dinner, 
a  disc  stove  for  making  sauces,  and  an  electric  buffer  for  polishing  the  silver. 
The  kitchen  was  highly  electrified.  Besides  the  electric  stove,  just  coming 
into  use  but  not  yet  generally  adopted,  the  dishwasher,  refrigerator  and  ice- 
cream freezer  all  worked  by  the  current.  In  the  sewing  room  the  machine 
could  be  driven  all  day  for  a  few  cents,  and  electric  irons  were  handy. 
Throughout  the  house  there  ran  an  intercommunicating  telephone  system, 
and  there  were  facilities  for  vacuum-cleaning  by  electricity.  The  whole 
place  was  beautifully  lighted  in  the  latest  mode,  and  in  case  of 
0/  Interest    ^     „\^^y  ^  master  switch  at  the  bed  head  illuminated  every  room. 

toThousands  ^       J  ^,  .,,,,■        ,t       •  ^^ 

The  "Home  Electrical  and  its  life-size  rooms  were  constantly 
thronged,  not  by  the  merely  curious  but  by  people  that  had  a  serious  in- 
terest in  this  latest  phase  of  the  material  side  of  domestic  life.    A  quarter 


of  a  million  copies  of  thefloorplan  of  the  house,  with  the  necessary  outlets  and 
switches  indicated,  were  distributed,  to  show  architects,  owners,  and  builders 
how  to  plan  for  these  conveniences.  Inasmuch  as  many  visitors  failed  to 
get  them,  it  is  likely  that  the  attendance  here  was  far  above  this  number. 

In  connection  with  the  Home  Electrical,  there  was  an  electric  garage, 
workshop,  and  small  creamery.  And  in  the  courtyard  of  the  little  bungalow 
was  the  "Mazda  service"  research  laboratory,  where  the  public  could  see 
the  successive  steps  in  the  development  of  the  Mazda  lamp  from  its  earliest 
stages;  and  there  were  entertaining  talks  by  experts  on  the  manufacture  of 
these  articles. 

Mounted  on  special  display  boards  in  this  section  of  the  exhibit  were 
raw  materials,  parts  in  process  of  construction,  and  finished  parts,  tungsten 
ore,  ground  ore,  oxide  metal  and  wire,  tungsten  contacts,  tungsten  block, 
rods,  and  wire;  molybdenum  sheet,  rods,  and  wire;  various  types  of  brush  and 
contact,  copper-coated  iron  wire,  aluminum  coated  copper  wire,  alumina 
dies,  calorized  samples,  molded  compounds,  tungsten  tubes,  binel  metal, 
sheath  wire,  iron  crystals,  section  of  a  sheath-wire  unit,  therm-enamel-coated 
copper  wire,  Coolidge  tubes,  X-ray  targets,  a  tungsten  steel  tool  and  a  typi- 
cal shaving  turned  off  with  it,  a  compensator  lamp,  a  carbon  lamp,  a  gem 
lamp,  a  Mazda  tungsten  lamp,  and  a  gas-filled  compensator  lamp. 

There  was  an  apparatus  to  show  the  strength  of  tungsten  wire;  another 
to  show  the  magnified  image  of  a  lamp  filament;  a  spark  interrupter,  to  show 
tungsten  contacts  in  operation;  a  Coolidge  X-ray  tube  and  battery,  to  show 
the  filament  in  the  tube  lighted;  lamp  mounts,  to  show  the  flexibility  of 
Mazda  lamp  filaments;  copper  castings  and  X-ray  photographs,  to  show  the 
value  of  the  X-ray  tube  for  discovering  imperfections  in  castings;  a  photo- 
meter, to  show  how  the  candle  power  of  lamps  may  be  determined;  various 
insulation  materials;  apparatus  to  show  the  tone  of  iron  and  tungsten  wire; 
nitrogen  apparatus,  to  show  a  typical  nitrogen-purifying  installation;  argon 
apparatus  in  miniature,  to  show  how  argon  is  manufactured;  samples  of 
pure  metallic  boron  and  a  boron  regulator;  a  lamp  outfit  used  particularly 
to  regulate  car  lighting;  large  incandescent  lamps,  to  show  the  maximum 
amount  of  light  in  a  minimum-sized  bulb;  and  a  "lightning  bug"  display, 
for  scientists  were  still  striving  to  approach  the  efficiency  of  the  firefly  in 
producing  "cold  light"  with  the  proper  color  for  an  illuminant.  The  com- 
mercial incandescent-lamp  exhibit  was  arranged  in  an  Italian  pergola  at  the 
left  of  the  research  exhibit.  The  exhibit  of  the  General  Electric  Company 
was  a  great  exemplification  of  the  wondrous  arts  the  development  of  the  use 
of  electricity  has  added  and  is  continually  adding  to  that  sum  of  all  the  arts, 
the  art  of  living. 


The  Western  Electric  Company  made  a  general  exhibition  of  electrical 
goods  and  appliances,  particularly  telephones,  in  a  most  attractive  booth,  a 
central  enclosure  in  a  classic  style,  flanked  by  two  pergolas,  the  whole  loo 
feet  long.  The  main  display  feature  was  a  desk  telephone  made  of  wood, 
iron,  and  staff,  1 5  times  the  size  of  the  ordinary  phone.  On  the  frieze  above 
was  the  inscription  "Manufacturers  of  the  8,000,000  Bell  Telephones." 
On  the  back  wall  of  the  booth  two  flattened  hemispheres,  painted  to  rep- 
resent the  eastern  and  western  halves  of  the  globe,  showed  the 
Production  .  ■      throughout  the  world  in  which  the  Western  Electric  and 

of  Phones       ^^  °  .        ,      _  _,,         .   .  ■     j-  j  u 

its  allied  interests  mamtamed  offices.  The  cities  were  indicated  by 
small  electric  lamps,  which  flashed  simultaneously  every  12  seconds,  that 
being  the  rate  at  which  a  telephone  was  completed  at  the  company's  main 
factory.  Underneath  the  two  hemispheres  a  set  of  pictures  showed  the 
evolution  of  the  modern  form  of  desk  instrument. 

Electrical  apparatus  was  exhibited  here  in  a  bewildering  diversity.  The 
concern  is  a  heavy  manufacturer  of  lamps  and  other  electrical  goods.  On 
either  side  the  entrance  to  the  booth  was  a  Western  Electric  reel  of  200-pair, 
lead-covered  telephone  cable— so  heavy  that  special  supports  were  necessary 
to  keep  it  from  going  through  the  floor. 

One  of  the  interesting  exhibits  was  a  farm-lighting  outfit  consisting  of  a 
Western  Electric  generator,  switchboard,  and  30-volt  storage  battery,  all  on 
a  single  base,  ready  to  belt  to  a  gas  engine  or  any  other  "prime  mover" 
that  can  be  found  on  a  farm.  The  battery  was  charged,  in  the  exhibit,  by  a 
Standard  gas  engine,  and  used  to  light  a  bank  of  15  Mazda  lamps.  Then, 
there  was  an  interesting  line  of  Western  Electric  Household  Helps,  which 
included  vacuum-cleaners,  washing  machines,  dishwashers,  heating  devices, 
sewing-machine  motors,  electric  ranges,  fans.  The  general  exhibit  was  very 
complete  and  even  went  into  a  showing  of  the  timber  used  for  line  poles. 
In  fact,  it  was  a  small  electrical  exposition  in  itself,  within  the  scope  of  or- 
dinary use.  The  1,400-line,  i8-position  telephone  switchboard  used  by  the 
Exposition  telephone  system,  and  all  the  equipment,  including  some  77,247 
feet  of  telephone  cable,  were  made  and  furnished  by  this  company. 




IN  extent  and  beauty,  and  in  attractiveness  of  presentation,  one  of  the  most 
magnificent  exhibits  in  the  Palace  of  Manufactures  was  that  of  Japan. 
We  neither  qualify  nor  apologize  for  the  use  of  the  word  magnificent. 
San  Francisco  is  accustomed  to  the  finest  displays  of  Oriental  art  goods, 
Chinese  and  Japanese,  in  the  shops  of  her  Oriental  and  American  merchants, 
that  can  be  seen  in  the  world,  but  the  exhibit  in  the  Palace  of  Manufac- 
tures was  one  to  astonish  even  the  San  Franciscans. 

Japan  had  the  largest  section  in  the  Palace  of  Manufactures,  occupying 
almost  a  fifth  of  the  floor  space;  and  this  section  was  the  largest  she  filled 
in  any  of  the  nine  palaces  in  which  she  exhibited.  The  objects  were  mainly 
those  of  Japanese  trade  and  commerce,  drawn  from  the  special  localities 
that  produced  the  best  examples,  so  that  a  detailed  study  of  them 
would  have  involved  a  general  survey  of  the  development  of  the  ,  ,  ^'^" 
island  Empire  and  the  condition  of  its  industry  in  191 5.  For 
such  a  study  we  have,  of  course,  no  room  here,  "more's  the  pity."  There 
was  a  wealth  of  cloisonne,  of  rich  and  delicate  enameling,  of  damascene,  and 
of  marvelous,  embroidered  landscape  screens,  by  such  producers  as  Takashi- 
maya,  Nishimura,  and  Tanaka;  of  brocades,  cut  velvets,  mattings,  lacquer, 
jewelry,  toys  and  works  in  metal,  wood,  and  bamboo,  with  leather  goods  and 

Nature  has  given  us  few  materials  of  more  exquisite  beauty  than  tortoise- 
shell,  and  the  Japanese  are  masters  of  the  art  of  shaping  it.  In  this  exhibit 
was  an  eagle  standing  five  feet  high,  on  a  rock,  with  a  four-foot  spread  of 
wing,  composed  entirely  of  this  amber-like  substance.  The  plumage  was 
made  in  plates  of  it,  and  the  power  depicted  in  the  poise  of  the  royal  bird  of 
prey  was  expressed  with  as  much  force  and  fluency  as  it  could  have  been  in 
any  material.  With  the  eagle  was  a  beautiful  exhibit  of  boxes,  paper  knives, 
hair  ornaments,  and  fans,  in  shell;  and  a  vase  of  it,  inlaid  with  gold,  silver,and 
abalone.    These  works  were  shown  by  Ezaki. 

Porcelains  in  beautiful  sets  to  conform  to  western  ideas  were  exhibited 
by  the  Nippon  factory  at  Nagoya,  the  largest  in  the  Empire. 



Another  attractive  part  of  the  Japanese  exhibit  in  Manufactures  was  the 
collection  of  culture  pearls;  real  pearls  formed  by  the  oyster,  after  treat- 
ment. The  production  of  the  gems  in  this  manner  had  been  extensively 
developed  in  the  decade  preceding  the  Exposition,  and  the  Mikimoto 
Company  made  a  large,  almost  a  sum.ptuous,  display,  which 
^earh^  included  a  copy  of  an  Imperial  Japanese  war  fan.  This  exquisite 
object,  a  sort  of  field  marshal's  baton,  was  23-inches  long  and  1 2 
wide,  embroidered  in  gold  threads  on  antique  lilac  silk,  and  embellished  with 
over  800  pearls.  Handle  and  stem  were  of  gold.  The  original  had  been 
brought  from  Korea  300  years  before  by  Taiko  Toyotomi,  a  great  warrior, 
and  is  now  kept  among  the  Imperial  treasures.  All  the  culture  pearls  in  this 
exhibit  were  very  beautiful,  being  grown  upon  the  shell  of  the  oyster  by 
introducing  a  bit  of  mother-of-pearl  or  coral,  on  which  the  nacreous  matter 
is  deposited.  A  small  piece  of  pink  coral  thus  inserted  would  tint  the  whole 
gem,  and  other  colors  could  be  obtained  by  a  similar  process. 

The  famous  potters  of  Seto,  and  of  Kyoto,  such  as  Shimizu  and  Kinkozan, 
showed  some  of  their  finest  wares.  The  ivory  carvers  had  outdone  them- 
selves. No  small  object  in  this  Palace  caused  more  comment  than  the 
carving  in  ivory  of  a  half-peeled  banana.  Its  creamy  and  delicate  tint  made 
it  look  good  enough  to  eat. 

There  was  a  large  collection  of  elaborate  carved  and  gilded  household 
shrines,  in  which  images  of  Buddha  and  tablets  for  the  dead  are  kept. 

Japan's  exhibit  was  easily  the  dominating  feature  of  this  Palace  (if  we 
omit  the  official  Persian  section,)  not  merely  on  account  of  its  extent,  but 
for  the  beauty  and  the  astonishing  variety  of  the  articles  displayed,  and  the 
pleasing  atmosphere  of  art  as  an  essential  part  of  life,  that  surrounded  it. 

Probably  next  in  interest  in  this  Palace  were  the  commercial  exhibits 
from  Italy:  conspicuously,  the  Italian  marbles,  the  bronzes,  the  Venetian 
laces,  the  copies  of  Pompeian  antiques,  the  Neapolitan  and  Genoese  jewelry, 
the  Florentine  embroideries.  The  exhibits  were  put  in  by  such  firms  as 
Pietro  Cattadori  of  Venice,  by  Romanelli  Brothers,  by  Frilli  of  Ferrara, 
Carlotta  Scarlatti  of  Genoa,  and  Pochini,  Battigli,  Volterra, 
^'J'  Coloni,  and  Vichi  of  Florence,  by  Mellilo  of  Naples,  and  Chiurazzi 

^"  ^  of  Naples,  and  Morelli  of  Torre  del  Greco,  and  many  more.  They 
crowded  a  considerable  section  of  the  Palace  of  Manufactures  with  the 
largest  and  most  beautiful  collection  of  marble  statuary  ever  brought  to- 
gether in  one  place— the  sort  of  thing  people  go  to  Europe  to  buy  and  prob- 
ably the  finest  reproductions  from  the  antique  to  be  found  in  the  world. 

Here  you  could  see  reproductions  of  the  Winged  Victory  in  the  Louvre, 
of  the  Crouching  Venus  of  the  Vatican,  of  Canova's  Three  Graces,  and 


Cupid  and  Psyche,  the  Venus  de  Medici,  and  the  Wrestlers  from  the  Uffizi — 
and  some  queer  juxtapositions,  historically  and  socially:  Cleopatra  and 
Washington,  and  Semiramis  and  Lincoln  side  by  side.  There  were  many 
modern  subjects  in  colored  marbles.  Some  famous  modern  Italian  sculptors 
were  represented.  Besides  the  marbles  there  were  reproductions  of  bronzes 
in  the  Naples  Museum,  and  copies  of  Pompeian  and  Renaissance  jewelry. 
There  were  mosaics,  corals,  furniture,  and  handsome  specimens  of  antique 

Marshall  Cutler  of  Florence  had  an  exhibit  of  handsome  furniture. 
There  were  rare  silk  fabrics  from  Milan,  and  Como,  andTreviglio,  and  Monza 
and  Turin. 

The  Italian  Section  was  most  popular,  and  was  constantly  thronged,  and 
many  sales  were  made.  Copies  of  popular  subjects,  usually  sentimental  or 
classical,  were  sold  again  and  again,  and  the  sale  cards  attached  to  the 
samples  grew  into  long  strings. 

Without  government  help  or  encouragement  of  any  sort,  British  mer- 
chants and  manufacturers  made  a  most  interesting  exhibit  in  the  Palace  of 
Manufactures.  The  British  Government  never  receded  from  its  decision 
not  to  participate  in  the  Exposition,  seeing,  perhaps,  the  European  conflict 
on  the  way,  and  needing  to  keep  at  home  all  the  administrative  talent  it 
could  command.  Indeed,  to  such  a  degree  did  the  war  absorb  the  national 
energies  that  a  committee  of  citizens  appointed  at  the  Mansion  House, 
London,  under  the  auspices  of  various  commercial  organizations  to  promote 
participation  at  San  Francisco,  had  to  disband  because  when  the  war  came, 
the  members  were  too  busy  to  attend  to  anything  else.  And  yet,  about  70 
British  firms  exhibited  in  the  Exposition,  and  they  represented  the  best  in 
their  respective  lines  of  production.  Even  the  Mersey  Docks  and  Harbor 
Board  was  represented  by  an  exhibit  in  the  Transportation  Palace,  and 
there  were  good  exhibits  in  the  Palaces  of  Food  Products,  of  Horticulture,and 
of  Fine  Arts. 

Many  a  visitor  to  the  Palace  of  Manufactures  will  recall  with  the  greatest 
pleasure  the  collection  of  English  ceramics,  the  Doulton  ware,  Vasco  ware, 
the  table  sets  in  fine  porcelain,  the  products  of  the  celebrated  potters  of 
Staffordshire;  of  Adams,  Williams  &  Company,  of  Baker  &  Company,  of 
Birks,  Rowlands  &  Company,  of  Gibson,  or  Fielding,  or  Goss,  or 
•Myott,  or  Plant,  or  Wilkinson,  or  the  Booths,  or  Bernard  Moore.  Pott!^i^s 
They  were  all  beautiful  or  interesting  or  quaint,  and  some  were 
exquisite  in  form  and  coloring.  There  were  dinner  plates  of  royal  Doulton 
worth  hundreds  of  dollars  apiece.  Some  of  the  vases  and  jugs  of  Bernard 
Moore  were   indescribable    in    their    colorings — sang-de-bceuf,  peachblow, 


haricot,  rouge  flambe,  goXd  flambe  and  the  lustres.  Here  you  could  under- 
stand the  mammoth  prices  collectors  have  been  willing  to  give  in  order  to 
reduce  some  of  these  things  to  possession. 

Near  these  beautiful  objects  stood  the  particularly  utilitarian  exhibit  of 
the  Gas  Light  &  Coke  Company  of  London,  which  operates  at  Beckton, 
England,  the  largest  works  in  the  world  for  the  treatment  of  coal  gas  and 
coal-tar  products.  To  name  a  few  of  the  more  common  products  shown, 
there  was  pitch,  and  refined  tar,  and  carbolic  acid,  and  ammoniacal  liquor. 
And  there  was  anhydrous  ammonia,  liquefied  carbonic-acid  gas,  and  lique- 
fied sulphureted  hydrogen  in  tubes.  There  was  a  long  line  of  dyes  and 
colors  and  a  long  list  of  valuable  chemicals  in  the  sulphur  and  cyanide 
groups;  not  forgetting  toluol,  the  base  of  many  fine  dyes,  and  also  of  trini- 
trotoluol, probably  the  most  energetic  explosive  known  at  that  time,  although 
it  was  said  to  have  been  transcended  by  the  British  before  the  war  was  over. 

This  exhibit  was  a  rather  persuasive  demonstration  of  the  English  mas- 
tery over  coal-tar  chemistry,  so  it  may  be  interesting  to  note  some  of  the 
items  of  it.  Besides  those  mentioned  there  were:  benzol,  nitro-benzine, 
aniline,  aniline  salt,  solvent  naphtha,  heavy  naphtha,  miscible  carbolic  acid, 
salicylic  acid,  creosote  in  various  forms,  naphthaline  in  various 
p"^d  Ts  forms,  naphthaline  scarlet,  anthracine  oil,  green  oil,  alizarin, 
carbazol,  prussiate  of  soda,  and  many  beautiful  colors  such  as 
cyanogen  purple,  English  green,  Hatchett's  brown,  cyanogen  green  and 
cyanogen  yellow,  and  canarin.  Many  were  for  exhibit  purposes  only,  and 
the  company  was  not  prepared  to  put  them  out  commercially,  but  they  were 
none  the  less  interesting  for  that. 

There  was  an  object  in  the  French  section  of  the  Palace  of  Manufactures 
that  arrested  general  attention  from  every  person  passing  near,  and  that 
was  a  French  75-millimeter  gun,  manufactured  by  Schneider  &  Cie,  of 
Creusot;  one  of  those  that  were  doing  and  were  to  do  such  execution  on  the 
battlefields  of  Europe.  It  was  before  the  year-long  German  drive  at  Verdun 
had  started,  and  yet  the  fine-lined,slim-barreled  thing  had  already  become  a 
figure  in  history,  and  this  example  had  a  group  of  admirers  standing  about  it 
pretty  continuously  as  long  as  the  Palace  doors  were  open.  The  ammunition 
was  shown;  and  there  were  models  of  howitzers  in  a  case. 

France  occupied  a  generous  section  of  the  Palace  of  Manufactures.  One 
of  the  best  of  her  exhibit  lines  was  leather,  of  which  her  tanners  produce  a 
beautiful  quality  for  upholstering,  bookbinding,  and  the  finer  uses  of  the 
crafts.  But  besides  this  dainty  material,  dainty  in  finish  and  in  color,  there 
were  some  striking  examples  of  sole-leather  gears,  cams  and  pulleys  for  heavy 




In  another  case  was  a  model   of  a   Schneider  submarine,  as  used  in 
the  navy  of  Greece,  and   a  photograph  showed   a  submarine  entering  a 
"  Kanguroo  "  or  mother  ship  that  had  a  chamber  for  it  in  the  hull. 
One  of  the  French  exhibits  in  this  section  was  a  'ioo-horse-nower     .,   ,  '^"^ 

,.,  .,  .  ii-iii  Machinery 

high-speed  vertical  steam  engine,  exhibited  by  the  Soci'et'eAnotjyme 

des  Anciens  Etablissements  Delaunay-Belleville,  of  Saint  Denis.    With  it  went 

a  stationary  boiler  with  superheater  and  economiser. 

Liqueurs  and  cordials  were  exhibited  in  cases.  There  were  models  of 
passenger  liners  of  the  most  modern  appointment,  while  some  of  the  hotels 
of  the  famous  resorts  and  watering  places  of  France  added  a  booth  fitted  with 
dioramas  of  the  scenery  surrounding  them.  The  French  colonies  in  Africa, 
Madagascar,  and  Indo-China  were  represented  by  pictures  and  small  wares 
and  there  was  one  very  curious  object  that  drew  a  good  deal  of  attention — 
the  throne  of  the  King  of  Annam,  gilded,  heavily  carved  and,  like  most 
thrones,  very  uncomfortable. 


ONE  of  the  most  beautiful  features  of  the  entire  Palace  of  Manufactures 
was  the  official  Persian  Section  of  4,000  square  feet,  equipped  and 
furnished  through  the  energy  and  resources  of  Mirza  Ali-Kuli  Khan, 
Nabil-ed-Dovleh,  Persian  Charge  d' Affaires  at  Washington,  appointed 
Persian  Commissioner  General  at  San  Francisco  by  H.  I.  M.  the  Shah. 
Here  the  ancient  arts  and  storied  wealth  of  Persia  were  illustrated  in  pearls 
that  "lay  under  Oman's  green  water,"  in  diamonds  that  once  adorned  a 
crown,  in  rubies  of  great  price,  in  tapestries  like  woven  paintings,  m  gold 
brc-.ades,  rich  embroideries  and  hand-loom  velvets,  in  rugs  of  rare  design 
and  exquisite  weave,  in  ancient  pottery  and  strange  mosaics,  in  miniatures, 
and  old  manuscripts  and  illuminated  copies  of  the  Koran  and  the  Persian 
poets.  Here  were  chests  of  treasure  such  as  we  came  upon  in 
^I'^^f  childhood  in  the  Arabian  Nights,  limitless  in  their  possibilities, 
and  haunted  with  the  mysterious  atmosphere  and  elusive  odors  of 
the  Orient.  Persia  did  not  erect  a  pavilion,  as  its  government  had  intended, 
owing  to  disturbances  incident  to  the  European  war  and  the  transition  to  a 
constitutional  regime  at  home,  but  made  her  official  representation  in  this 

The  Persian  section  contained  that  most  delightful  spot  to  every  dis- 
criminating visitor,  the  "Shah's  Room,"  representing  one  of  the  chambers 
in  the  Museum  Palace  at  Teheran.  Here,  with  exotic  treasures  and  art 
works  all  about,  it  became  credible  that  in  the  sixth  century,  while  the  an- 
cestors of  most  Americans  were  a  lot  of  gibbering  savages,  a  Sassanian  king 
had  paid  the  equivalent  of  three  quarters  of  a  million  dollars  for  a  single 
carpet.  All  the  walls  of  the  section  were  covered  with  the  rarest  textiles 
done  in  the  rug  provinces  of  Persia  sometimes  as  far  back  as  the  twelfth 
century;  but  the  Shah's  Room  contained  the  gems  of  furniture,  of  weaving 
and  painting  and  calligraphy;  and,  in  glass  cases,  the  famous  royal  crown 
piece  of  two  green  diamonds  weighing  about  70  carats,  strings  of  shimmer- 
ing pearls,  a  great  turquoise  from  Nashapur,  and  a  ten-carat  Badakshan 
ruby  which  had  come  into  possession  of  Nadir  Shah  when  he  conquered 



Persia  in  the  seventeenth  century.  Here  was  a  little  diamond  rose  bush 
made  by  Persian  artisans  over  300  years  ago,  a  necklace  of  95  rubies,  dia- 
monds, and  pearls  said  to  have  been  presented  two  centuries  ago  by  an  In- 
dian queen  to  a  Persian  princess;  and  a  Kirman  rug  on  which  successive 
Shahs  had  stood  while  giving  audience. 

A  catalogue  of  this  collection  would  occupy  a  great  deal  of  space  and  con- 
vey httle  sense  of  its  richness  and  beauty,  but  a  few  items  should  be  recorded. 

There  was  a  copy  of  the  Koran  written  on  a  scroll  of  about  twelve  yards 
of  silk  paper  2>^-inches  wide,  to  be  worn  in  a  curious  little  lacquered  case  as 
part  of  a  bracelet — a  sort  of  theological  wrist  watch.  Another  specimen  of 
artistic  calligraphy  was  a  copy  of  the  Bustan  of  Saadi,  the  work  of 
Mir  Emad,  chief  calligrapher  of  the  court  of  Shah  Abbas,  and  Manuscripts 
said  to  be  the  only  complete  book  in  existence  by  his  hand.  Such 
work  has  a  peculiar  aesthetic  value  to  an  Oriental;  to  a  Westerner  it  looks  like 
a  perfume  written  on  parchment. 

There  was  a  rosary  of  pure  black  amber,  some  armor  from  the  early 
Mohammedan  period,  some  wonderful  glazings  in  the  antique  pottery  ex- 
humed at  Rhages,  and  some  remarkable  amulets  of  Yemen  agates,  exqui- 
sitely wrought  by  Persian  engravers,  with  verses  from  the  Koran.  One 
plaque  excavated  from  the  ruins  at  Ecbatana  portrayed  the  early  Persian 
conception  of  the  Deity;  Ahuramazda  enfolded  in  great  wings  symbolizing 
divine  power,  his  head  adorned  with  the  sacred  fire.  In  the  woven  scenes 
of  the  tapestries,  and  in  the  delicate  miniature  paintings  and  lacquers  you 
met  old  Bible  characters  as  known  to  the  East.  One  sixteenth-century  bit  of 
pen-and-ink  work  depicted  Job  sitting  on  his  favorite  dunghill  scraping 
himself  with  a  potsherd.  Another  showed  Joseph  in  prison,  and  another 
Daniel  in  the  lions'  den  trying  to  spoil  the  largest  lion's  appetite  by  stuffing 
him  with  a  large  loaf  of  bread.  And  a  creamy-white  velvet  tapestry  of 
Kashan  showed  Adam  and  Eve  in  Eden,  with  apples  in  both  hands,  while  a 
line  of  seated  male  figures  represented  mystic  Sufis  engaged  in  contempla- 
tion— probably  of  what  was  going  to  happen  to  Adam  and  Eve.  Adam  and 
Eve  were  not  dressed  yet,  but  the  raiment  of  the  Sufis  was  in  what  was 
known  as  the  "lost  color,"  a  shade  of  red  said  to  have  been  unattainable 
through  any  ordinary  dye  for  centuries. 

Many  of  the  Persian  Government  exhibits  failed  to  reach  San  Francisco 
on  account  of  the  European  War,  which  broke  out  while  they  were  in  transit, 
so  that  they  had  to  be  recalled  at  the  frontier.  Yet  the  rugs  which  the  ener- 
getic Commissioner  General  collected  were  said  to  have  been  the  finest  and 
most  valuable  collection  ever  publicly  exhibited  in  America;  and  doubtless 
the  same  could  be  said  of  the  pottery  collection. 


The  Persian  Section  was  opened  to  the  public  on  July  28,  and  the  open- 
ing was  celebrated  with  appropriate  ceremonies  in  a  beautifully  decorated 
corner  of  the  Court  of  the  Universe.  H.  I.  M.  Sultan  Ahmad  Shah  Kadjar, 
the  Shah  of  Persia,  sent  a  cablegram  of  congratulation  to  Mirza  Ali-Kuli 
Khan,  and  there  were  appreciative  addresses  by  Judge  Lamar  the 
opening  National  Exposition  Commissioner,  Mr.  M.  H.  de  Young,  a  Vice- 
President  of  the  Exposition,  who  presented  the  bronze  testimonial 
to  the  Commissioner  General,  by  State  Commissioner  Arthur  Arlett,  repre- 
senting the  Governor  of  California,  by  Mr.  Edward  Rainey,  representing 
Mayor  Rolph,  by  Mirza  Ali-Kuli  Khan  in  response,  and  by  several  others. 
H.  A.  van  Coenen  Torchiana  presided.  A  most  enjoyable  reception  was 
held  at  the  Persian  Section,  which  became  the  scene  of  similar  events  weekly 
thereafter,  when  lectures  on  the  art  of  Persia  were  given  by  that  accom- 
plished Orientalist  the  Commissioner  General.  The  exhibit  attracted  great 
multitudes  throughout  the  remainder  of  the  season. 

The  Persian  Commission  consisted  of  Mirza  Ali-Kuli  Khan,  Commis- 
sioner General;  Mme.  Ali-Kuli  Khan  Moraveh-es-Sultaneh,  official  hostess 
of  the  Persian  Section;  Miss  Mahin-Banou  Behjates-Sultaneh;  Hon.  Harry 
Thornton  Moore,  Persian  Consul  at  San  Francisco  and  Resident  Com- 
missioner; Mrs.  Harry  Thornton  Moore;  Amir  Mozaffar-ed-Din  Khan; 
Mohammed  Ameen  Khan;  Mirza  Bonzorgdadeh  E.  Khan;  Abbas  Kuli- 
Khan;  Allah  Kuli-Khan;  Mirza  Zaheeral  Memalek;  and  Mirza  Davoud 




SOME  idea  of  the  abundance  and  miscellaneous  character  of  product 
exhibited  in  the  Palace  of  Manufactures  may  be  derived  from  the 
fact  that  there  were  eleven  different  exhibitors  of  brushes  and  fine 
leather  articles;  nineteen  of  office  and  household  furniture;  seven  of  articles 
for  traveling  and  camping;  five  of  hunting  equipment;  twenty-four  of  hard- 
ware and  wooden  ware;  four  of  electro-thermal  apparatus;  fifteen  of  appa- 
ratus and  processes  for  heating  and  ventilating;  seven  of  equipment  and 
processes  used  in  sewing  and  making  wearing  apparel;  sixteen  of  furs  and 
skins,  boots  and  shoes;  eight  of  safety  appliances;  and  there  were  many 
other  large  and  varied  groups. 

It  was  not  all  beautiful.  Some  of  the  exhibits  were  simply  downright 
useful.  People  not  only  need  thehigherlifeofthe  spirit,  but  they  have  to  cook 
and  eat,  and  it  was  a  comfort  to  find  plenty  of  stoves  and  ranges,  and  kitchen 
cutlery,  hardware  and  tools,  and  such  a  very  domestic  array  as  that  of  the  col- 
lective gas  exhibit,  with  its  heaters,  broilers,  percolators,  and  chafing  dishes. 

Paintings,  pastels,  etchings,  and  embroideries  were  shown  in  the  Palace 
of  Fine  Arts.  The  Palace  of  Manufactures  had  a  picture  done  in  hardware. 
It  was  48  feet  long  and  32  high,  and  contained  over  10,000  pieces 
of  hardware  and  2000  feet  of  chain.  It  showed  a  clock  tower,  a  picture 
waterfall  of  rotating  auger  bits,  a  fountain  of  chain.  It  belonged 
definitely  in  the  "stunt"  category,  but  was  large  and  curious  and  full  of 
moving  parts,  and  so  attracted  considerable  attention.  It  was  built,  or  per- 
haps we  should  say  composed,  for  the  Simmons  Hardware  Company  by 
William  J.  Britt.  An  illustration  of  his  versatility  and  mastery  of  media 
was  to  be  found  in  the  composition  of  the  Burne-Jones  angels  that  occupied 
the  spandrels  of  the  proscenium  arch.  The  hair  of  these  angels  was  made 
of  brass  chain,  their  armlets  were  of  brass  butts  and  furniture  nails,  the 
draperies  were  limned  in  flowing  lines  of  jack-chain,  the  trumpets  were  made 
of  bit  extensions  and  spoke  pointers,  and  the  wings,  great  pinions  of  rushing 
power,  were  feathered  with  case  knives,  butcher  knives,  and  soup  spoons. 
How  this  picture  escaped  Mr.  Trask  was  a  problem. 



As  a  servant  of  manufacturing  in  general,  autogenic  soldering,  or  welding 
by  the  oxy-acetylene  flame,  was  exhibited  by  the  Davis-Bournonville  Com- 
pany. A  tiny  flame  of  pencil-point  concentration  and  intense  heat  was 
directed  on  a  joint  of  metal,  and  the  edges  were  fused  together;  and  that 
was  all — but  it  was  comparatively  new,  and  the  apparatus  necessary  had 
not  been  long  in  existence.  Things  moved  rapidly  in  the  twentieth  century, 
however,  and  by  the  time  of  the  Exposition  this  method  was  being  used  for 
pipe,  tube,  and  barrel  welding,  in  car  building,  for  making  and  patching 
metal  automobile  bodies,  for  welding  boilers  and  tanks,  and  in  the  construc- 
tion of  steel  sash,  doors,  and  furniture.  As  this  matter  goes  to  press,  experi- 
ments are  being  made  toward  joining  structural  steel  for  bridges  by  this 
method  instead  of  riveting. 

How  cork  is  made  and  who  puts  the  little  holes  in  it  are  questions  that 
have  worried  the  curious  for  a  long  time.  Some  people  "always  knew"  it 
was  the  bark  of  a  tree  that  grew  in  Portugal  or  Spain  or  some  such  place, 
while  others  supposed  it  came  from  the  sea,  like  the  sponges,  and  others 
again  merely  looked  upon  it  as  an  obstruction  to  be  removed  as 
Exhibit  quickly  as  possible.  There  was  a  fine  cork  exhibit  in  the  Palace 
of  Manufactures,  by  the  Armstrong  Cork  Company  and  the 
Armstrong  Cork  &  Insulation  Company  of  Pittsburg,  Pa.,  and  small  and 
very  readable  pamphlets  were  distributed  so  that  the  public  might  know 
all  about  it.  This  informative  feature  characterized  almost  all  the  exhibits, 
to  the  exclusion  of  mere  stunts  and  tricks,  so  that  throughout  the  exhibit 
Palaces  the  efi^ect  was  educational  in  a  high  degree. 

This  cork  exhibit,  for  example,  showed  the  oak  from  which  the  bark  is 
stripped — a  specimen  consisting  of  the  entire  bark  of  a  real  trunk,  with 
branches.  Many  objects  into  which  cork  is  made  besides  bottle  stoppers 
were  displayed,  and  the  literature  and  pictures  explained  the  intervening 

From  these  illustrations  you  might  well  infer  that  cork  culture  is  not  a 
get-rich-quick  business,  and  that  any  promoter  that  promises  to  sow  the 
stoppers  of  homeopathic  pill  bottles  this  Fall  and  reap  a  crop  of  Veuve 
Cliquot  corks  about  the  time  the  radishes  are  ripe  in  the  Spring  is  too 
optimistic.  Cork  is  worse  than  a  box  hedge.  You  must  have  your  grand- 
father plant  the  trees  when  he  is  a  young  man.  If  he  was  too  busy  putting 
in  a  tobacco  crop  or  doctoring  a  sick  horse,  no  amount  of  hustling  on  your 
part  will  make  up  for  his  neglect,  and  if  you  want  a  bearing  cork  orchard 
you  will  have  to  buy  it,  and  the  owner  will  charge  you  a  great  deal  of  money. 

Cork  was  used  by  the  Greeks  and  Romans  2000  years  ago,  and  some  use 
it  yet.    They  used  it  for  the  stoppers  of  wine  vessels,  for  floats  and  buoys, 


for  insoles.  Doubtless  Socrates  wore  it  in  his  sandals.  In  25  b.c.  Horace 
(the  poet  Horace,  in  that  year — not  b.c.  Horace)  told  a  friend  that  he 
was  going  to  take  the  cork  out  of  a  jar  of  good  old  material  that  had  ripened 
on  some  Sabine  hillside  about  70  B.C.,  and  he  had  better  drop  around. 
This  is  an  important  record  of  cork  and  poetry. 

Modern  life  makes  every  use  of  cork  that  ancient  life  did,  and  many 
more:  heat  insulation,  linoleum,  even  paving  bricks.  The  United  States 
imports  about  ^5,000,000  worth  of  it  annually,  mainly  from  Spain  and 
Portugal.  Nature  does  not  seem  to  have  intended  that  the  covering  of 
quercus  suber  should  be  used  in  these  ways,  for  the  first  stripping  of  it  when 
the  tree  is  about  twenty  years  old  is  the  knurliest  and  most 
unpromising  stuff  known  except  the  skin  on  an  African  wart-hog.  the^rop 
Its  removal  improves  the  tree's  complexion,  however,  and  in 
about  ten  years  another  layer  can  be  taken  off  that  is  more  even  and  of 
better  grade.  If  the  cork  farmer  can  wait  around  now  for  about  nine 
years,  or  until  the  tree  is  about  40  years  old,  a  good  layer  can  be  stripped 
from  it,  and  after  that  it  will  produce  its  crops  at  the  astonishing  speed  of 
one  in  nine  years  or  so  and  keep  it  up  for  about  100  years.  So  that  if  the 
trees  were  planted  long  before  you  were  born  they  will  be  productive  for 
some  time  after  you  die.  But  it  takes  patience.  This  may  in  part,  and  by 
analogy,  explain  why  so  many  of  the  boys  leave  the  farm.  Perhaps  the 
most  astonishing  thing  about  cork  is  that  after  all  these  years  of  such  culti- 
vation no  very  good  substitute  for  it  has  been  found,  or  at  least  brought 
into  general  use. 

The  city  of  Waltham,  Massachusetts,  had  a  collective  exhibit  in  which 
displays  were  made  by  some  of  the  foremost  American  manufacturers, 
especially  in  the  lines  of  linoleum,  carpet,  and  textiles. 

The  Brunswick-Balke-Collender  Company  made  a  handsome  showing 
of  bar  and  cigar  store  fixtures,  and  equipment  for  billiard  rooms  and  bowling 
alleys.  One  of  these  products  is  less  important  now.  On  the  green  table 
in  this  booth  many  good  billiard  matches  were  played,  and  the  attention 
they  attracted  suggested  that  this  sport  might  be  better  developed  by  the 
next  exposition.  The  booth  was  ornamented  by  the  skull  of  a  Zanzibar 
elephant  with  a  pair  of  fine  tusks. 

The  United  States  Leather  Company  had  a  good  exhibit  of  hides  in 
several  styles  of  tanning.  Kullman,  Salz  &  Company,  of  Benicia  and  San 
Francisco,  made  an  impressive  showing  of  California  tanned  hides  as  well 
as  California  tan  bark,  the  latter  said  to  be  the  best  known.  In  fact  the 
leather  industry,  from  saddles  to  shoes,  was  well  and  thoroughly  exploited 
in  this  Palace. 


Here,  too,  was  a  visual  feast  for  the  gun  cranks.  The  Fox  Gun  Company, 
of  Philadelphia,  made  a  fine  showing  of  shot  guns,  the  Savage  Arms 
Company,  of  Utica,  N.  Y.,  the  Remington  Arms-Union  Metallic  Cartridge 
Company,  of  Ilion,  N.  Y.,  and  Bridgeport,  Conn.,  the  Winchester  Repeating 
Arms  Company,  of  New  Haven,  Conn.,  exhibited  the  latest  im- 
Rifies^''"  provements  in  repeating  and  automatic  rifles.  The  Winchester 
was  especially  good,  with  its  cut-open  barrels  and  exposed  lock 
mechanisms.  The  Savage  Company  showed  its  new  automatic  pistol,  and 
the  Remington  featured  ammunition,  besides  making  a  most  satisfying 
exhibit  of  repeaters  and  self-loaders,  so  exposed  that  you  could  handle  them, 
operate  them,  and  try  their  weight,  balance  and  pull. 

The  American  Laundry  Machinery  Company  demonstrated  to  what  a 
great  extent  even  the  washing  of  clothing  has  become  a  matter  of  machinery. 
Here  were  machines  for  washing  and  then  drying  in  wholesale  lots,  great 
cylinders  that  could  handle  the  soiled  linen  output  of  large  hotels;  and  other 
machines  for  ironing  collars  into  that  cast  iron  rigidity  which  slavery  to 
convention  seems  to  require,  while  others  would  press  a  shirt  front  until 
it  was  hard  enough  to  turn  a  bullet.  There  was  an  ironer  here  that  would 
iron  1 6  sheets  a  minute. 

There  were  some  good  working  exhibits  in  this  Palace,  and  among  them 
the  one  that  probably  received  the  most  attention  was  that  of  the  Bowers 
Rubber  Works  of  San  Francisco.  Here,  in  a  circular  loom  of  whirling  and 
bewildering  parts,  was  woven  the  tubular  cotton  fabric  for  rubber-lined 
garden  hose.  Some  rubber-working  processes  were  shown.  In  a  calender 
mill,  for  example,  the  gum  was  kneaded  and  mixed  and  rolled  into  sheets 
for  all  the  uses  to  which  sheets  of  this  material  can  be  put.  And  there  were 
all  kinds  of  rubber  product  here;  conveyor  belting,  vanners  for  ore  milling, 
piston  packing,  and  the  various  forms  and  products  of  rubber  goods. 

The  Levenson  Company,  of  San  Francisco,  had  a  good-sized  broom  fac- 
tory in  full  operation,  turning  out  many  styles  of  broom.  This  was  a  process 
that  fascinated  thousands  of  people. 

Another  remarkable  working  exhibit  was  that  of  Levi  Strauss  &  Com- 
pany, of  San  Francisco,  demonstrating  the  large-scale  manufacture  of  over- 
alls.   The  material  was  laid  out  in  96  thicknesses  at  once,  the  pattern  was 
marked  on  the  top  of  the  heap,  and  an  electrically  driven  knife 
^"iiiple       ^^      j^^jg    g^Q  strokes  a  minute  sawed  the  cloth  into  the  right 

Methods  ^  r     i      i         f  u  u 

shapes.  There  was  a  great  economy  of  cloth,  ot  course,  through 
taking  the  pocket  pieces  and  gore  pieces  and  other  small  parts  from  the 
angles  in  the  larger  design;  but  there  was  also  much  unavoidable  waste, 
in  such  large  operations;  and,  coming  fresh  from  the  rubber  company's 


J     Nil  SEN  LAVRVIK 

A.   H.  MKRRII  L 






exhibit,  one  wondered  why  it  wouldn't  have  been  cheaper  to  weave  the 
"pants"  on  the  garden  hose  loom  or  some  modification  of  it. 

Another  interesting  working  exhibit  was  the  power  loom  weaving  "  Crex" 
grass  carpets,  and  still  another  the  place  where  they  packed  chewing  gum 
by  machinery.  There  was  a  small  glove  factory  operated  by  the  Associated 
Glove  Manufacturers  of  California,  illustrating  particularly  well  the  use 
of  cutting-dies. 

The  Helmet  of  Mambrino  may  have  been  good  enough  for  the  chin  of 
royalty  a  century  ago,  or  less.  Not  for  the  American  working  man  of  191 5. 
The  Koken  Barber  Supplies  Company,  of  St.  Louis,  showed  every  conceiv- 
able sort  of  barber's  chair  and  chiropodist's  chair,  on  swivels  so  that  the 
operator  could  turn  the  customer  about  and  get  the  right  light  on  him,  and 
with  enameled  leather  seats,  and  enameled  or  nickle-plated  arms  and  frames, 
the  luxury  of  appointment  that  business  has  found  it  pays  to  give  the 
American  of  to-day.  There  seemed  to  be  enough  hair  tonics  to  grow  fur 
on  a  whale.  And  the  interesting  information  was  conveyed  by  the  advertis- 
ing folder  process  that  this  firm  conducted  the  world's  largest  strop  factory, 
and  that  it  took  14,400  selected  hides  to  provide  one  year's  output — all 
because  hair  persists  in  growing  where  it  is  not  wanted  instead  of  where  it  is. 

There  was  a  good  showing  in  this  Palace  in  trunks  and  traveling-bags 
by  such  firms  as  the  Hartmann  Trunk  Company,  of  Racine,  Wis.,  the 
Graton  &  Knight  Manufacturing  Company,  of  Worcester,  Mass.,  Hirsch- 
felder  &  Meaney,  the  Pacific  Trunk  &  Bag  Company,  and  C.  A.  Malm,  of 
San  Francisco,  and  the  National  Veneer  Products  Company,  of  Mishawaka, 

It  was  not  so  many  years  back,  as  history  goes,  that  people  in  ordinary 
circumstances,  that  is,  the  "common  people,"  had  to  live  on  dirt  floors 
because  whip-sawed  lumber  for  flooring  cost  more  than  they  could  afford. 
Anyone  that  prefers  warm  and  cleanly  wooden  floors  should  see  great 
significance  in  the  evolution  of  the  saw.  The  saw  exhibits  of 
E.  C.  Atkins  &  Company,  of  Indianapolis,  and  Henry  Disston  &  (^^j^i^^aHon 
Sons,  Inc.,  of  Philadelphia,  were  very  instructive.  The  Atkins 
exhibit  was  strong  in  band  saws  and  showed  the  extremes  of  size.  There 
was  a  65-foot,  16-inch,  13-gauge  band  saw  that  had  been  thrown  off  the 
wheels  in  a  British  Columbia  mill  and  curled  into  a  48-inch  coil  without 
sustaining  a  crack.    There  was  a  complete  line  of  machine  knives. 

The  Disston  people  showed  a  circular  saw  84  inches  in  diameter  with 
inserted  teeth,  the  style  of  tooth  having  been  patented  as  late  as  May,  19I4. 
They  showed  an  18-inch  band  saw  over  61  feet  long.  There  were  cupped 
saws  for  cutting  the  chine  in  barrels,  there  were  meat  slicers  and  choppers, 


circular  saws  that  would  cut  20-inch  armor  plate,  and  rotary  knives  used 
for  cutting  cork.  You  learned  a  few  things  here— for  example,  that  in  order 
to  offset  the  centrifugal  strain  in  a  rapidly  rotating  circular  saw,  the  saw 
is  forged  full  at  the  center,  so  that  when  it  is  still  it  buckles  a  bit,  and  when 
rotating  stretches  into  a  plane  with  the  tension  about  equal  throughout. 
To  give  it  just  the  right  fullness  is  a  very  delicate  piece  of  arts-and-crafts 
work.  And  a  piece  of  steel  with  colored  bands  in  blue  and  straw  shades 
demonstrated  how  the  temper  can  be  put  into  it  in  varying  degrees  of  hard- 
ness at  will  by  hot  and  cold  dies.  A  novelty  among  the  tools  exhibited 
here  was  a  hack  saw  shaped  like  a  common  hand  saw,  for  jobs  on  which 
an  ordinary  hack  saw  could  not  be  used. 

Strange  things  can  be  done  with  rope.  The  Tubbs  Cordage  Company, 
of  San  Francisco,  made  a  temple  of  it,  and  very  attractive  it  was.  The 
dome  was  of  Manila  hemp,  and  on  the  Ionic  columns  the  material  made 
good  volutes.  About  the  booth  was  every  sort  of  line  imaginable.  In  fact 
it  was  hard  to  imagine  there  were  so  many  kinds.  It  ranged  all  the  way 
from  clothes  line  and  the  whale  line  for  which  the  American  whalers  have 
long  been  famous,  to  the  big  16-inch  hawser  that  lay  along  the  front  of 
the  booth  and  formed  a  step  into  it,  and  was  a  piece  off  one  of  the  largest 
coils  of  rope  ever  made  in  the  world— a  tow  rope  i  ,200  feet  long. 
Drawing  ^^^  ^  ^^^j^^^  qjj  banket.  There  was  wheel  rope,  and  power  trans- 
'^'"  mission  rope,  and  bolt  rope,  and  life  line,  and  lariat,  and  yacht 

line  and  hide  rope,  and  sash  cord— every  form,  apparently,  that  cordage 
has  taken  in  the  long  ages  that  men  have  been  tying  things  in  a  knot,  and 
that  has  survived  to  our  times.  With  it  was  a  Manila  hemp  break,  and  a 
primitive  Philippine  carding  and  spinning  machine  for  this  material. 

Hemp  rope,  however,  will  not  serve  all  the  audacities  of  modern  man. 
He  demands  more  strength  for  his  assaults  on  nature,  in  forest  and  mme 
and  skyscraper,  than  any  vegetable  fibre  can  give  him,  so  he  goes  mto  twisted 
strands  of  wire.  Probably  the  handsomest  and  most  costly  wire  rope 
exhibit  ever  seen  was  that  of  the  Broderick  &  Bascom  Rope  Company,  of 
St.  Louis,  which  adopted  some  unique  methods  of  display  for  its  attractive 
product.  There  was  wire  rope  for  logging,  mining,  and  oil  drilling;  rope 
on  an  immense  revolving  reel;  and  rope  made  into  the  ornamental  fence 
surrounding  the  booths — all  of  metal. 

The  Crane  Company,  of  Chicago,  made  an  exhibit  of  the  latest  and 
handsomest  plumbing  fixtures  showing  two  bath-rooms  fully  equipped, 
with  their  nickel  and  their  white  enamel  appointments.  Plumbers'  spe- 
cialties were  also  shown  by  the  Bridgeport  Brass  Company  and  the  Glauber 
Brass  Manufacturing  Company,  and  others. 


There  are  hats  and  hats,  but  the  hat  under  which  the  "backward  look" 
will  always  see  the  American  cowboy,  scout  and  pioneer,  the  man  of  the 
frontier  that  has  disappeared,  and  the  generation  that  in  the  year  of  the 
Canal  was  passing,  is  the  old  "  Stetson,"  broad  of  brim,  fine  of  texture,  of  a 
felt  that  stayed  where  it  was  put,  whether  pulled  down  to  shade 
the  wearer's  eyes   from   the   tell-tale   beam  of  the  poker-table        Cmerhi 
lamp,  or  blown  up  in  front  by  the  rush  of  wind  his  careering 
broncho   made.     The   miner   and   the  mountaineer   might  wear   any  old 
wrecked  headpiece,   but  the  pride  of  the  plainsman,  next  to  his  silver- 
mounted  saddle,  was  his  fawn-colored  sombrero.     Once  a  typical  bit  of 
American  costume,  it  is  disappearing,  with  its  wearer,  over  the  Great 
Divide — so  that  some  genius  of  the  Sunday  supplement  wrote,  not  so  long 
after  the  Exposition:     "Turn,  in  your  ghost  saddle,  Buffalo  Bill.     Turn, 
and  wave  that  rain-stained  Stetson.     Wave  it  farewell.     For  back  here  a 
little  boy  is  waving  farewell  to  you." 

The  exhibit  of  the  John  B.  Stetson  Company  showed  no  fading  out  with 
the  subsidence  of  a  fashion.  It  was  modern,  in  every  respect.  And  while 
most  of  its  display  was  just  hats,  it  served  to  remind  visitors  of  the  world- 
wide reach  of  this  great  American  concern,  which  levies  on  the  fur  of  the 
rabbit,  the  nutria,  and  the  beaver,  in  whatever  part  of  the  world  they  may 
be  found,  from  England  to  the  Argentine,  to  work  into  fine  felt  and  contrib- 
ute to  the  output  of  high  quality  goods  from  the  great  manufacturing  city 
of  Philadelphia. 


THE  Palace  of  Varied  Industries  was  the  Exposition's  real  Temple  of 
Mercury.  It  had  a  gross  area  of  219,453  square  feet,  and  a  net  area 
of  152,909.  In  outer  dimensions  it  was  414  feet  wide  and  541  long, 
and  it  cost  $296,554  to  construct.  Here  trade  received  a  plenteous  devotion. 
The  southeast  corner  was  a  bazaar  of  many  nations,  where  Turkey,  India, 
Bulgaria,  the  Duchy  of  Luxemburg,  the  Balkan  States,  Bethlehem,  and 
Atlantic  City  were  represented  by  a  bewildering  variety  of  merchandise. 
All  over  the  building,  triumphs  of  art  and  ingenuity  were  for  sale.  It  was 
a  great  and  busy  mart. 

There  were  beautiful  brass  lamps  and  lamp  shades,  fringed  and  perfor- 
ated in  strange  forms.  There  were  carvings  from  India,  and  swords  from 
Damascus,  and  Florentine  mosaic  brooches  that  had  got  into  the  hands  of 
Oriental  dealers  because  they  would  sell;  for,  in  these  days  of  world-wide 
transportation  and  international  exchange,  things  that  will  sell  become, 
inevitably  and  regardless  of  origin,  the  stock-in-trade  of  those  that  can 
sell  them.  Every  known  trinket  seemed  to  be  there,  and  many  that  were 

And  some  of  the  displays  were  very  beautiful,  especially  those  of  rugs- 
royal  Saruks,  Kirmanshas,  Bokharas,  and  lovely  weavings  from  Tebriz, 
Herat,  and  Khorassan.    The  India  section  showed  elaborately 
^T^l         carved  furniture  and  a  plentiful  assortment  of  Benares  brass, 

o]  India  ,  ,  •    ,        y  ■  ■  ■      ■  \     J 

with  old  papier  mache  articles  bearmg  antique  paintings.  And 
all  about  that  corner  of  the  Palace  hung  the  odor  of  attar  of  roses,  without 
which  no  exposition  Orientalism  would  ever  have  just  the  proper  Levantine 


The  diagonally  opposite  corner  of  this  Palace  expressed  in  strong  con- 
trast the  utilitarian  ingenuity  of  the  real  Connecticut  Yankee.  Here  was 
a  large  section,  in  a  booth  of  Corinthian  treatment,  exhibiring  New  Haven 
manufactures — power-driven  hack  saws,  band  saws  for  cutting  steel,  auto- 
maric  screw-cutring  machines,  builders'  hardware,  cutring-dies  for  every- 
thing from  envelopes  to  boots;  lathe  chucks,  clocks,  plumbers'  tools  and 


'.«■  «■  rt    .-;'  ,3'  jv   1-;  rt-  «.    rt.  «  W  ft"  •«•.■«•  «■  m    h   .-' 





plumbing  goods.  With  one  of  the  power  hack  saws  a  three-inch  steel  bar 
could  be  cut  through  in  three  minutes.  It  was  a  little  exposition  in  itself, 
and  had  a  wide  range  of  products,  from  corsets  to  the  Yale  Bowl. 

This  last  was  shown  by  a  model,  and  is  worthy  of  attention  as  a  signifi- 
cant feature  of  modern  life — the  great  interest  taken  in  intercollegiate 
athletics.  It  might  be  taken  as  a  typical  illustration  of  manners  in  the  year 
of  the  Canal. 

In  the  Exposition  year  the  Yale  "Bowl"  was  probably  the  nearest 
thing  to  the  Flavian  Amphitheater  of  ancient  Rome,  and  there  is  hardly 
any  physical  object  that  could  more  sharply  differentiate  the  two  ages; 
both  called  civilized.  The  Flavian  Amphitheater,  or  Colosseum,  would 
seat  about  87,000  people,  and  after  the  S.R.O.  sign  went  up  it  would  admit 
about  13,000  more;  according  to  some  authorities,  while  others  put  its 
capacity  at  much  less.  The  Yale  Bowl,  according  to  the  model  and  accom- 
panying data,  had  normal  seating  accommodations  for  61,000,  which  could 
be  expanded  to  70,000  by  means  of  temporary  benches. 

The  Colosseum  was  built  of  stone,  by  slave  labor;  although  the  ancient 
Romans  were  masters  of  concrete  construction,  and  had  some  rudimentary 
notions  of  human  freedom— for  part  of  the  community.  The  Yale  Bowl 
was  built  of  concrete,  and  so  has  a  chance  of  lasting  longer,  for  it  is  not 
likely  to  become  a  quarry  as  the  Colosseum  has  been  in  part;  and  the  Bowl 
was  built  by  men  that  were  free  to  work  or  not  as  they  chose,  and  to  quit 
when  they  wished.  In  the  Flavian  Amphitheater  they  held  fatal 
gladiatorial  functions,  and  fed  human  beings  to  the  lions.  The  <^^''^"«" 
Yale  Bowl  was  opened  in  November  1914,  with  a  football  game 
between  Harvard  and  Yale  Universities.  In  the  twentieth  century  people 
still  had  to  be  amused  and  excited,  but  they  could  be  amused  intellectually 
by  pictures  and  symbols,  and  excited  by  a  mere  representation  of  battle, 
such  as  a  football  game  in  which  the  contenders  did  not  directly  seek  the 
death  of  their  adversaries,  but  were  satisfied  if  they  could  disable  them 
without  being  seen  by  the  referee.  The  Bowl  had  other  uses  than  football, 
just  as  the  Colosseum  had  other  uses  than  festive  homicide,  but,  in  the  year 
of  the  Panama-Pacific  International  Exposition,  intercollegiate  football  was 
probably  the  most  absorbing  sport  of  the  American  people,  at  least  in  the 
Fall  of  the  year. 

With  a  large  percentage  of  every  population,  however,  the  greatest 
sport  in  the  world  is  trade,  and  its  aids  as  well  as  its  materials  were  well 
exemplified  in  the  Palace  of  Varied  Industries.  Conspicuous  among  these 
aids  were  the  exhibits  of  the  Multiplex  Display  Fixture  Company  of  St. 
Louis,  which  showed  racks  of  hinged  steel  frames  in  which  goods  could  be 



so  arranged  that  a  customer  could  review  almost  the  entire  contents  of  a 
store  by  merely  turning  these  leaves,  like  the  pages  of  a  large  book,  fixed  to 
a  wall  or  post;  provided,  of  course,  it  were  not  a  store  dealing  in  pianos  or 
automobiles,  or  other  large  objects.  The  device  seemed  to  foreshadow  a 
radical  change  in  the  method  of  selling  goods  at  retail.  These  fixtures 
indicated  a  growing  disposition  on  the  merchant's  part  to  rely 
Showing  ^^  showing  customers  what  he  had,  thus  suggesting  desirable 
the  Goods  ^^j^^gj^igj^^gg  to  thej„  or  reminding  them  of  their  needs.  It  was 
a  development  of  the  picture-book  idea  for  adults.  There  were  octago- 
nal display  stands  for  transparencies,  and  cabinets  of  racks  for  the  bet- 
ter and  more  systematic  care  of  such  fragile  commodities  as  lantern  slides; 
all  made  of  pressed  steel,  with  welded  joints  and  neat  enameling. 

In  line  with  this  development,  the  Kawneer  Company,  of  Chicago  and 
many  other  places,  showed  some  highly  finished  glass  and  metal  store 
fronts,  permitting  attractive  displays  of  goods. 


AS  to  the  Varied  Industries,  expressed  in  the  materials  of  commerce, 
they  were  there  from  a  great  many  lands.  The  Duchy  of  Luxem- 
burg made  a  most  creditable  display  considering  the  vicissitudes 
through  which  it  had  so  recently  passed,  for  it  had  been  in  the  path  of  the 
German  invasion  of  France  in  19 14.  Unofficially,  and  by  the  enterprise  of 
its  merchants,  it  showed  fine  manufactures  of  laces,  shawls,  boots,  rugs, 
jewelry,  tapestries,  plumes,  and  perfumes;  such  things  as  are  demanded  by 
the  refinements  of  highly  civilized  life.  Mr.  A.  de  Hond  was  the  Commis- 
sioner of  Luxemburg. 

Uruguay  showed  good  examples  of  hides  and  leather,  with  some  good 
hardware,  and  a  folding  ladder  that  jack-knifed  itself  together  in  the  most 
ingenious  Yankee  fashion.  By  means  of  a  stereopticon  one  had  views  of 
the  beautiful  city  of  Montevideo  that  were  almost  as  good  as  a  personal 

Spanish  merchants  had  a  large  and  varied  stock  of  merchandise,  among 
which  some  good  lustre  ware  was  conspicuous,  and  a  few  copies  of  the 
Alhambra  Vase.  And  there  were  lace  mantillas,  such  as  you  see,  if  you  are 
so  fortunate  as  to  be  there,  about  twilight  in  the  streets  of  Seville. 

The  Balkan  States  Trading  and  Importing  Company  had  an  interesting 
assortment  of  manufactures,  half  Oriental  in  character,  including  many 
examples  of  hand-worked  peasant  costumes. 

Russian  wares  included  chandeliers  of  the  most  logical  design  and  the 
cleverest  workmanship,  in  black  iron.  There  was  a  restraint  in  the  decora- 
tion that  placed  them  securely  in  the  category  of  art — they  were  distinctly 
not  of  the  gilded  frying-pan  order. 

Germany  was  not  officially  represented  at  the  Exposition,  but  some  of 
her  business  houses  had  a  large  section  in  this  Palace  devoted  to  the  display 
and  sale  of  German  wares.    Here  you  saw  the  really  wonderful 
exhibition  pieces  of  the  Henkels  cutlery  works  at  Solingen — large     Beautified 
fancy  swords,  shears,  "pocket"  knives  and  razors,  of  gigantic  size, 
finely  damascened,  or  etched,  or  electroplated,  or  enameled  in  many  colors, 

VOL.  IV — 10  145 


in  most  artistic  designs — for  purposes  of  commercial  display,  but  achiev- 
ing the  merit  of  objects  of  art.  Cutlery  of  all  kinds  appeared  here  in  the 
best  forms  known  to  the  trade,  which  is  to  say,  to  the  life  of  the  times. 
There  were  in  the  German  Section  fine  Thuringian  pottery  and  china, 
and  embroidered  linens  from  Stuttgart,  and  gold-encrusted  glassware  from 

The  Austrian  Section  was  near  the  German,  and  here  you  saw  fine  linens 
and  stamped  goods,  as  well  as  art  pottery  and  porcelains.  The  exhibit  of 
Bohemian  glass  was  very  attractive  and  very  large,  and  included  models 
of  a  service  made  for  King  Alfonso  of  Spain.  Here,  too,  was  a  lot  of  the 
beautiful  ruby  Karlsbad  glass  such  as  our  grandmothers  were  proud  to 
have  on  their  sideboards.  Deeply  incised  crystal  vases  were  shown,  with  a 
style  of  etching  developed  within  the  year  and  never  before  exhibited  at 
an  international  exposition. 

Denmark  showed  a  model  of  the  twin-screw  motorship  "Fionia,"  built 
for  the  East  Asiatic  Company,  of  Copenhagen.  But  of  more  interest  to 
art  lovers  were  the  displays  of  the  Copenhagen  Faience  factory  and  the 
Royal  Copenhagen  Porcelain  factory.  They  gave  a  delicate  interpretation 
of  Danish  life.  In  the  old  Royal  Porcelain  works,  founded  in  1779,  chemists 
and  artists  and  furnace  men,  and  men  that  were  all  three,  labored  together  to 
express  the  artistic  genius  of  Denmark.  They  made  not  merely  plates  and 
vases,  but  they  modeled  animals,  birds,  and  fishes  in  ways  peculiar  to  their 
native  country.  The  trade  mark,  three  blue  wave  marks,  symbolizing  the 
three  Danish  waterways,  the  Big  Belt,  the  Little  Belt,  and  the  Sound, 
these  artists  made  famous  over  the  civilized  world.  Blue  fluted  porcelain, 
and  blue  Copenhagen  flowers,  are  widely  known  and  sought  after.  The 
motives  for  decoration  are  taken  directly  from  Danish  natural  scenes — 
mystical  soft  tones  of  the  northern  sea,  the  shaded  twilight,  the  half-lit 
nights,  the  friendly  northern  fauna  and  the  delicate  northern  flora;  all  these 
were  brought  under  contribution  to  express  the  heart  of  a  people.  Sea- 
birds  recur,  and  tall-stemmed  pines;  and  the  wide-eared  polar  fox  looking 
like  a  thievish  but  affectionate  household  pet,  was  much  in  evi- 
Potteries  dence  in  these  beautiful  and  perfect  wares.  In  the  figure  work, 
Danish  life  and  the  Danish  people  were  depicted  by  the  Danish 
sculptor,  Thomsen,  in  such  bits  as  the  "Girl  with  a  Calf,"  and  by  Knud 
Kyhn  in  his  "Faun  with  a  Cat."  True  plastic  art  this,  fit  to  give  delight 
to  everyone.  For  the  children  this  factory  has  modeled  characters  from 
the  fairy  tales  of  the  beloved  Hans  Christian  Andersen. 

The  Copenhagen  Faience  factory  was  a  later  development,  since  1863, 
but  a  worthy  sister  to  the  Royal  Porcelain  factory.    At  first  producing  only 




articles  for  daily  use,  in  1900  it  branched  out  into  art  work,  and  the  Copen- 
hagen faience  became  famous.  It  covered  the  whole  range  of  jars,  vases, 
plaques,  and  dinner  services,  and  in  richness  of  color  and  rarity  of  design 
stood  on  a  footing  with  the  porcelains.  Here,  too,  was  wonderful  work  by 
the  Danish  gold  and  silver  smiths,  that  of  the  sculptor  George  Jensen 
being  especially  good. 

Switzerland  was  represented  by  laces,  embroideries,  and  trimmings  from 
St.  Gall,  wood  carvings  froin  Berne,  fancy  articles  from  Lucerne,  an  aviary 
of  cuckoo  clocks  from  Meyringen,  fine  Swiss  watches  of  the  manufacture 
of  Geneva  and  other  centers  of  this  art.  In  addition,  there  were  shown  in 
another  quarter  of  the  Palace  two  large  embroidery  looms  such  as  are  used 
in  the  embroidery  industry  in  Switzerland,  which  made  embroideries  by 
drawing  the  threads  through  a  net  that  defined  the  pattern,  and  then 
through  the  cloth  that  was  being  ornamented.  These  machines  were  of 
the  newest  type,  great  improvements  over  anything  ever  exhibited  before, 
their  work  closely  resembling  the  finest  hand  embroidery.  They  were 
exhibited  by  Joseph  Barbisch  of  Mill  Valley,  California,  and  attracted 
much  attention,  so  much  that  they  had  to  be  roped  off  from  the  crowds. 

China  took  an  entire  block  in  the  Varied  Industries  Palace  and  filled  it 
with  a  most  interesting  display  of  antique  bronze,  porcelain,  silks,  embroi- 
deries, fans,  tapestries,  and  fanciful  wood  carvings — a  truly  remarkable 
showing  of  Chinese  art,  with  much  that  was  new  to  Western  eyes,  even  to 
those  of  the  Pacific  Coast,  where  the  people  have  been  in  close  touch  with 
the  Chinese  and  have  known  their  art  products  for  generations. 

Argentina's  section  in  this  Palace  was  large  in  area,  and  filled  with 
impressive  exhibits  of  the  progress  of  that  marvelously  progressive  country. 
There  was  a  collection  of  the  very  striking  lithograph  posters  of  the  Com- 
pania  General  de  Fosforos,  and  charts  showing  the  growth  of  its  industry 
from  80,000,000  boxes  of  matches  in  1891  to  360,000,000  in  19I4, 
with  a  daily  output  of  1,200,000.  Then  there  were  some  valuable  industries 
educational  displays  in  South  American  natural  history:  a  stuffed 
jaguar,  fur-bearing  river  and  deep  water  seals,  some  flamingoes,  a  huge 
armadillo,  a  dappled  fox,  the  curious  carpincho,  like  a  bob-tailed  ground 
squirrel  the  size  of  a  large  hog,  and  a  tawny  puma  very  like  his  brother  in 
California.     There  were  fine  skins  for  upholstering. 

One  of  the  interesting  local  arts  shown  in  the  Argentine  Section  consisted 
of  a  peculiar  form  of  stained  glass  window;  a  "vitreous  mosaic  cloisonne," 
made  by  laying  dams  of  wire  on  a  pane,  filling  in  with  powdered  glass  of 
the  desired  colors,  laying  another  pane  atop  of  it,  and  fusing  all  together. 
It  had  a  quite  handsome,  if  somewhat  sugary,  effect.    Tinted  laces,  shoes, 


good  tailoring,  saddlery,  and  leather  goods,  carpenter's  tools  well  made, 
as  to  their  ligneous  parts,  of  South  American  hardwoods,  with  calicoes, 
woolens,  underwear,  knit  goods,  and  artificial  plants  and  flowers,  all  of  the 
highest  workmanship,  helped  make  up  the  rest  of  this  exhibit.  There  were 
steel  safes,  and  a  model  of  a  large  treasure  vault.  It  was  an  impressive 
showing  of  the  arts  and  industries  of  the  Argentine,  especially  in  industries 
using  wool,  leather,  chemicals,  glass,  wood,  and  building  materials.  Prob- 
ably the  best  exhibit  was  that  of  work  done  in  the  workshops  of  the  Depart- 
ment of  War. 

The  Netherlands  exhibit  in  this  Palace  contained  fine  old  Dutch  silver, 
in  designs  that  showed  the  greatest  talent  in  the  management  of  this  mate- 
rial. The  porcelains  and  potteries  showed  rare  designs,  the  Delft  being  es- 
pecially interesting.  Gouda  ware,  a  porcelain  whose  favorite  designs  appar- 
ently were  peacocks  and  gorgeous  pheasants,  received  much  praise.  The 
firm  of  Stokvis  exhibited  beautifully  designed  lamps,  chandeliers,  and  orna- 
mental bronzes,  and  the  jewelry  of  the  firm  of  Begeer,  including  a  large 
display  of  diamonds  set  in  platinum,  had  a  most  distinguished  air  of  grace 
and  delicacy.  There  were  five  large  rooms  filled  with  The  Netherlands 
exhibits  in  the  Palace  of  Varied  Industries. 

India's  exhibits  formed  a  beautiful  section.  Some  of  the  antique,  hand- 
carved  furniture  artistically  arranged  aTound  the  booth  had  been  made 
centuries  ago,  and  a  number  of  the  pieces  were  at  one  time  owned  by  famous 
native  princes.  There  was  a  collection  of  valuable  precious  stones  and  some 
antique  jewelry  of  curious  design  which  visitors  seemed  never  to  tire  of 
examining.  The  pierced-  and  hammered-brass  lamps  and  lamp  shades  in 
this  booth  were  richly  ornamental  and  would  have  beaut'fied  any  home. 
The  carven  furniture,  labored,  deeply  wrought,  pierced  and  perforated  to 
a  general  porosity,  could  have  come  from  nowhere  else  than  the  sumptuous 

Industries  of  Turkey  were  represented  in  this  Palace  by  exhibits  of 
Constantinople  jewelry,  Damascus  filigree,  antique  gems,  tapestries,  and 
fancy  articles. 


THERE  were  scores  of  inventions  in  the  Palace  of  Varied  Industries 
for  making  life  easier  and  more  enjoyable  and  its  circumstances 
more  convenient,  such  as  the  pinless  clothesline  and  the  household 
vacuum  cleaner,  and  many  things  for  the  adornment  of  the  home  ;  inven- 
tions so  many  there  is  no  space  here  even  to  enumerate  them.  We  can  only 
review  the  more  important  and  significant  items. 

While  the  Department  of  Education  had  an  Arts  and  Crafts  exhibit 
as  an  exemplification  of  the  teaching  of  applied  arts,  the  Palace  of  Varied 
Industries  had  a  commercial  exhibit  of  Arts  and  Crafts  work.  Without 
any  solicitation,  the  Department  of  Manufactures  and  Varied  Industries 
had  been  flooded  with  applications  from  individual  craftsmen,  and  as  this 
was  a  class  of  product  that  merited  representation,  it  was  decided  to  estab- 
lish a  domestic  Arts  and  Crafts  Section  where  they  could  all  have  ^^^^ 
space.  Six  thousand  feet  were  assigned  to  this  purpose,  a  facade  ^^^  ^ro//^ 
was  erected  and  plate-glass  show  cases  were  put  in.  Charles 
Frank  Ingerson  of  San  Francisco  was  appointed  Superintendent.  A  jury 
passed  on  the  exhibits  and  admitted  only  those  considered  worthy,  and  those 
not  admitted  were  returned  to  their  owners  before  Opening  Day. 

The  adjectives  "rare"  and  "old"  cannot  properiy  be  applied  to  the 
wares  exhibited  here,  and  perhaps  they  mean  nothing  in  real  values  any- 
how; but  everything  else  of  interest  that  can  be  said  about  pottery  was 
justified  in  some  degree  by  the  ceramics  on  view.  There  was  a  fine  collec- 
tion of  porcelains,  the  work  of  Adelaide  Alsop  Robineau,  of  Syracuse,  N.  Y., 
and  more  from  Miss  Mary  B.  Filing  of  Virginia  City,  Montana.  Some 
fine  dull  clays  came  from  the  Van  Briggle  Pottery  at  Colorado  Springs. 
Comparing  favorably  with  any  of  these  were  the  Arequipa  potteries  of 
California,  and  a  CalUorma  faience  made  at  Berkeley.  In  textiles  there 
were  good  things  done  by  Miss  Laura  Mattoon,  of  Chicago  and  San  Fran- 
cisco, in  the  way  of  block  prints  and  brocades.  A  wonderful  piece  of  linen 
work  came  from  the  looms  of  the  Aquidneck  Cottages  of  Newport,  Rhode 
Island:  an  altar  cloth,  from  the  Memorial  Chapel  of  the  Blessed  Sacrament 



of  St.  John's  Church  at  Newport.  In  this  piece  was  a  filet  pattern  of  four 
figures.  St.  Mary  and  the  Saviour,  St.  John  and  St.  Joseph  were  worked 
in  the  threads  of  the  linen. 

Unique  jewelry  designs  graced  this  exhibit,  in  the  work  of  Mrs.  Lucretia 
McM.  Bush  of  Chestnut  Hill,  Mass.  Among  other  things  she  showed  a 
silver  lavalier  set  with  moonstones  and  sapphires,  that  was  very  beautiful 
and  indicated  new  scope  in  woman's  work.  Fine  parchment  illuminations 
were  shown  by  Miss  Belle  McMurtry,  and  by  Robert  Wilson  Hyde,  both  of 
California.  Indiana  had  a  notable  representation  in  the  Arts  and  Crafts 
Section,  with  a  collective  exhibit  to  which  nearly  loo  exhibitors  contributed. 

The  section  was  a  very  attractive  part  of  the  Palace,  and  the  exhibits 
oflFered  for  sale  found  ready  purchasers.  The  superintendent  handled  the 
business  on  a  25  per  cent  commission  for  the  Exposition,  which  about  paid 
the  expense  of  the  venture. 

The  Eaton,  Crane  &  Pike  Company,  of  Massachusetts,  had  a  booth 
that  drew  large  crowds,  and  deservedly,  for  it  was  an  interesting  working 
exhibit.  This  concern  is  engaged  in  the  manufacture  of  fine  stationery,  and 
showed  the  method  of  its  preparation  for  the  market.  The  setting  was 
handsome — a  large  corner,  with  a  sort  of  back  scene  depicting  in  several 
panels  the  mills  of  the  Company  in  the  Berkshire  hills,  amid  the  streams 
that  furnished  its  original  waterpower.    Operatives  were  brought 

Postman's       r  -n-        r    \  -^  i  t^i  i  • 

Burden  irom  rittsheld  to  demonstrate  processes.  1  he  paper-makmg  ex- 
hibit included  a  display  of  the  material  used,  with  a  miniature 
beating  machine,  press,  and  dryer.  The  raw  materials  were  worked  up 
into  sheets  and  given  out  as  souvenirs.  "Life-size"  machinery  was  put  in 
for  making  the  finished  stationery.  There  was  a  cutting  press  for  cutting 
envelopes  and  paper,  by  means  of  heavy  steel  cutting-dies.  The  blank 
envelopes  were  laid  out  on  a  flat  board  and  gummed  by  hand,  and  then  the 
board  with  the  wet  gummed  blanks  on  it  was  slipped  under  the  discharge 
pipe  of  a  fan  blower  that  took  heated  air  from  an  electric  heater.  Once  dry, 
the  envelopes  went  through  a  folding  machine  that  was  no  less  than  an 
object  of  fascination,  so  regularly,  perfectly,  and  industriously  did  it  do 
its  work.  Everybody  likes  tio  see  work  being  done  in  large  volume  by  some- 
body else,  and  so  the  crowds  hung  spellbound  about  this  monotonous  opera- 
tion. There  was  an  imprinting  machine,  and  an  outfit  for  gold  initial 
embossing,  and  there  was  a  table  for  packing  the  boxed  paper.  Some  600 
boxes  of  Highland  linen  a  day  were  turned  out,  merely  as  a  small-scale 

Jewelry,  silverware,  and  allied  products  were  well  represented  in  this 
Palace.    The  Baldwin  Jewelry  Company,  of  San  Francisco,  hveryad  two 


w\-:'"'->-  A^-      ■ LTJU 

Uruguay's  exhibit  in  nakikd  industries 


fine  booths,  in  one  of  which  it  showed  precious  stones,  and  in  the  other 
silver.  The  stocks  it  carried  here  were  large  and  varied,  and  of  the  best 
type  of  goods. 

The  International  Silver  Company,  of  Meriden,  Conn.,  and  other  places, 
exhibited  a  show  piece  that  was  very  gratifying  to  local  pride:  its  "Tribute 
to  the  Spirit  of  the  West."  This  was  a  magnificent  allegorical  group  in 
silver,  depicting  Western  scenes  with  a  fidelity  rare  among  Eastern  artists; 
and  its  manufacture,  and  exhibition  at  the  Panama-Pacific  International 
Exposition,  manifested  a  fine  spirit  of  cooperation  with  San  Francisco  in 
the  celebrating  of  the  completion  of  the  Canal. 

The  group  stood  nearly  five  feet  high,  was  over  seven  feet  in  length, 
and  was  about  three  and  a  half  feet  wide;  and  was  said  to  be  the  largest 
piece  of  statuary  of  the  kind  ever  fashioned  from  precious  metals.  It 
showed,  on  an  allegorical  ship,  symbols  of  the  development  of  the  West, 
from  the  days  of  the  Indian.  Etchings  pictured  the  early  life  of  the  pio- 
neers and  their  wild  predecessors,  beginning  with  the  Indian  council  and 
the  buffalo  hunt,  and  including  the  "Forty-niners"  with  their  prairie 
schooners.  There  were  figures  typifying  commerce,  shipping,  and  railroads, 
and  images  representing  the  three  fundamental  elements  of  Western  wealth: 
stock  raising,  mining,  and  agriculture;  with  a  few  grizzly  bears  and  buffaloes 
roaming  the  scene  just  to  liven  it  up  a  bit.  And  all  the  figures  were  strong 
and  real,  as  a  person  that  knew  such  men  and  animals  and  things  would 
have  had  them  depicted. 

One  of  the  things  the  world  needs  to  appreciate  is  the  importance  of 
plans,  and  whatever  impresses  that  lesson  on  people  is  of  educational 
value — perhaps  of  the  highest  educational  value.  It  was  impressed  in  a 
curious  way  by  the  demonstration  of  the  business  of  a  company  that  makes 
building  plans  for  dresses:  the  Butterick  Patterns,  by  the  But- 
terick  Publishing  Company.  This  Company  claimed  to  have  patterns 
issued,  or  that  its  founders  or  predecessors  issued,  in  1863,  the 
first  paper  patterns  ever  made  to  be  sold:  a  curious  and  typically  American 
commercial  invention,  like  the  invention  of  ready-made  clothing.  The 
business  has  become  an  enormous  one,  apparently  organized  to  the  most 
effective  degree.  And  the  exhibit  of  the  company  in  the  Palace  of  Varied 
Industries  was  particularly  striking.  It  was  based  upon  the  possession  of 
some  64  wax  dolls  about  18  inches  high  that  had  been  made  by  a  New  York 
sculptor  for  this  purpose.  The  dolls  were  beautifully  gowned,  and  each 
bore  a  pattern  number.  They  made  possible  a  very  large  display,  for  the 
costumes  on  about  half  of  them  were  changed  every  month. 

Long  antedating  any  gold  rush  to  Alaska,  a  San  Francisco  house  had 


established  trading  and  trapping  posts  in  the  far  Arctic  wilds,  and  lines 
of  vessels  connecting  them  with  this  city.  More  than  one  famous  polar 
expedition  has  taken  its  ultimate  departure  for  the  deserts  of  ice  and  snow 
from  these  last  links  with  civilization.  From  them,  H.  Liebes  &  Company 
drew  the  finest  furs  direct,  and  for  fifty  years  before  the  Exposition  the 
operations  of  this  house,  among  others,  made  San  Francisco  one  of  the  best 
places  in  the  world  in  which  to  buy  fur  garments.  The  Liebes  booth  in 
the  Palace  of  Varied  Industries  was  a  realistic  Arctic  scene,  with  shuddery 
icebergs  and  friendly  seals  and  the  most  voracious-looking  polar  bears 
imaginable.  With  them  were  shown  an  Eskimo  igloo,  and  Eskimo  fishing 
gear.  And  here  you  saw  some  of  the  best  products  of  the  North,  and  of 
skilled  tannage  and  garment-making  in  San  Francisco. 

D.  J.  Guccione,  of  New  York,  exhibited  a  beautiful  collection  of  fur 
rugs  and  mounted  specimens,  like  a  petrified  menagerie.  There  were  stuffed 
tigers,  lions,  leopards,  grizzly  bears,  and  Russian  wolves,  with  a  rare  snow 
leopard  from  Siberia. 

The  Singer  Sewing  Machine  Company's  exhibit  was  important.  It  was 
displayed  partly  in  an  enclosed  pavilion  with  a  dome,  partly  on  the  raised, 
balustraded  terrace  surrounding  it.  A  pleasing  feature  consisted  of  the 
reproductions  of  pictures  made  on  the  sewing  machines  of  this  Company, 
ranging  in  subject  all  the  way  from  Venice  to  the  Old  Faithful  geyser  in 
the  Yellowstone.  Another  fine  display  in  this  booth  was  the  costume  study, 
showing  the  costumes  of  all  nations,  and  as  nearly  as  possible 

Dress  of  i  ,  ■  r  •  t^-  , 

the  Nations  ^"^  personal  types  m  over  a  score  of  countries.  Figures  and 
costumes  were  prepared  in  the  countries  they  represented,  the 
dresses  being  made  on  Singer  machines;  which,  by  the  same  token,  appeared 
to  be  sold  over  quite  a  large  part  of  the  world.  Some  of  these  dresses 
brought  a  little  of  the  interest  that  attaches  to  foreign  travel.  There  was 
one  of  Little  Russia,  one  of  Burmah,  an  Irish  peasant  costume,  the  dress 
of  a  Parsee  lady  in  India,  the  costumes  of  Mohammedan,  Scot,  Pole,  and 

Some  new  devices  were  to  be  seen  in  operation— a  machine  for  blind 
stitching,  another  operating  four  needles  at  once  for  stitching  toe  caps  on 
shoes,  a  canvas-sewing  machine  that  could  make  about  500  stitches  a  minute, 
a  straw-braid  machine  that  ran  seven  times  as  fast,  and  a  sack-sewing 
equipment  capable  of  almost  human  performance. 

Rhode  Island  had  a  collective  exhibit  in  the  Palace  of  Varied  Industries 
that  served  to  call  attention  in  a  clear  and  decisive  tone  of  voice  to  the 
large  position  in  manufactures  of  that  smallest  State,  territorially,  in  the 
Union.    The  great  manufacturing  jewelry  industry  of  Providence  was  rep- 


resented  by  hundreds  of  the  latest  designs  in  personal  ornament,  in  cases, 
together  with  strings  of  the  famous  French  La  Tausca  pearls,  and  some 
beautiful  opal  beads  with  a  nacreous  coating.  In  close  proximity  to  these 
dainty  products  was  the  exhibit  of  the  largest  producer  of  horse  shoes  on 
earth,  the  R.  I.  Perkins  Company.  And  there  seemed  to  be  about  every- 
thing between  horse  shoes  and  pearls — paints,  fish  line,  cylinder  oil,  hand- 
colored  scenic  photographs,  a  new  type  of  automobile  windshield  to  protect 
the  occupants  of  the  tonneau.  Rest  rooms  were  arranged  in  this  section, 
to  the  great  comfort  of  both  men  and  women. 

The  booth  of  the  Herter  Looms  was  a  beautiful  spot  of  color  and  fine 
design.  Everything  here  shown  was  in  exquisite  taste,  the  tapestries,  the 
lamps,  all  the  forms  of  interior  decoration  that  went  to  make  up  the  whole. 
Here  was  an  exemplification  of  the  production  of  American  tapestry,  an  art 
commenced  in  this  country  but  a  few  years  before  the  Exposition,  the  looms 
and  three  workmen  having  come  from  France  to  start  it. 

The  California  Redwood  Company,  of  San  Francisco,  showed  what 
beautiful  things  for  the  adornment  of  the  household  could  be  produced 
from  redwood  burl:  panels,  bowls,  calabashes,  and  table  tops  that  looked 
like  the  finest  bird's-eye  maple,  except  that  they  were  a  rich,  dark  red. 

The  Pfister  Knitting  Company,  of  Berkeley,  California,  exhibited  bath- 
ing suits  in  various  forms  and  styles,  attractively  colored,  and  knit  goods 
in  cotton,  wool,  and  silk. 

The  Gantner  &  Mattern  Company,  of  San  Francisco,  showed  a  complete 
line  of  knit  goods — sweaters,  hose,  and  bathing  suits — and  put  living  models 
in  a  gallery,  dressed  for  the  beaches,  to  show  off  the  last-named  goods. 
This  was  a  very  attractive  exhibit. 

The  William  Carter  Company,  of  Springfield,  Massachusetts,  exhibited 
a  line  of  knit  underwear. 

In  no  field  of  production  has  the  practical  nature  of  American  mechani- 
cal genius  appeared  more  distinctly  than  in  the  development  of  watch 
making  by  machinery,  except,  perhaps  in  shoe  making  by  machinery.  The 
Waltham  Watch  Company  claimed  to  be  the  originator  of  this 
mode  of  producing  pocket  timepieces,  and  it  exhibited  in  the  watches 
Varied  Industries  Palace  many  of  its  machines,  demonstrating 
their  use  by  expert  young  women  operatives  from  Massachusetts.  It  began 
to  perfect  the  industry  in  the  eighteen  fifties,  and  by  '62  had  demonstrated 
what  could  be  done.  At  the  Centennial  Exposition  at  Philadelphia  in 
1876  it  showed  the  first  watch-making  machinery  and  the  first  machine- 
made  watch.  The  exhibit  demonstrated  a  remarkable  command  of  opera- 
tions on  a  diminutive  scale.    At  Seattle  the  company  had  exhibited  a  ladies' 


watch  the  size  of  a  25-cent  piece.  For  San  Francisco  it  had  reduced  the  size 
until  the  works  could  be  covered  by  a  dime. 

The  Waltham  Company  showed  in  this  booth  a  common  thimble  half 
full  of  screws  so  small  that  if  the  thimble  had  been  full  there  would  have 
been  over  23,000  of  them.  They  looked  like  grains  of  sand.  But  not  much 
factory  room  was  saved  by  it,  for  the  visitor  was  told  that  a  complete 
watch  plant  took  about  four  miles  of  benches.  The  machine  for  making 
these  screws  was  on  display. 

Another  fine  watch  exhibit  was  that  of  the  Hamilton  Watch  Company, 
of  Lancaster,  Pa.,  which  showed  watches  and  parts  in  five  sizes  and  30 


The  Varied  Industries  Palace  offered  an  apparent  solution  of  the  problem 
of  sericulture  in  California,  which  is  to  say  in  the  United  States.  The  answer 
to  this  long-standing  question,  if  it  was  answered,  was  in  the  form  of  the 
silk  filature  machine  imported  from  Italy  by  the  Ladies'  Silk  Culture  Society 
of  California;  the  first  machine  of  the  kind  ever  brought  into  the  United 
States  and  one  which,  with  the  accompanying  testing  apparatus  and  the 
processes  demonstrated  in  connection  with  it,  seemed  to  be  the  missing 
link  for  which  this  industry  had  waited. 

Mulberry  trees,  the  home  and  food  supply  of  the  silkworm,  grow  well 
in  about  thirty  counties  of  California,  and  for  more  than  a  generation  silk 
worms  had  been  bred  in  large  numbers  in  Alameda  County,  and  at  the 
town  of  Rutherford  in  Napa  County,  north  of  San  Francisco  Bay.  But  in 
thirty  years  sericulture  had  done  little  more  than  pass  the  experimental 

Provided  he  has  an  even  climate  and  plenty  of  his  favorite  breakfast 

food,  the  silkworm  is  a  willing  performer  up  to  the  point  of  producing  good 

cocoons.     Beyond  that,  however,  he  takes  no  interest  in  his  work,  and  the 

rest  has  to  be  done  by  human  hands.    A  silk  filature  consists  of 

How  Silk      ^^^  ^j.  gj^  gossamers  reeled  from  as  many  cocoons,  and  when 

IS  Made  ° .  ,  .     ,        ■  ,     ,  •  1 1     •  ■        • 

the  spmnmg  is  a  bit  haphazard  the  raw  silk  is  uneven  in  size,  or 
shows,  both  under  the  microscope  and  to  experts  without  the  microscope, 
little  nubs  where  the  filaments  have  been  badly  joined,  split  places,  cork- 
screw formations  where  a  taut  filament  has  pulled  the  slack  ones  around  it, 
and  other  imperfections  that  make  it  worth,  let  us  say,  ^2.50  or  $2  a  pound 
when  it  should  be  worth  $4. 

So  the  Italians  laid  the  world  under  one  more  obligation  and  got  up 
the  filature  machine,  equipped  with  hot-water  basins  for  starting  the 
unwinding,  and  little  glass  journals  for  the  almost  invisible  filaments  to 
run  upon,  and  a  spinning  apparatus,  and  glass-enclosed  reels  to  take  up 




the  spun  product;  making  the  process  as  mechanical  and  so  as  regular  and 
dependable  as  possible. 

The  worm's  output  is  of  larger  diameter  when  he  first  begins  to  spin  it, 
and  diminishes  toward  the  center  of  the  cocoon,  as  he  grows  tired  of  the 
job.  There  was  a  testing  apparatus  with  the  machine,  on  which  a  bell 
would  ring  when  exactly  100  meters  of  silk  had  been  reeled  on  it.  Every 
little  while  100  meters  were  reeled  off  and  weighed  on  gold-scales  or  their 
equivalent,  and  if  the  thread  ran  heavier  or  lighter  than  standard  the  opera- 
tor would  substitute  a  new  cocoon  for  an  old  one,  or  one  half  unreeled  for 
a  new  one,  or  two  for  three  or  three  for  two,  or  by  some  other  combination 
keep  the  weight  and  hence  the  diameter  of  that  filature  almost  uniform; 
on  guard  the  while  against  kinks  and  corkscrews  and  lumpy  places  and 
slack  spinning. 

The  machine  was  operated  by  skilled  Italian  workers  under  the  direc- 
tion of  the  Society's  superintendent,  Mr.  S.  R.  Bellamy,  who  had  acquired 
this  art  in  Northern  Italy.  Crowds  watched  all  day  the  selection  of  the 
cocoons,  the  delicate  handling  of  the  precious  and  almost  invisible  gossa- 
mers, the  testing  and  weighing  of  the  result,  the  production  of  the  golden 
hanks  representing  such  concentrated  values  that  when  a  China  steamer 
docks  at  San  Francisco  the  first  thing  out  of  her  is  the  silk,  to  be  rushed 
across  continent  ahead  of  any  passenger. 

As  this  is  being  written,  capitalists  are  contemplating  the  establishment 
of  sericulture  on  a  commercial  basis,  as  a  result  of  the  Exposition.  If  that 
should  come  about,  all  credit  for  the  initiative,  and  for  pertinacity  in  the 
pursuit  of  a  fine  ideal,  would  be  due  to  the  Ladies'  Silk  Culture  Society  of 

Belding  Brothers  &  Company,  of  Petaluma,  showed  how  the  silk  is 
spun  into  thread.  They  exhibited  long  ranks  of  spools  ceaselessly  revolv- 
ing, and  reeling  in  the  different  colors  from  winder,  doubler,  and  spinner — 
a  striking  and  an  attractive  display.  The  Anderson  Brothers 
Silk  Company,  of  Paterson,  N.  J.,  showed  broad  silks  and  silk  ^^^  Neckut 
novelties.  Harry  Bauer,  of  Lawrence,  showed  silk  textile  novel- 
ties. Smith  &  Kaufmann,  of  New  York,  showed  ribbons,  and  the  Johnson- 
Cowden  Company,  of  New  York,  installed  an  enormous  loom  on  which  a 
nine-inch  silk  ribbon  could  b^  produced,  with  the  state  flowers  of  32 
States  woven  in  it  in  their  natural  colors. 

Among  articles  of  personal  adornment  the  Cawston  Ostrich  Farm  of 
Pasadena  and  San  Francisco  exhibited  some  of  the  most  beautiful  plumes 
ever  produced — the  result  of  one  of  the  most  romantic  ventures  of  modern 
commerce  in  getting  the  birds  out  of  Africa  and  rearing  them  in  California. 


The  California  Cotton  Mills  of  Oakland  had  a  working  exhibit,  showing 
the  manufacture  of  towels,  seine  line,  and  other  cotton  products. 

The  exhibit  of  the  Standard  Felt  Company,  of  West  Alhambra,  Cali- 
fornia, was  a  revelation  of  the  extent  to  which  felt  has  become  a  feature  of 
modern  life.  There  were  not  only  billiard  table  cloth,  and  saddle  pads,  and 
piano  hammers,  and  slippers,  but  smoking  jackets  and  blankets  of  this 
material.  There  was  a  large  slab  of  felt,  an  inch  and  a  half  thick,  that 
could  be  sheared  into  any  desired  shape. 

It  was  in  this  Palace  that  the  Gorham  Company,  of  Providence  and  New 
York,  made  its  wonderfully  artistic  exhibit.  The  gates  at  the  eastern  end 
of  its  booth  were  copies  of  the  famous  Napoleon  doors  of  the  Louvre,  and 
were  made  of  nickel,  while  those  at  the  western  end  were  bronze  copies 
from  the  Morgan  Memorial  Library.  The  Gorham  Company  exhibited 
wares  of  sterling  silver  and  of  14-  and  i8-karat  gold,  and  much  fine  brass 
ecclesiastical  work— large  lecterns,  standing  six  to  eight  feet  high,  one  fine 
piece  in  the  form  of  an  angel.  There  was  much  good  statuary,  and  there 
were  some  very  fine  stained-glass  windows,  and  there  was  an  ornate  wood 
and  ivory  inlaid  desk.  The  booth  cost  between  $30,000  and  $35,°°°  and 
the  stock  displayed  in  it  was  said  to  have  approximated  half  a  million  dol- 
lars in  value. 

Across  the  aisle,  the  San  Francisco  firm  of  Shreve  &  Company  main- 
tained its  high  traditions  with  a  display  of  TiflFany  favrile  glass,  Rookwood 
pottery,  Sinclair  hand-engraved  glass,  and  Patek  Philippe  watches.  One 
of  these  latter  objects,  about  the  size  of  a  25-cent  piece,  was  supposed  to 
be  the  smallest  minute-repeater  ever  produced.  But  the  firm's  proudest 
exhibit  was  a  toilet  set  of  transparent  enamel  on  14-karat  gold,  in  a  deli- 
cate Louis  XVI  pattern,  of  local  design. 

The  National  Terra  Cotta  Society,  composed  of  a  large  number  of 
manufacturers  of  brick  and  of  architectural  terra  cotta,  erected  a  handsome 
booth  of  the  latter  material,  with  great  twisted  columns  and  an  ornate 
frieze,  which  it  hung  with  scores  of  photographs  of  churches,  homes,  and 
commercial  buildings,  to  show  the  extent  to  which  this  material  has  begun 
to  enter  into  modern  construction. 

In  the  making  of  shoes  there  is  hardly  an  important  process  left  that  is 

not  performed  more  accurately,  rapidly,  and  economically  by  machinery  than 

is  possible  by  hand.    A  most  valuable  illustration  was  arranged  in  the  Palace 

of  Varied  Industries  by  the  United  Shoe  Machinery  Company  of 

f?''^  .  Boston.     Most  of  the  principal  machines  used  in  the  production 

Machinery  ,         "^        ^  ,.  -n     •  i  ..u 

of  footgear  were  shown.     It  was  standmg  still,  inasmuch  as  the 
actual  processes  of  manufacture  would  have  been  very  costly  to  reproduce. 


but  power  could  be  applied  to  it  all,  to  show  prospective  customers.  The 
company  considered  itself  justified  in  making  the  exhibit  in  order  to  inform 
people  about  the  industry,  and  the  character  of  its  necessary  equipment. 
Probably  the  Goodyear  welt  is  the  underlying  method  of  the  best  shoe  and 
boot  manufacture  in  the  modern  sense,  and  this  machinery  exemplified  its 
use  in  production. 

The  progress  of  this  ancient  industry  had  been  most  rapid  within  the 
first  fifteen  years  of  the  twentieth  century.  The  old-fashioned  boot-maker 
who  lived  by  hand  processes,  was  giving  way  to  the  modern  shoe  factory, 
clean,  well-lighted,  and  under  expert  corporation  management.  Under  the 
new  conditions  a  little  group  of  workmen  could  produce  in  a  few  hours  a 
quantity  of  shoes  that  the  old-time  boot-maker,  working  single-handed 
all  day  long,  could  not  hope  to  equal  in  a  year  of  labor.  A  Goodyear  welt 
shoe  passes  through  209  different  pairs  of  hands  and  must  conform  to 
the  requirements  of  160  different  machines.  Not  all  were  shown  at  San 
Francisco,  but  the  main  ones  were.  There  were  skiving  machines,  eyeletting 
machines,  and  machines  for  punching  the  caps.  And  there  were  complete 
sets  of  repair  machinery,  as  revolutionary  in  its  way  as  the  devices  for 
original  manufacture. 

A  Vermont  marble  company  showed  its  various  products  in  this  Palace. 
The  Oregon  City  Woolen  Mills  wove  Indian  blankets  on  a  power  loom,  as 
well  as  ladies'  coats,  and  Tam  O'Shanter  caps.  The  Biltmore  Estate  In- 
dustries, the  fruit  of  a  great  philanthropy,  privately  patronized  and  devel- 
oped, exhibited  some  remarkable  hand-made,  carved  furniture. 


BY  the  year  of  the  completion  of  the  Panama  Canal,  the  art  of  generating 
and  distributing  electricity  had  advanced  so  far  that  it  was  possible 
to  "pipe"  energy,  on  wires,  in  almost  any  desired  quantity  almost 
anywhere  you  wanted  it;  and  some  small  motor  on  the  floor,  which  a  waste 
basket  might  cover,  would  actuate  a  machine  of  considerable  magnitude. 

As  a  result,  the  Palace  of  Machinery,  while  a  vast  spread  of  nearly  eight 
and  a  half  acres  of  wonderful  mechanical  devices,  presented  an  appearance 
altogether  difl^erent  from  that  of  the  machinery  building  at  any  other 

The  colossal  steam  engine  had  disappeared.  There  was  no  gigantic 
Corliss,  rotating  a  long  line  of  shafting  from  which  all  the  moving  ma- 
chinery in  the  place  was  turned  by  belts.  The  world  apparently  was  passing 
the  period  of  those  vast  mechanical  forms,  with  great  revolving 
of  Old  wheels   and   walking-beams   and   reciprocating   arms,   that   had 

excited  the  astonishment  of  visitors  to  the  Centennial  or  the 
Columbian  Exposition;  and  had  reached  the  more  amazing  but  less  spec- 
tacular method  of  delivering  hundreds  of  horse-power  that  gave  no  visible 
sign  of  its  transmission,  by  means  of  little  copper  wires  sheathed  in  black. 

The  production  of  hydro-electric  energy  in  California,  and  its  delivery 
at  great  distances,  enabled  the  Exposition  not  only  to  dispense  with  a 
steam-power  plant,  but  with  an  operating  electric  generating  plant  as  well 
(although  a  Diesel  engine  on  exhibition  supplied  some  current),  and  even 
enabled  it  to  get  along  without  a  sub-station  for  the  distribution  of  electric 
energy  from  the  outside.  It  made  the  Palace  of  Machinery  less  astonishing 
in  aspect,  but  more  interesting  in  contemplation.  It  spelled  a  new  chapter 
in  man's  growing  control  of  the  forces  of  nature.  Steam  was  still  his  obe- 
dient giant,  ready  and  reliable.  But  it  was  being  broken  to  turning  dynamos, 
through  turbine  wheels.  And  it  did  not  enjoy  a  monopoly  of  that,  even 
where  there  was  no  water-power  to  dispossess  it,  for  the  internal  combustion 
engine  had  arrived,  and  more  dynamos  every  day  were  being  turned  by 
gas  explosions,  started  inside  cylinders  by  electric  sparks;  or  by  fuel-oil 






sprays  ignited  by  the  heat  from  compressed  air  in  the  cylinders.     Edison 
had  even  tried  gun-cotton  explosions,  but  was  over-successful. 

The  Corliss  engine  at  the  Centennial  Exposition  at  Philadelphia  was 
39  feet  high  and  had  a  fly-wheel  30  feet  in  diameter.  It  had  27-foot  walking- 
beams  nine  feet  deep  in  the  center,  and  weighed  1,400,000  pounds;  and  it 
turned  up  some  1,400  horse-power.  It  stood  on  a  platform  59  feet  in  diam- 
eter, necessitated  by  the  extension  of  the  ladders  built  against 
it  to  enable  the  engineers  and  wipers  to  ascend  to  the  upper  q^^  Timer 
story;  and  some  of  the  shafting  it  rotated  was  350  feet  long. 

The  ladies  standing  about  it,  according  to  the  pictures  of  that  day,  wore 
enormous  bustles,  and  flounces  on  their  overskirts,  and  were  dutifully,  sub- 
missively attentive,  and  appreciative,  and  grateful,  while  their  solemn  hus- 
bands in  hot  frock-coats  and  "stove-pipe"  hats  pointed  out  its  perfectly 
obvious  magnitude  and  made  owlish  observations  on  it  that  no  one  could 

A  1,400-horse-power  turbo-generator  of  1915  was  about  17  feet  long  and 
seven  high,  and  weighed  44,000  pounds  instead  of  1,400,000.  On  the  plat- 
form of  the  Centennial  Corliss  it  wouldn't  have  come  half-way  up  to  the 
hub  of  the  fly-wheel.  No  ladies,  with  or  without  bustles,  stood  about  it 
and  hung  with  flattering  suspense  on  the  omniscient  remarks  of  their  males. 
If  any  all-wise  male  had  dragged  his  wife  in  to  admire  it,  she  would  have 
shown  him  up  by  asking  what  made  it  go,  and  if  he  couldn't  have  told  it 
all  in  ten  words  she  would  have  sprinkled  his  humiliation  with  mocking 
laughter  and  gone  back  to  the  Palace  of  Varied  Industries  where  the  Turks 
were  peddling  something  worth  while.  Other  things  than  machinery  had 

The  concentration  of  exhibits  near  a  power  source  was  no  longer  neces- 
sary, so  a  great  many  machines  were  classified,  not  under  machinery,  but 
in  relation  to  the  arts  they  served.  On  the  other  hand,  electricity,  instead 
of  being  a  separate  and  curious  phenomenon  had  now  become  the  mechani- 
cal maid-of-all-work,  a  very  general  motive  power  of  machinery,  and  so 
was  consolidated  with  it  in  the  classification.  There  was  no  Palace  of  Elec- 
tricity, and  no  more  need  for  it  than  there  would  have  been  for  a  Palace 
of  Coal  in  the  days  when  the  old  steam  engine  dominated  machinery  exhibits. 

Some  large  and  heavy  objects  that  belonged  in  other  classifications 
got  into  the  Machinery  Palace,  partly  because  of  the  noise  they  made  in 
operation  and  partly  because  of  the  peculiar  facilities  for  handling  them. 
The  day  of  skids,  rollers,  crowbars,  and  tackle  for  moving  heavy  exhibits 
was  gone.  There  were  overhead  traveling  cranes  that  ran  virtually  the 
length  of  the  building:  two  30-ton  cranes  with  5-ton   auxiliary  hoists  in 


the  vast  central  nave,  and  a  20-ton  crane  in  each  of  the  larger  side  aisles; 
and  there  was  a  railroad  track  across  the  building,  so  that  a  heavy 
piece  of  machinery  could  be  picked  up  from  a  car  in  any  one  of  the  three 
large  aisles  and  carried  to  any  point  in  it.  Furthermore  the  floor 
^Oituu  could  be  opened  almost  anywhere  and  pile  foundations  driven  for 
heavy  exhibits,  and  the  Chief  of  the  Department,  Mr.  Danforth, 
had  arranged  with  a  contractor,  after  taking  competitive  bids,  to  do  this 
work  for  exhibitors  at  a  stated  rate. 

In  spite  of  the  fact  that  there  was  no  immense  generating  machinery, 
and  no  electric  sub-station  within  the  building,  the  Machinery  Palace  con- 
tained a  most  significant  and  important  collection  of  exhibits,  constituting 
an  index  to  the  condition  of  a  great  basic  activity  of  society  in  191 5.  There 
was  a  fine  boiler  exhibit,  and  a  steam  turbine,  cut  open  for  illustration. 
The  internal  combustion  engine  exhibit  was  very  broad  in  its  showing  of 
different  types  and  uses.  The  modern  form  of  water  wheel  as  a  prime 
mover  appeared  in  its  latest  and  largest  development,  and  there  was  a 
bewildering  display  of  steam  fittings,  power-plant  equipment  and  accesso- 
ries. There  were  the  latest  forms  of  machine  tools  and  shop  appliances, 
machines  for  working  sheet  metal,  presses  for  drop  forging  and  examples 
of  their  work,  abrasives  and  grinding  materials  and  machines  for  their 
exact  use,  testing  apparatus  for  tools  and  structural  material,  lumbering 
and  logging  equipment,  trenching  machines  and  well-drilling  apparatus, 
every  sort  of  pump  that  can  be  imagined  in  modern  form,  electrical  and 
mechanical  indicating  and  recording  instruments,  hoisting,  conveying,  and 
power  transmitting  equipment  in  all  phases,  oils  for  lubricating  and  for 
fuel,  filters  and  hydraulic  presses  for  food  products.  The  electrical  appli- 
ances included  a  full  line  of  equipment  for  generating,  transforming,  han- 
dling, measuring,  storing,  and  utilizing  electric  current,  with  many  forms  of 
electrical  apparatus  for  industrial  and  household  use. 

There  was  a  large  amount  of  apparatus  for  use  in  the  home,  household 
conveniences  as  well  as  necessities,  such  as  fire  extinguishers,  temperature 
recorders,  oil-burning  systems  for  heating,  dwelling-house  elevators,  gas 
generators  for  all  household  uses,  isolated  electric  light  and  water- 
Machin  r  ^orks  plants;  to  say  nothing  of  plumbing  materials  and  acces- 
sories. There  were  can-making  machines,  and  a  big  gang  drill 
for  structural  steel  fabrication. 

A  number  of  improved  lines  of  exhibit  showed  a  marked  advance  over 
the  last  decade.  These  included  power-transmission  equipment,  lubri- 
cants, deep  well-drilling  machinery,  water  meters,  and  water-works  equip- 
ment, Hfting,   hoisting,   and   conveying    machinery,   cement    mixers    and 


other  contractors'   machinery,   road-making  machinery,  and  giant   ditch 

Among  the  developments  in  special  fields  were  burners  for  heavy  petro- 
leum; a  remarkable  collection  of  instruments  for  all  manner  of  indicating 
and  recording;  and  a  grand  collection  of  new  machines  for  testing  the 
strength  of  all  sorts  of  building  construction  materials,  tools,  and  equipment. 

The  better  grades  of  iron,  steel,  and  alloys  produced  by  improved  meth- 
ods during  the  past  decade  had  made  possible  a  number  of  very  useful 
metal-shaping  and  handling  machines.  These  exhibits  included  machine 
tools  of  many  automatic  types,  and  powerful  tools  for  cutting;  tools  for  bend- 
ing light  and  heavy  sheet  metals;  hydraulic  presses  for  forcing  car  wheels 
on  their  axles;  machines  for  making  tin  cans  of  all  kinds,  and  for  pressing 
sheet  metals  into  a  vast  variety  of  shapes;  bolt-making  machinery;  and  a 
great  diversity  of  bench  and  hand  tools  for  all  conceivable  purposes.  Wood- 
working exhibits  included  those  showing  modern  methods  of  lumbering,  saw 
milling,  and  wood  finishing.  There  were  box  nailing  machines,  and  a  me- 
chanical "shingle  weaver." 

Through  all  these  devices  the  principle  of  safety  in  operation  was  most 
noticeable.  Machine  after  machine  showed  gear  guards  and  chain  casings 
and  other  appliances  to  protect  human  Hfe  and  limb. 

Nor,  if  one  were  looking  for  mere  size,  was  there  any  lack  of  scale.  A 
Diesel  engine  of  500  horse  power,  a  water-wheel  that  will  turn  ^  ^^^^^ 
up  20,000  horse  power  and  more  through  a  dynamo,  a  monster  p^^^f^ 
color  press  such  as  we  have  described  among  the  exhibits  of  the 
Liberal  Arts  Department  although  it  occupied  the  northeast  corner  of  the 
Palace  of  Machinery,  are  not  small  objects  in  themselves,  and  they  suggest 
larger  operations  at  less  cost  than  were  possible  to  any  of  the  power  plants 
of  old.  The  building  itself  was  tremendous,  the  largest  all-wooden  frame 
building  ever  constructed,  967  feet  long  and  367  wide,  with  a  gross  area  of 
369,562  square  feet.  Seven  and  a  half  million  feet  of  lumber  went  into  it, 
and  1,447  tons  of  tie  rods,  bolts,  washers,  nuts,  and  lag-screws.  Over  45,000 
feet  of  piling  had  to  be  driven  for  it.  The  cost  of  this  gigantic  structure  was 
over  $655,000.  It  was  divided,  for  installation  purposes,  on  a  rectangular 
plan,  with  blocks  the  longest  of  which  ran  iii  feet,  separated  by  12-foot 
aisles.  Spaces  were  generally  31^  feet  deep,  although  along  the  smaller 
side  aisles  they  were  less. 

The  classification  of  exhibits  in  the  Department  of  Machinery  included 
steam  generators  and  motors  using  steam,  with  accessories;  internal  com- 
bustion motors,  hydraulic  motors,  weight  handling  appliances,  conveying 
machinery,  power  transmission  devices,  apparatus  for  handling  water  and 

VOL.  IV — II 


other  liquids,  fire  engines,  air  and  gas  compressors,  brick-  and  tile-making 
machinery,  dredging  and  excavating  machinery,  refrigerating  machinery, 
packing,  insulation,  lubricants,  and  bearing  metals,  hand  tools,  power  tools, 
lathes,  wood-working  machinery  and  metal-working  machinery,  and  special 
machinery  not  otherwise  classified.  In  addition  there  was  a  large  electrical 
section  classified  as  commutating  apparatus,  synchronous  apparatus,  sta- 
tionary and  inducting  apparatus,  rotary  induction,  unipolar,  rectifying, 
luminous,  measuring,  indicating  and  recording  apparatus,  electro-chemical 
apparatus,  and  apparatus  for  the  protection  of  apparatus. 




THE  Busch-Sulzer  Bros.-Diesel  Engine  Company,  of  St.  Louis,  in- 
stalled the  first  exhibit  in  the  Exposition,  breaking  ground  in  the 
Palace  of  Machinery  on  May  27,  1914,  by  driving  the  first  of  27 
piles  needed  for  the  foundation;  to  the  accompaniment  of  some  very  pleasing 
initiatory  ceremonies.  There  were  addresses  by  Capt.  Baker,  Director  of 
the  Division  of  Exhibits,  by  George  W.  Danforth,  Chief  of  the  Department 
of  Machinery,  by  Lieut.  Com.  Clark  Howell  Woodward,  who  recounted 
the  progress  of  the  Diesel  engine  in  the  Navy,  and  by  W.  S.  Heger,  local 
representative  of  the  exhibiting  company.  Miss  Mary  Lea  Heger,  daughter 
of  the  last  named,  started  the  pile  driver. 

The  engine  itself  was  started  by  wireless.  By  means  of  a  connected 
relay  that  released  a  heavy  weight  and  freed  600  pounds  of  starting-air, 
the  engine  began  to  turn  at  twelve  o'clock  on  Opening  Day,  when  President 
Wilson  touched  the  button  at  Washington.  After  that  it  was  only  ^^^  ^^.^ 
necessary  to  turn  on  the  regular  fuel.  Two  minutes  later,  the  cenerator 
current  this  engine  generated  was  running  the  great  Pancoast 
color  press  in  the  northeast  corner  of  the  Palace,  which  Mayor  Rolph  had 
started  in  the  presence  of  William  Randolph  Hearst,  and  George  E.  Pan- 
coast  its  inventor.  Throughout  the  Exposition  year  the  Diesel  engine  con- 
tinued to  supply  current  when  needed  for  this  and  other  purposes,  until 
the  ceremonies  at  3:45  on  Closing  Day.  Then  President  Moore,  standing 
on  the  speaker's  platform,  pressed  a  key  closing  a  circuit  from  the  giant 
Thordarson  transformer,  and  with  the  high-tension  sparks  flying  in  all 
directions,  the  engine  trip  was  thrown,  and  the  lo-ton  flywheel  came  gradu- 
ally to  rest.  From  the  engine's  platform  the  "  Town  Crier"  of  that  occasion 
delivered  the  official  proclamation  commanding  that  the  Palace  be  closed, 
two  marines  sounded  "taps,"  and  the  five  attendants  of  the  exhibit  waved 
good-bye  to  the  crowd. 

This  exhibit,  during  the  season,  aroused  much  interest.  The  engine  ran 
silently  and  clean,  actuating  a  335  K.  W.  direct  current  generator,  and  the 
attendants,  in  snug  white  uniforms,  looked  like  guests  aboard  a  yacht.    The 



booth  was  trimmed  with  Oriental  rugs  and  finished  in  fine  hard-woods,  so 
that  the  thing  had  more  the  appearance  of  a  parlor  ornament  than  an 
engine.  To  be  specific,  this  was  of  the  four-cylinder,  single-acting,  four- 
stroke-cycle,  enclosed  crank-case,  medium-speed,  vertical  type.  The  speed 
varied  from  196  to  204  revolutions  per  minute  and  the  engine  was  said  to 
obtain  ;}2  P^r  cent  of  the  heat  value  in  energy.  It  weighed  100  tons.  The 
casing  could  be  readily  removed  to  give  access  to  the  crank-shaft  and 
bearings.  The  three-stage  air  compressor,  cast  integrally  with  the  engine 
and  looking  like  a  fifth  cylinder,  was  driven  from  the  crank-shaft,  and 
the  air  was  used  for  fuel  injection.  Operation  was  largely  automatic,  for  the 
governor  controlled  the  lift  of  the  needle  of  the  fuel  valve,  regulated  the 
amount  of  oil  delivered  by  the  fuel  pump  to  the  various  cylinders,  and  con- 
trolled the  amount  of  air  compressed.  There  was  a  lever  for  each  cylinder 
so  each  could  be  separately  regulated  by  hand  if  necessary.  A 
Westward  System  of  forced  lubrication  both  oiled  and  cooled  the  bearings. 
The  engine  stood  on  a  concrete  foundation  atop  of  the  piles,  and 
its  base  was  some  distance  below  the  Palace  floor.  The  Corliss  engine 
exhibited  at  the  Centennial,  in  1876,  was  built  in  New  England.  There  is 
historic  significance  in  the  fact  that  this  Diesel,  exhibited  only  39  years 
later,  was  built  on  the  western  "shore"  of  the  Mississippi  River. 

The  Mcintosh  &  Seymour  Corporation,  of  New  York,  showed  a  500 
horse-power  Diesel  engine  (made  under  license  from  the  Swedish  Diesel 
Engine  Company),  direct-connected  to  a  350  Kilowatt  General  Electric 
direct  current  generator;  and  a  290  horse-power  engine  direct  connected 
to  a  Crocker-Wheeler  200  K.V.A.  three  phase,  60-cycle,  alternating  current 
generator.  This  engine  was  said  to  have  a  peculiarly  effective  atomizer, 
or  pulverizer,  insuring  complete  vaporization  and  combustion  of  the  heavi- 
est crude  oils,  thus  extending  its  range  of  usefulness,  and  saving  wear  and 
tear  on  the  working  parts.  The  fuel  supply  was  controlled  direct  from  the 
governor  to  the  eccentric  driving  the  fuel  pumps  (one  to  each  cylinder)  and 
varying  the  strokes  of  the  pumps  in  automatic  response  to  load  changes. 
These  Diesel  engines  were  much  ahke,  the  essential  working  principle 
being  the  same. 

The  motor-boat  enthusiast  could  find  a  great  deal  to  interest  him  in 
this  Palace,  for  there  were  marine  motors  here  in  abundance,  set  in  finely 
built  hulls  of  various  types.  A  propeller  exhibit  drew  the  motor-boatists 
like  flies  to  honey. 

Could  you  see  any  romance  in  so  hard,  practical  and  mechanical  a 
thing  as  a  gas  engine?  It  was  illuminated  by  that  rosy  glamour.  The  gas 
engine  had  reached  a  high  degree  of  development  in  San  Francisco  as  an 

OIL,  GAS,  AND  STEAM  165 

economizer  of  room  and  labor  and  because  of  our  distance  from  anthracite 
and  proximity  to  great  fields  of  fuel  oil.  The  first  exhibitor  that  applied 
for  space  in  an  Exposition  Palace  was  the  Standard  Gas  Engme  Company 
of  San  Francisco,  and  it  got  in  its  application  the  day  the  House  of  Rep- 
resentatives passed  the  resolution  assigning  the  Exposition  to  ^^^^^.^^^ 
that  city.  Its  exhibit  in  the  Machinery  Palace  was  a  large,  com  Rgrnance 
prehensive,  and  important  showing  of  the  use  of  the  internal 
combustion  principle  as  applied  in  this  form  to  irrigation,  mining,  hoistmg, 
pumping,  and  similar  operations,  but  especially  to  marine  propulsion. 

For,  largely  under  the  enterprise  of  this  company,  the  gas  engine  had 
worked  its  way  out  into  the  vastness  of  Balboa's  ocean,  and  in  many  a 
far-away  reach  of  the  Pacific  it  formed  the  essential  means  of  navigation, 
the  only  Hnk  between  isolated  peoples  and  the  outer  world.  Motor  boats 
equipped  as  marine  hospitals  went  about  from  island  to  island  under  gas 
power.  When  the  steamer  ".Eon"  was  wrecked  on  Christmas  Island  it 
was  a  lifeboat  driven  by  a  gas  engine  that  enabled  a  volunteer  crew  to  make 
a  dash  over  the  open  ocean  for  help,  and  get  it.  Gas  engines,  made  in  San 
Francisco,  carried  the  mail  from  Auckland,  or  Sydney,  with  letters  from 
home,  market  quotations  for  the  copra  or  mother-of-pearl  trader  that 
hoped  to  make  his  fortune  soon  and  go  back  to  civilization,  or  bits  of  news 
from  the  "world  well  lost,"  for  men  that  had  turned  their  backs  on  Picca- 
dilly for  Piccadilly's  good.  And  sometimes  to  some  far  coral  beach  under 
the  cocoanut  trees  the  gas  engine  brought  the  missionary  and  the  marriage 
book  to  regularize  things  a  bit  and  make  Eden  more  secure.  Romance  m 
this  queer  huddle  of  blinking  brass  and  green  paint  and  bobbing  pistons  in 
the  Palace  of  Machinery?  As  much  as  in  the  sail.  Beyond  Boone's  Trace, 
across  the  Missouri,  at  the  end  of  the  prairie  schooner's  long  road,  the  gas 
engine  had  become  the  Wings  of  Adventure. 

There  were  several  types,  by  other  exhibitors,  so  that  the  industry  was 
well  represented:  the  two-stroke  cycle  type  shown  by  the  Bessemer  Gas 
Engine  Company,  the  exhibits  of  the  Gas  Engine  &  Power  Company  and 
Charles  L.  Seabury  Company,  consolidated,  of  Morris  Heights,  N.  Y.,  the 
Buffalo  Gasoline  Motor  Company,  the  Imperial  and  the  Union  of  San 
Francisco,  the  Doak  of  Oakland,  the  Western  Gas  Engine  Corporation  of  Los 
Angeles,  and  many  more,  including  several  exhibits  of  small  Diesels. 

The  Henry  C.  Hyde  Company,  of  San  Francisco,  exhibitors  for  the  Gas 
Engine  &  Power  Company  and  Charles  L.  Seabury  Company,  made  a  col- 
lective exhibit  of  marine  engines,  water  tube  boilers,  Diesel  type  oil  engines, 
and  gasoline-electric  lighting  systems. 

August  Mietz,  of  New  York,  exhibited  the  Mietz  &  Weiss  oil  and  gas 


engine  in  several  types — a  200  horse-power,  four  cylinder,  reversible  marine 
engine,  for  one  example,  which  was  new,  never  having  been  exhibited  before 
1914.  Reversing  gears  and  reversing  gear  models  were  shown  with  the 

But,  when  all  is  said  and  done,  said  McAndrews:  "Gi'e  me  the  power 
o'  steam!"  As  far  as  we  can  see  ahead,  boilers  there  will  always  have  to  be. 
The  Babcock  &  Wilcox  Company  showed  the  identical  old  boiler  it  had 
exhibited  at  the  Centennial  Exposition  in  Philadelphia  in  1876,  and  the 
principles  of  its  design  were  the  same  as  those  on  which  they  were  building 
boilers  nearly  forty  years  later.  Construction  had  changed  in 
Old  Steam  ^ome  details,  but  essentials  were  the  same.  Cast  iron  drum  heads 
with  their  manifolds  had  given  way  to  wrought  steel  drum  heads, 
and  cross  boxes  beneath  the  drum.  While  the  boiler  of  1876  consisted 
largely  of  castings,  the  Babcock  &  Wilcox  of  the  Exposition  year  was  of 
wrought  steel  construction  throughout.  But  this  was  more  a  change  in 
metallurgy  than  in  boiler  construction,  a  substitution  of  material  to  make 
better  what  was  essentially  the  same  thing,  because  it  required  no  change. 

Besides  this  souvenir  of  the  past,  which  the  company  had  sold  and 
bought  back  after  it  had  been  35  years  in  service,  the  boiler  exhibit  was 
peculiarly  complete.  It  consisted  in  the  main  of  full  size  sectional  models 
of  the  different  boilers  of  this  company's  manufacture,  of  which  there  were 
said  to  be  in  use  throughout  the  world  enough  to  generate  more  than 
17,700,000  horse  power. 

Sections  of  the  following  boilers  were  exhibited: 

A  wrought-steel,  longitudinal  drum  Babcock  &  Wilcox  boiler  equipped 
with  a  superheater.  This,  constructed  entirely  of  wrought  steel,  may  be 
said  to  have  represented  the  highest  state  of  the  boiler  manufacturer's  art 
as  it  existed  in  191 5. 

A  Stirling  water  tube  boiler,  equipped  with  a  superheater. 

A  Rust  vertical  water  tube  boiler,  equipped  with  a  superheater.  In 
this  model  the  patented  pressed  tube  sheets  were  of  particular  interest. 

A  Babcock  &  Wilcox  all  wrought-steel  marine  type  of  boiler,  equipped 
with  superheater.  This  held  the  same  place  in  marine  practice  that  the 
longitudinal  drum  Babcock  &  Wilcox  boiler  held  in  stationary  practice. 

Owing  to  the  prevalence  of  the  use  of  oil  fuel  throughout  the  region  in 
which  the  Exposition  was  held,  the  Babcock  &  Wilcox  stationary  and  Stirl- 
ing boilers  were  shown  equipped  with  Peabody  patented  oil-burning  fur- 
naces and  Peabody  oil  burners.  The  Rust,  and  Babcock  &  Wilcox,  marine 
boilers  were  shown  equipped  with  stationary  hand-fired  grates. 




IT  has  been  observed  that  this  is  the  age  of  accuracy,  and  nowhere  is  it 
more  important  than  in  manufacturing  processes.  Testmg  and  re- 
cording machines  to  keep  track  of  the  performances  and  relative  effi- 
ciency of  other  machines,  of  the  life  and  service  of  tools  and  of  materials, 
have  become  vital.  In  this  field  the  Tinius  Olsen  Testing  Machine  Com- 
pany, of  Philadelphia,  had  proved  itself  most  valuable,  and  its  exhibit  in 
the  Palace  of  Machinery  demonstrated  much  that  it  was  essential  to  engi- 
neers and  manufacturers  to  know.  This  was  said  to  have  been  the  greatest 
display  of  the  sort  ever  made. 

Perhaps  you  did  not  know  that  metal  gets  tired,  but  there  was  a  machine 
in  this  exhibit  for  testing  the  "fatigue"  of  steel.  There  were  ^^^^^^^^ 
machines  for  testing  tools  and  tool-steel,  and  other  engineering  g^^^  j^^^^^ 
materials,  for  determining  the  "life"  of  automobile  springs,  and 
for  finding  the  relative  lubricating  values  of  difl^erent  oils.  Delicacy  ot 
measurement  and  accuracy  of  record  had  been  attained  in  ever  higher 
degree,  through  devices  of  the  finest  design  and  workmanship.  Ihere 
were  26  of  these  machines  on  exhibition,  besides  a  large  assortment  of 

In  addition  to  the  Universal  Testing  Machine  of  this  company  it  showed 
a  special  torsion  testing  apparatus  with  a  capacity  of  230,000  inch-pounds, 
capable  of  testing  to  destruction  a  steel  shafting  up  to  2>^  inches  in  diameter. 
An  autographic  device  recorded  the  amount  of  twist  and  torsional  load  for 
every  instant  of  the  test.  These  tests  are  invaluable  for  designing  such 
members  of  machines  as  automobile  crank- shafts,  where  there  must  be  a 
maximum  of  strength  and  a  minimum  of  weight.  There  were  machines 
for  testing  cement,  concrete,  and  road  materials;  one  a  hydraulic  compres- 
sion machine,  hand  operated  and  portable.  There  was  a  machine  for  testing 
the  fabric  of  automobile  tires,  the  metal  of  bearings,  the  tensile  strength  ot 
wire,  the  hardness  of  metals,  by  the  minutely  measured  penetration  of  a 
steel  ball  under  finely  graduated  pressure. 

Various  tool-steels  must  be  operated  at  various  definite  speeds  for  maxi- 



mum  efficiency.  There  were  machines  for  finding  out  what  those  speeds 
should  be,  so  that  the  machine  could  be  adapted  to  the  tool  or  the  tool  to 
the  machine.  One  of  these  machines  showed  the  difference  in 
Close  Tab  ^^^  quality  of  files,  and  so  helped  save  that  most  valuable  com- 
modity there  is  around  any  plant.  Time;  for  Time  is  interest,  and 
may  mean  the  difference,  as  it  often  has,  between  prosperity  and  ruin. 
Altogether  this  exhibit  was  a  most  definite  and  beautiful  reflection  of  the 
refinements  of  modern  manufacturing. 

One  of  the  important  exhibits  in  the  Palace  of  Machinery  was  the  com- 
bined showing  made  by  the  Westinghouse  Pacific  Coast  Brake  Company, 
the  Westinghouse  Airbrake  Company,  the  Westinghouse  Traction  Brake 
Company,  the  National  Brake  and  Electric  Company,  and  the  United  Pump 
&  Power  Company.  They  took  half  a  block  and  made  an  instructive  display 
,of  brakes  and  air  compressors  and  air  pumps,  a  new  feature  being  the 
application  of  electricity  to  the  operation  of  compressed  air  devices;  espe- 
cially the  electro-pneumatic  brake,  which  threw  the  brakes  on  the  whole 
train  simultaneously  and  instantaneously. 

In  the  center  of  the  front  of  the  pavilion  that  dominated  the  exhibit  was 
a  large  operating  electric  sign,  so  arranged  with  mechanical  devices  as  to 
show  in  colored  lights  deceleration  curves  of  trains  stopping  from  a  speed 
of  sixty  miles  an  hour  using  the  old  type  of  pneumatic  brake,  and  trains 
equipped  with  the  electro-pneumatic  brake;  indicating  the  difference  in  the 
stopping  distance  between  trains  equipped  with  both  types  of  apparatus. 
This  chart  also  showed  the  time  in  seconds  required  to  stop  a  train  from  a 
speed  of  sixty  miles  per  hour,  and  the  speed  at  which  the  train  with  the  old 
style  of  brake  would  be  moving  after  the  train  equipped  with  the  new  style 
brake  had  stopped. 

The  Westinghouse  Airbrake  Company  showed  different  types  of  steam 
driven  air  compressors,  compound  and  single  acting,  for  locomotives  and  gen- 
eral industrial  work.  A  number  had  various  valve  chambers  and  cylinders 
sectioned  and  then  connected  in  tandem  with  operating  compressors,  so  that 
they  moved  together  and  visitors  could  see  just  how  they  acted. 

There  was  a  working  model  of  a  deep  water  well  pump  built  of  glass  so 
that  the  operation  could  be  watched. 

The  old  air  brake  hose,  to  couple  which  a  man  had  to  go  between  cars 
and  run  the  risk  of  injury,  was  threatened  by  the  Westinghouse  car  and  air 
coupler,  represented  by  a  model.  It  provided  in  one  coupling  head  for 
connecting  the  cars  and  making  the  air  connections  as  well. 

There  were  pneumatic  water  pumps  for  homes  and  farms.  The  exhibit 
contained  governors  for  compressors,  and  improved  types  of  brake  valve 


for  electric  cars;  and  a  complete  unit,  consisting  of  an  air  compressor,  storage 
tanks  and  control  equipment,  mounted  on  a  truck,  to  make  a  compact  and 
portable  pneumatic  plant. 

Man  has  to  know  what  he  is  doing  in  the  field  of  mechanics,  or  he  can't 
tell  whether  he  is  going  forward  or  back;  and  he  will  go  to  great  lengths  to 
find  out  just  what  effect  he  is  getting  out  of  his  various  contrivances;  how  far 
was  well  shown  in  the  exhibit  of  the  Bristol  Company,  of  Waterbury,  Conn., 
which  put  in  a  remarkable  display  of  recording  pressure  and 

*^  1  U  Intelbgetue 

vacuum  gauges,   thermometers,  volt  meters,   ammeters,   tacho-    Machinery 

meters,  flow  meters,  water  level  gauges  and  the  like.     This  was  a 

display  of  the  utmost  importance  to  engineers,  and  they  gave  it  much  study. 

The  Foxboro  Company,  of  Foxboro,  Mass.,  also  put  in  a  line  of  recording 
and  testing  instruments,  gauges,  orifice  meters  for  measuring  the  flow  of 
natural  gas,  apparatus  for  the  automatic  control  of  the  temperature  of  water 
in  tanks,  and  the  "tapalog,"  a  multi-record  recording  pyrometer  that  would 
measure  heat  from  plus  75  Fahrenheit  up  to  2200,  for  taking  the  temper- 
atures of  annealing  furnaces,  gas  retorts  and  kilns. 

Our  old  friend  the  water  meter  was  there  in  numbers.  The  National 
Meter  Company  installed  what  was  said  to  have  been  the  largest  exhibit 
of  the  sort  ever  made.  It  illustrated  progress  in  this  line  of  manufacture  by 
showing  vestiges,  and  modern  meters  that  had,  in  an  age  of  attempted  fair 
dealing,  straight  reading  registers  and  simplified  recorders. 

The  Neptune  Meter  Company's  display  of  "Trident"  meters  was  very 
full  and  interesting.  About  700  were  used  in  the  Exposition  grounds, 
passing  about  a  million  and  a  half  gallons  of  water  daily,  and  the  cost  of 
upkeep  was  practically  nothing. 

A  great  labor  saving  device,  one  that  probably  saved  the  orange  growers 
of  California  about  $50,000  a  year,  was  the  box  nailing  machine,  made  by  the 
Parker  Machine  Works,  of  Riverside,  and  exhibited  by  George  D.  Parker. 
This  machine  appeared  in  two  forms,  the  Automatic,  which  had  been  on  the 
market  about  ten  years  and  was  a  well-known  part  of  packing-house  equip- 
ment, and  the  Universal,  which  had  been  out  but  a  short  while.  The  Parker 
Automatic  probably  made  70  per  cent  of  the  orange  boxes  used  in  ^^^  ^^^ 
California,  and  when  an  output  of  from  six  to  ten  cars  of  400  boxes  ^^^^^^ 

of  oranges  a  day  is  going  East,  boxes  have  to  be  made  at  a  pretty 
lively  rate  to  keep  up  and  not  delay  the  operation.  At  the  top  of  the 
machine  were  two  nail  holders  from  which  the  nails  were  fed  18  at  a  time, 
the  shooks  being  fed  into  hoppers.  The  machine  assembled  the  shooks  and 
when  they  were  in  position,  squeezed  the  nails  into  them  and  threw  out  the 
finished  box,  center  partition  and  all.     The  other  and  larger  and  later 


machine,  the  Universal,  would  make  boxes  of  any  size,  for  apples,  canned 
goods,  and  other  products,  driAring  ;6  nails  into  the  three  sides  of  the  box  in 
one  operation.  It  would  handle  almost  any  sort  of  shook,  and  would  turn 
out  1,000  boxes  an  hour,  the  work  of  twenty  men. 

In  the  large  line  of  pumps  exhibited  in  the  Machinery*  Palace  we  may 
mention  the  deep  well  centrifugals  of  the  Krogh  Manufacturing  Company  of 
San  Francisco.  These  were  said  to  be  automatically  water  balanced  so  that 
they  could  not  get  out  of  balance  no  matter  how  the  service  condition  varied. 
They  were  used  in  the  Ex'position's  own  water  supply  system,  in  and  near 
the  west  end  of  Golden  Gate  Park. 

Another  pump  exhibit  that  received  much  attention  was  that  of  the  Layne 
&  Bowler  Corporation,  of  Los  .Angeles,  which  supplied  the  pleasant  spectacle 
of  streams  of  water  flowing  down  a  large  cascade.  This  company  showed 
the  Layne  patent  multistage  centrifugal,  so  constructed  that  it  would  pass 
freely  inside  pit  or  casing  varying  from  9^s  inches  diameter  to  30  inches. 
The  runners  could  be  adjusted  from  the  surface. 

The  exhibit  of  the  E.  W.  Bliss  Company,  of  Brooklyn,  X.  Y.,  might  have 
been  entitled  "War  or  Peace."  There  was  a  large  torpedo,  the  product  of 
this  concern's  metal  pressing  machinery,  by  which  it  manufactures  the  Bliss- 
Leavitt  Automobile  Torpedo,  but  if  you  had  no  use  for  that  lethal  instru- 
ment you  might  have  been  interested  in  the  long  lines  of  tin  cans  for  the 
>_£_,  packing  of  the  peaceful  tomato  or  the  amiable  asparagus.  They 
or  Tcmutces  ^^^  emerging  from  a  machine  in  active  operation,  and  they  came 
in  great  variety- — cans  for  fruit,  for  baking  powder,  for  talcum 
powder,  coming  at  the  rate  of  1 50  a  minute.  There  were  can  ends  produced 
by  one  machine  and  threaded  talcum  powder  can  tops  from  another.  The 
exhibit  showed  a  high  degree  of  development  in  sheet  metal  working 

The  control  of  water  lines,  and  of  steam,  gas,  oil,  and  air,  was  illustrated 
by  the  Crane  Company's  exhibit.  This  firm  is  one  of  the  world's  leading 
manufacturers  of  plumbing  supplies,  and  just  to  show  what  a  valve  might  be, 
it  mstaUed  one  22  feet  high — a  72-inch  wedge  gate  valve,  with  a  lo-inch 
by-pass,  operated  by  hydrauhc  cylinders,  the  whole  weighing  some  28  tons. 
It  was  necessar>-  to  build  a  concrete  foundation  for  it,  beneath  the  floor  of 
the  Machinery  Palace.  With  this  littie  faucet  were  shown  a  motor-oper- 
ated gate  valve  of  respectable  size,  steam  headers,  nozzle  headers,  expansion 
L  bends,  drainage  fittings,  refrigerating  plant  equipment,  and  a  wide 
diversity  of  bronze  valves  and  fittings. 

Speaking  generally,  no  better  method  of  getting  true  surfaces  had 
developed  in  machine-shop  practice  by  191 5,  than  grinding.     For  a  long 




time  it  had  beer  regarded  as  very  expensive,  and  it  had  been,  and  we  all 
helped  pay  the  expense,  but  during  the  ten  years  preceding  the  Exposition 
it  had  been  coming  more  and  more  into  use  because  in  general  it  gave  the 
best  results.  Concurrent!) ,  and  naturalh ,  there  had  been  great  advances 
m  abrasives  and  grinding  machines,  and  this  progress  was  illustrated  at  San 
Francisco  in  the  exhibit  of  the  Carborundum  Company,  of  Niagara  Falls. 
In  fatrt  carborundum  had  had  a  great  deal  to  do  with  this  evolution  of 


The  arresting  object  in  the  center  of  the  space  was  a  fountain  made  of 
amethvstme  crystals  of  carborundum,  created  in  all  their  gem-like  beauty  by 
mixing  sawdust,  sand,  coke,  and  salt  and  melting  them  in  an  electric  furnace 
with  a  temperature  of  -,000  d^rees,  produced  by  current  from  Niagara 
Falls.  When  you  reflect  that  steel  begins  to  weaken  at  a  little  over  2,000 
degrees,  that  is  indicative  of  some  torridity.  It  is  said  the  ^  ^^^^ 
;!  e^  was  trying  to  make  diamonds  when  he  got  the  now         Failure 

v^  w-n  result — not  diamonds,  of  which  there  are  more  than 

plentv  in  the  world,  but  something  infinitely  more  valuable,  an  abrasive 
harder  and  sharper  than  emery,  and  capable  of  being  compressed  into  any 
desirable  form.  About  the  fountain  were  grouped  e\'ery  imaginable  sort  of 
grinding  wheel,  of  this  material.  There  was  marble  coping  that  had  been 
cut  b^  It,  and  glass  cut  and  delicately  etched  by  means  of  it.  Aloxite  wheels 
as  well  were  shown  here  for  treating  leather.  There  were  carborundum  and 
aioxite  paper  and  cloth  for  giving  a  high  finish  in  the  machine  shop. 

In  the  next  space  was  an  exhibit  of  heavy  "Landis"  grinding  machinery, 
on  which  such  wheels  could  be  used.  One  machine  would  impart  to  a  wheel 
a  speed  of  18,000  revolutions  per  minute.  This  was  part  of  the  exhibit  of 
Harron,  Rickard  and  McCone. 

The  International  Acheson  Graphite  Compan>  exhibited  some  monster 
electrodes,  of  interest  in  California  where  electric  smelting  of  iron  ores  had 
maac  some  progress.  These  electrodes  were  I4  by  I4  inches  in  section,  and 
Sc  inches  long.  Their  current-capacit>-  was  15c  amperes  per  square  inch  of 
section,  so  that  the>  could  carry  a  total  of  29>4^  amperes.  This  company 
had  developed  the  production  of  graphite  artificially  and  on  a  large  scale, 
ana  it  exhibited  one  of  the  electric  furnaces  in  which  the  process  took  place; 
furnaces  capable  of  a  heat  so  intense  that  it  could  break  up  carborundum, 
or  metamorphose  any  carbonaceous  material  into  graphitic  carbon,  or  pure, 
solid  graphite.  Thus  graphite  for  its  many  uses,  from  "lead"  pencils  to 
electrodes  and  crucibles,  could  be  derived  from  coal  and  coke,  and  needed  no 
costly  purification,  like  the  natural  kind.  Graphite,  combined  with  greases 
and  oils,  for  lubricants,  was  shown  in  this  booth. 


The  National  Carbon  Company  exhibited  a  large  assortment  of  carbons 
for  arc  lamps,  enclosed,  open,  or  flame  arc  type;  of  searchlight  carbons,  pro- 
jector carbons  for  moving-picture  machines,  carbons  for  miniature  arc  lamps, 
and  carbons  for  use  in  photography. 

A  useful  device  shown  in  this  Palace  for  shifting  heavy  objects  in  office 
buildings,  warehouses,  wholesale,  and  retail  stores  and  the  like,  was  the 
"transveyor"  system  of  trucking,  shown  by  the  Cowan  Truck  Company,  of 
Holyoke,  Mass.  There  were  a  number  of  chassis  equipped  with  a  hydraulic 
lifting  device  and  a  series  of  movable  platforms.  The  ordinary  transveyor 
of  this  system,  however,  which  was  in  general  use  in  the  Exposi- 
Movers  tion,  consisted  of  a  four-wheeled  hand  truck  used  in  connection 
with  a  separate  platform.  The  truck  was  backed  under  the 
loaded  platform,  and  the  latter  was  lifted  clear  of  the  floor  by  a  lever  which, 
as  one  engineer  said,  was  "manipulated  by  foot." 

Eastern  visitors  accustomed  to  the  sort  of  growing  timber  that  the  Cali- 
fornian  remarked  could  be  scooped  up  before  breakfast  with  a  mowing 
machine,  opened  their  eyes  and  believed  a  few  things  about  Pacific  Coast 
lumber  when  they  saw  the  skids  under  the  logging  engine  of  the  Smith  and 
Watson  Iron  Works,  of  Portland,  Ore.  These  were  the  biggest  cut  timbers 
to  be  found  in  the  Exposition:  34  inches  wide,  42  inches  thick,  and  54  feet 
long.  At  intervals  of  six  feet  the  skids  were  joined  by  six-foot  lengths  of 
similar  sticks,  and  the  forward  ends  of  the  main  members  were  cut  up  like 
sled  runners  so  that  the  900-horse-power  logging  engine  on  them,  with  its 
boiler  and  logging  winch,  could  drag  itself  through  the  woods  under  its  own 

A  sort  of  sand-box  layout  with  a  miniature  forest  illustrated  this  firm's 
fine  of  logging  equipment  in  a  most  effective  way.  There  were  long  trolley 
lines  strung  through  the  trees  with  which  the  roughest  and  heaviest  opera- 
tions could  be  performed.  It  was  one  of  the  best  bits  of  model  making  in 
the  Exposition  because  it  so  clearly  indicated  the  nature  and  conditions  of 
the  work  to  be  done. 

There  were  two  fine  exhibits  of  leather  belting  in  the  Machinery  Palace, 
which  served  to  inform  people  of  the  importance  of  this  product  as  a  method 
of  transmitting  energy.  These  were  the  exhibits  of  the  Graton  &  Knight 
Manufacturing  Company  of  Worcester,  Mass.,  with  its  "Spartan"  brand, 
and  the  Charles  A.  Schieren  Company  of  New  York  with  its  "Duxbak" 

The  former  exhibit  was  especially  valuable  in  an  educational  way  tor 
the  lesson  it  conveyed  in  the  multiform  uses  of  leather  and  the  vital  value 
of  that  commodity.     For,  the  belt  manufacturers  took  the  largest  and  best 


parts  of  the  hide  for  the  belt;  and  the  outer  parts  and  flanks,  and  pieces  too 
small  for  belting  although  they  might  be  of  the  best  of  the  hide,  went  into  a 
vast  diversity  of  other  uses,  all  which  were  illustrated  in  swinging  cases  on 
the  wall — straps,  heel  counters  for  shoes,  welting,  trunk  handles,  gaskets, 
discs,  pump  leathers,  washers,  leather  aprons,  all  sorts  of  small  and  daily 
necessary  articles,  with  bicycle  seats,  and  automobile  and  motorcycle 

Some  large  belts  were  shown,  and  the  art  of  building  them  up  from  sec- 
tions of  leather  could  be  studied,  and  admired,  for  it  was  a  thing  to  admire 
when  you  considered  that  many  of  them  would  have  to  run  in  heat  and 
steam,  and  flooded  wheel  pits,  and  that  when  they  gave  out  or  got  full  of 
cracks  or  the  seams  let  go,  the  plant,  no  matter  how  much  might  be  invested 
in  it  and  how  much  interest  had  to  be  paid  for  the  money  borrowed  on  it, 
would  have  to  shut  down  until  another  belt  could  be  slipped  into  place. 

Of  course,  it  would  be  better  always  to  have  the  belt  made  from  one 
piece  of  hide;  and  on  one  occasion  the  professor  in  charge  of  the  mechanical 
engineering.section  of  a  famous  technical  school  refused  to  accept  delivery  of 
a  twenty-foot  belt  because  it  was  "  pieced  together."  The  factory  ^  „ . 
representative  offered  to  supply  a  belt  in  one  piece  if  the  professor  Dij^c:ul(ie's 
could  find  him  a  steer  long  enough  from  neck  to  tail  to  furnish 
the  hide.  So,  these  belts  were  an  exhibit,  as  well,  in  the  art  of  using  cements. 
One  of  the  features  of  this  exhibit  was  the  belt  with  a  V  section,  made  of 
small,  riveted,  V-shaped  bits,  for  catching  friction  in  small  transmission 
spaces.  Another  consisted  of  two  belts  that  ran  through  a  heat  chamber  of 
200  degrees,  and  then  through  a  bath  of  oil  and  water.  And  there  was  lace- 
leather,  and  round,  twisted,  and  built-up  round  belting,  and  belts  running  on 
all  imaginable  forms  of  drive;  around  corners,  and  over  large  and  small 
taper  pulleys. 

The  Chas.  A.  Schieren  Company  also  showed  belts  on  all  sorts  of  drives, 
and  one  running  continuously  through  water.  The  pavilion  erected  by  this 
company  was  very  attractive,  and  was  constructed  of  heavy  steel  to  elimi- 
nate vibration  as  far  as  possible.  There  was  a  fountain  in  the  center  and 
many  belt  drives  were  arranged  on  the  four  columns  of  the  booth. 

Belts  suggest  pulleys.  The  American  Pulley  Company  showed  one 
made  of  steel,  72  inches  in  diameter  with  a  36-inch  face,  that  you  could  start 
revolving  with  an  almost  invisible  silk  thread;  and  it  weighed  three  quarters 
of  a  ton.  Even  the  air  resistance  of  the  spidery  arms  had  been  calculated 
and  reduced  to  the  minimum.  And,  typical  of  the  times  and  their  demand 
for  accuracy,  there  was  in  the  same  booth  an  "Efficiency  Indicator"  that 
measured  within  rsVff  of  a  horse  power  the  amount  of  energy  necessary  to 


revolve  a  given  pulley.  This  was  the  first  time  it  was  ever  exhibited,  and 
daily  demonstrations  were  given  for  interested  visitors. 

The  Meese  &  Gottfried  Company,  of  San  Francisco,  had  a  beautifully 
installed  and  very  large  exhibit  of  the  accessories  to  manufacturing  in  which 
this  concern  specializes.  Material-handling  hoists  and  conveyors  were 
shown  in  many  designs.  There  were  bucket  elevators,  and  slat,  apron, 
pan,  spiral  scraper,  and  belt  conveyors,  besides  many  more  devices  for  equip- 
ping factories  and  mills.  All  about  were  photographs  of  industrial 
n'lTers  plants  in  which  the  appliances  of  this  company  had  shortened 
methods  and  produced  effective  economies  in  materials  and  labor. 
There  was  a  bewildering  variety  of  wooden  pulleys,  and  there  was  one  steel- 
rimmed  pulley  io8  inches  in  diameter  revolving  on  ring-oiling  bearings  at 
considerable  speed  with  no  source  of  energy  apparent. 

A  menace  to  pulleys  is  centrifugal  force  at  high  rim  speeds.  The  Meese 
&  Gottfried  Company  exhibited  a  Gilbert  wood  pulley  in  course  of  con- 
struction, which  showed  how  the  thousand-odd  pieces  of  hard  maple  were 
interlocked  to  resist  successfully  this  outward  strain.  The  same  firm 
showed  a  24-inch  conveyor  belt  running  across  its  entire  exhibit  space  and 
above  it,  working  back  and  forth,  a  large  automatic  belt  tripper  for  discharg- 
ing the  load  and  distributing  it  evenly  along  both  sides  into  bins  below. 
This  was  equipped  with  a  variable  speed  transmission. 

What  made  the  skyscraper  grow  appeared  in  the  very  elaborate  and 
expensive  installation  of  the  Otis  Elevator  exhibit  in  the  Machinery  Palace. 
The  passenger  elevators  were  an  exhibit  in  the  Department  of  Liberal  Arts, 
but  the  freight-elevating  feature  was  classified  under  the  Department  of 
Machinery.  The  entire  exhibit  was  in  the  one  Palace,  of  which  it  formed  an 
important  integral  part,  for  it  helped  people  ascend  to  the  offices  of  the 
Department,  built  in  a  small  second  story.  At  the  entrance  to  the  cages 
there  were  very  handsome  illustrations,  in  the  form  of  illuminated  dioramas 
of  cities  "grown  up  to  skyscrapers"  so  to  speak — New  York  on  one  side  and 
San  Francisco  on  the  other. 

The  exhibit  was  so  arranged  as  to  permit  a  close  inspection  of  the  actual 
machines  from  all  sides.  There  were  gearless  traction-elevator  machines 
with  governor  and  controller,  and  an  Otis  worm-gear  traction  machine  for 
alternating  current  circuits,  with  variable  speed  control,  arranged  for  two- 
speed  operation. 

Two  of  the  latest  safety  devices  were  shown.  One  was  the  oil  buffer, 
put  under  the  car  and  counterbalance,  and  designed  to  bring  either  one  to  a 
gradual  stop  from  full  speed  in  case  either  should  descend  at  abnormal  speed 
toward  the  bottom  of  the  hatchway.     The  gradual  arrest  of  motion  was 




accomplished  by  the  displacement  of  oil  in  the  buffer  as  it  escaped  from  one 
chamber  into  another;  an  artillery  device.  The  other  safety  appliance  was 
an  electro-mechanical  one  that  gripped  the  guide  rail  in  case  of  a  free  falling 
car.  It  would  operate  mechanically  if  the  hoisting  ropes  broke,  and  electri- 
cally if  only  an  abnormal  speed  was  reached  with  the  hoisting  ropes  intact. 
The  elevator  serving  the  offices  of  the  Department  of  Machinery  was  of  the 
automatic  push-button  type,  so  constructed  that  the  machine  and  hatchway 
were  an  interesting  exhibit. 

The  application  of  hydraulic  power  to  mechanical  processes  for  doing  the 
world's  work  was  demonstrated  by  the  exhibit  of  the  Hydraulic  Press  Manu- 
facturing Company,  of  Mount  Gilead,  O.  Here  was  a  wide  variety  of 
presses  and  pumps.  Of  interest  in  California  was  a  550-ton  hydraulic  olive- 
oil  press,  applying  modern  mechanics  to  one  of  the  most  ancient 
of  labors.  There  was  another  550-ton  press  for  getting  the  grease  Pressu 
out  of  tallow  scrap  and  the  lard  from  hog  cracklings — of  peculiar 
interest  to  meat  packers.  Then  there  was  a  150-ton  cider,  wine  or  tankage 
press,  with  a  juice  capacity  of  250  barrels  a  day. 

It  was  not  merely  for  food  and  drink  however  that  the  hydaulic  principle 
had  been  put  into  use  by  these  manufacturers.  The  press  for  forcing  car 
wheels  on  their  axles  had  a  resistance  post  and  cylinder  made  of  open-hearth 
steel  with  a  guaranteed  tensile  strength  of  65,000  pounds  to  the  square  inch. 
If  the  axle  was  bent  in  the  process  there  was  another  press  that  would 
straighten  it,  exerting  if  necessary  a  pressure  of  75  tons.  It  had  a  nine-foot 
bed;  and  a  shaft,  axle  or  bar  with  a  maximum  diameter  of  4^  inches  could 
be  bent  with  it  on  30-inch  centers. 

There  were  hydraulic  pumps,  motor  driven  and  steam,  and  a  represen- 
tative group  of  hydraulic  valves  and  fittings  was  shown.  The  agents,  the 
Berger  &  Carter  Company,  of  San  Francisco,  made  a  collective  exhibit  of 
machinery  and  equipment  for  the  food-preserving  and  allied  industries. 
There  were  can-making  machines,  electric  cranes  and  hoists  for  packing 
plants,  grain  cleaners,  and  motors  suitable  for  use  in  these  lines. 

This  firm  showed  some  gas  engines  and  a  wide  diversity  of  machine-shop 
tools — lathes,  drills,  grinders,  and  shapers,  as  well  as  water-handling  devices, 
pumps,  heaters,  concrete  mixers,  rock  crushers,  wood-working  machinery, 
hoists,  jacks,  pipe,  and  bolt-cutting  machinery  (some  of  the  pipe-cutting 
devices  would  cut  and  thread  extremely  short  nipples),  well-drilling  and 
prospecting  machinery,  tool  steels  and  supplies.  There  were  seven  large 
machines  in  operation  in  this  extensive  space,  in  which  there  were  also 
exhibited  donkey  engines,  mine  pumps,  lever,  and  hydraulic  jacks  and  other 
machinery  needed  about  mines. 


The  Warner  &  Swasey  Company  showed  some  turret  lathes  that  were  of 
great  interest  to  machinists — its  universal  Hollow  Hexagon  lathes  especially 
for  bar  and  chuck  work,  and  its  turret-screw  machines,  automatic  boring  and 
tapping  machines,  and  a  valve-milling  machine.  These  were  of  fine  design 
and  superior  workmanship,  and  had  a  wide  range  of  application.  They 
were  shown  in  operation. 

Saw  filing  by  machinery  was  exhibited  by  the  Hanchett  Swage  Works,  of 
Big  Rapids,  Mich.  This  concern  showed  power  saw-filing  devices  for  han- 
dling every  type  of  saw  used  in  wood  working. 

Production  of  tools  and  other  mechanical  forms  by  drop  forging  had 
made  much  headway  during  the  decade  preceding  the  Exposition,  and  so 
the  exhibit  of  the  J.  H.  Williams  Company,  of  Brooklyn  and  Buffalo,  was  of 
pretty  wide  interest.  The  actual  method  was  illustrated  by  a  hammer  that 
formed  part  of  the  exhibit,  and  a  cyclorama  in  the  center  of  the  booth,  with  a 
number  of  oak  panels  on  which  were  mounted  a  great  variety  of 
J^°^.  tools  and  appliances.     Some  of  the  most  delicate  and  intricate 

forms  were  displayed,  ranging  from  automobile  crank  shafts  to 
surgical  instruments.  The  space  was  fenced  with  chain  pipe  wrenches, 
among  which  was  a  i6-inch  wrench  weighng  140  pounds,  the  chain  of  which 
had  a  breaking  strain  of  40,000. 

The  private  water-supply  of  country  places,  and  even  of  large  city 
institutions,  such  as  hotels,  had  been  occupying  much  attention  since  the 
St.  Louis  Exposition,  and  certain  phases  of  improvement  had  come  into 
being  that  were  of  interest  to  the  managers  of  large  concerns  and  owners 
of  farmhouses  which  they  wished  to  put  into  modern  condition.  They 
found  much  that  they  were  looking  for  in  the  exhibitof  the  Kewanee  Private 
Utilities  Company,  of  Kewanee,  111.  Through  the  methods  developed  by 
this  concern,  water  pumped  into  an  air-tight  steel  tank  against  the  atmo- 
spheric contents  of  that  tank  would  be  forced  out  if  the  pressure  were 
released  by  the  opening  of  a  tap,  and  would  flow  througha  piping  system 
as  well  as  it  would  by  gravity.  With  this  system  you  would  need  no  tank 
aloft  on  a  tower,  but  could  keep  the  water  fresh,  cool,  and  uncontaminated 
in  a  reservoir  underground.  To  this  device  the  company  had  added 
individual  electric-lighting  plants,  vacuum  cleaners,  sewage-disposal  systems, 
small  refrigerating  plants  and  other  contrivances  for  promoting  comfort 
and  giving  the  householder  command  of  his  own  supplies  and  operations. 
These  things  not  only  ministered  to  convenience  but  to  independence,  and  so 
were  a  good  thing  socially  and  politically,  as  well  as  mechanically. 




HE  Palace  of  Machinery  offered  engineers  a  working  laboratory  of  the 
best  hydraulic  practice,  in  at  least  part  of  their  field,  in  the  exhibit 
of  the  Pelton  Water  Wheel  Company  of  San  Francisco,  and  its 
co-exhibitors,  the  New  London  Ship  and  Engine  Company,  of  New  London, 
Conn.,  the  Builders'  Iron  Foundry  of  Providence,  R.  L,  the  Falk  Company, 
of  Milwaukee,  the  General  Electric  Company,  of  Schenectady,  and  the 
Westinghouse  Electric  and  Manufacturing  Company  of  Pittsburg,  Pa.,  and 

some  others.  •    ,  l     u    j       i;^ 

A  whole  block  in  the  Palace  of  Machinery  was  occupied  by  hydraulic 
power  apparatus  and  auxiliary  equipment,  and  the  exhibit  comprised 
among  even  larger  and  more  significant  features,  horizontal  and  vertical 
turbine  pumps,  hydraulic  "  giants,"  speed-increasing  gears,  water-measuring 
and  recording  apparatus,  electric  generators  and  motors,  and  electric  measur- 
ing and  recording  instruments.  ,  •    tt  • 

The  exhibit  so  favorably  impressed  Dr.  Lucke,  of  Columbia  Umversity, 
Chairman  of  the  Jury  of  Awards  of  this  section,  that  he  brought  it  to  the 
attention  of  two  graduates  of  Columbia,  with  the  result  that,  except  those 
parts  destined  for  immediate  service,  it  was  purchased  outright  for  that 
institution  and  now  forms  a  part  of  the  laboratory  equipment  of  Columbia  s 
School  of  Mines;  while  the  central  feature,  the  great  20,000-horse-power 
turbine,  has  gone  into  service  and  proved  itself  a  2S,ooo-horse-power  unit. 

California  is  a  land  of  water  power.     It  is  also  a  land  of  gold,      ihe 
miners  used  the  water  in  their  mining  operations,  and  the  art  of  handhng  i^t 
in  long  flumes  and  failing  pipe  lines  and  discharging  it  through  "momtors 
or  "giants"  to  tear  out  auriferous  gravel  beds  and  canyon  sides,  ^^.^ 

grew  into  the  great  hydro-electric  generating  and  transmitting         ^^tarted 
arts  that  have  made  fundamental  changes  in  industry  in  many 
parts  of  the  world,  and  seem  destined  to  make  more  of  them  wherever  there  is 
falling  water  in  quantity. 

Part  of  that  development  was  the  invention,  by  Lester  Pelton,  and  the 
manufacture  in  San  Francisco,  of  the  Pelton  tangential  water  wheel,  whose 

VOL.  IV  — 12 



pairs  of  shallow  double  "buckets"  with  knife-edge  divisions,  make  maxi- 
mum utilization  of  the  energy  of  the  jet  that  strikes  them.  Another  part 
was  the  invention,  by  J.  B.  Francis,  of  the  Francis  turbine,  and  its  develop- 
ment by  the  Pelton  people  into  the  Pelton-Francis  wheel.  These  wheels  are 
now  known  all  over  the  world  and  the  quantity  of  energy  generated  by 
means  of  them  sounds  fabulous. 

The  Lake  Spaulding  project  of  the  Pacific  Gas  &  Electric  Company,  was, 
in  1915,  one  of  the  most  remarkable  undertakings  for  the  utilization  of  water 
power  ever  conceived.  The  head  waters  of  the  whole  south  fork  of  the  Yuba 
were  backed  up  and  carried  across  a  divide  to  the  water  shed  of  the  Bear,  by 
means  of  an  enormous  dam,  which  formed  Lake  Spaulding.  Before  the 
water  was  turned  over  to  the  farmers  in  the  valley  below  to  grow  crops  with, 
it  was  to  generate  at  various  power  houses  on  the  line  of  its  descent  a  total 
of  133,500  kilowatts  of  electrical  energy.  At  the  principal  station.  Drum 
Power  House,  it  would  generate  50,000  kilowatts,  one  of  the  wheels  to  do  it 
being  a  Pelton-Francis  turbine,  with  a  rated  capacity  of  20,000 
Gravity  horsepower.  The  wheel  happened  to  be  completed  just  in  time 
for  the  Exposition  and  was  installed  in  the  Palace  of  Machinery, 
by  the  Pelton  Water  Wheel  Company,  on  permission  of  the  Pacific  Gas 
&  Electric  Company;  standing  still,  of  course,  because  there  was  no  way  to 
supply  it  with  a  stream  adequate  to  its  operation  in  the  Palace.  The  big 
wheel  was  designed  to  run  at  360  revolutions  per  minute  under  a  head  of 
500  feet.  Its  bronze  "runner"  was  74  inches  in  diameter,  and  the  whole 
thing  stood  26  feet  high,  from  the  floor  level.  In  the  year  of  the  Exposi- 
tion this  turbine  was  the  largest  of  its  class. 

The  general  exhibit  in  this  space  was  a  most  effective  demonstration  of  the 
instrumentalities  of  hydro-electric  development  where  such  development 
has  led  the  world — in  California.  Even  to  a  layman  it  was  impressive. 
There  seemed  to  be  needle  nozzles  and  nozzle  needles  all  over  the  place. 
The  needle  was  a  shining  steel  object  several  sizes  taller  than  a  man;  quite  a 
needle.  "Runners"  of  the  tangential  Pelton  wheels  with  their  bifurcated 
buckets  were  lying  on  the  floor,  and  there  was  a  "runner"  of  a  Pelton- 
Francis  turbine  standing  by  to  show  how  the  water  entered  at  the  circum- 
ference and  left  at  the  center. 

Besides  the  great  20,000  horse-power  turbine,  standing  still,  there  was  a 
Pelton  tangential  water  wheel  in  operation  under  a  head  of  300  feet,  pumped 
by  a  heavy-oil  internal-combustion  engine  of  the  Diesel  type  made  by  the 
New  London  Ship  and  Engine  Company  and  geared  to  the  pump  by  a  Falk 
gear  that  turned  up  the  speed  from  350  revolutions  to  1,800  per  minute  and 
was  said  to  work  with  an  efficiency  of  98^  per  cent. 




The  important  thing  about  this  wheel  was  that  it  was  equipped  with  an 
oil-pressure  governor  and  the  latest  pattern  of  water-economizing  needle 
nozzle  and  relief  valves;  for  two  of  the  serious  problems  of  the  hydro-electric 
engineer  were  regulation  of  speed  under  fluctuating  loads,  and  water  econ- 
omy under  the  same  conditions  without  producing  excessive  pressure  from 


The  governor  and  needle-nozzle  operation  was  shown  m  an  electric- 
lighted  case  with  windows  in  it  so  that  you  could  see  what  was  going  on— 
the  heavy  gush  of  the  jet  as  the  load  increased,  the  deflection  of  part  of  it 
as  the  load  lightened,  the  turning  of  it  back  to  the  wheel  again  as  more  load 
came  on,  all  working  automatically.  The  wheel  operated  a  75-  ^^^„^^^ 
K.VV.   direct  current  generator  made  by   the  General   Electric  jj^^^i 

Company  of  Schenectady.  An  assembled  nozzle  was  shown, 
standing  still,  designed  to  operate  under  a  head  of  1,450  feet  and  control  a 
jet  capable  of  generating  10,000  horse  power.  Near  it  were  the  tangential 
"runners"  mentioned  above,  designed  to  take  such  jets,  and  built  to  go  on 
each  end  of  a  shaft  which  would  carry  the  revolving  element  of  a  15,000-K. 
V.A.  generator. 

A  Venturi  meter  was  exhibited,  of  the  type  used  to  measure  the  water 
in-put  for  these  operations.  Pump  efficiency  was  measured  by  Crosby 
indicating  gauges. 

There  was  a  Pelton-Francis  turbine  engaged  in  turning  a  Westinghouse 
generator.  The  water  was  supplied  by  a  vertical  deep- well  pump,  run  by  a 
vertical-type  Westinghouse  motor. 

There  were  many  other  vitally  interesting  things  in  this  exhibit,  one  of 
the  most  important' in  the  Palace,  including  some  of  the  monitors  used  in 
hydraulic  mining  in  California;  and  not  the  least  interesting,  from  a  popular 
point  of  view,  was  a  Pelton-Doble  standard  water  motor  especially  adapted 
to  generating  current  for  farmhouse  lighting,  and  for  churning  and  other 
work,  provided  the  farmer  has  a  small  stream.  There  was  another  httle 
wheel  that  could  be  set  up  in  a  wooden  frame,  especially  suitable  for  shipping 
into  comparatively  inaccessible  regions,  where  the  wooden  part  could  be 
built  on  the  ground.  In  such  a  case  the  company  supphed  only  the  metal 
parts,  and  thousands  of  these  little  wheels  have  been  sold  for  all  sorts  of  uses, 
all  over  the  globe. 

We  have  been  thus  specific  about  this  exhibit  because  it  contained  units 
not  merely  of  the  most  improved  pattern  but  of  larger  size  than  any  other 
part  of  the  world  was  accustomed  to.  No  single  unit  greater  than  half  the 
big  turbine  had  been  used  in  Europe,  down  to  that  time.  The  space  was 
haunted  every  hour  the  Palace  was  open  by  civil  engineers  from  all  quarters 


of  the  globe.  And  inasmuch  as  the  company  had  the  sagacity  to  keep  men 
on  duty  there  that  understood  its  product,  its  business,  and  its 
Lessons  policies  (every  day  two  or  three  of  the  executive  officers  were  in 
attendance  part  of  the  time)  the  results  were  most  valuable.  About 
500  inquiries  were  received  by  this  one  company  from  men  able  to  buy  this 
sort  of  equipment.  And  when  you  consider  that  many  of  its  contracts 
exceed  $100,000  such  a  volume  of  inquiry  from  the  "effective  demand"  may 
be  understood  to  mean  something. 

The  exhibit  of  the  VVestinghouse  Electric  and  Manufacturing  Company, 
in  the  Palace  of  Machinery,  was,  from  dynamos  to  stoves,  a  great  chapter 
in  the  incredible  fairy  tale  of  the  subjection  of  electricity  to  human  service. 
It  occupied  the  largest  space  of  any  individual  exhibit  in  the  Palace,  enclos- 
ing 8,672  square  feet  of  floor  area.  The  middle  aisle  of  the  Palace  ran 
directly  through  the  exhibit  and  the  east  and  west  fronts  of  the  space  bor- 
dered two  main  aisles. 

The  exhibits  of  electrical  devices  were  most  complete  and  diversified.  In 
power-generating  apparatus  there  was  a  Le  Blanc  jet  condenser,  a  Westing- 
house-Parsons  steam  turbine,  complete,  a  625  K.V.A.  generator  and  a  15- 
K.W.  exciter,  all  of  which  were  "knocked  down"  to  permit  of  careful 
inspection  of  the  interior  parts. 

There  was  an  operating  model  (one-eighth  size),  built  to  accurate 
dimensions,  of  the  steam-turbine  outfit  with  reduction  gear  which  is  used  on 
the  U.  S.  Collier  "  Neptune."  Beside  it  was  a  small  complete  steam-turbine 
unit  of  only  i  K.W.  capacity,  like  those  used  for  small  electric  plants  where 
lights  and  little  motors  are  required — aboard  yachts  and  other  small  vessels 
propelled  by  steam.  The  display  of  industrial  motors  and  control  was  so 
complete  that  motors  could  be  found  here  suitable  for  use  in  hundreds  of 
industries.  There  were  motors  for  operating  huge  steel  mills,  and  for 
polishing  silverware  in  the  home,  and  to  cover  the  whole  range  between. 

The  substitution  of  rolled  or  pressed  steel  for  cast  iron  marked  a  new  era 
in  the  manufacture  of  these  things,  having  been  first  introduced  by  the 
Westinghouse  Company  about  five  years  before  the  Exposition  opened. 

To  the  layman  the  electric  motor  is  likely  to  be  a  thing  of  mystery. 
"What  makes  the  wheels  go  around?"  is  a  question  he  often  asks.  The 
primary  of  an  induction  motor  connected  in  circuit  was  exhibited,  in  con- 
nection with  various  metal  devices,  which  illustrated  the  principles  of  the 
rotating  magnetic  field  in  a  simple  and  understandable  manner. 

There  was  a  good  showing  of  arc-welding  equipment.  Street-lighting 
systems  were  represented  by  means  of  six  Westinghouse,  ornamental  pillar 
type,  flame-arc  lamps,  operated  from  a  constant  current  regulator,  the 


regulator  being  sufficiently  sensitive  to  be  used  in  connection  with  Mazda 
lamps.  Mercury  vapor  and  mechanical  rectifiers  and  motor-  (^j^^^g„i 
generators  for  use  in  battery-charging  and  for  motion  pictures  Control 
were  shown  in  operation.  The  peculiar  greenish  light  of  the  mer- 
cury vapor  rectifier  always  served  as  an  interesting  diversion  for  the  crowd, 
at  least  part  of  which  must  have  wondered  when  the  movies  were  going  to 


The  distribution  of  electric  energy  to  homes,  factories,  farms,  shops, 
stores,  makes  it  necessary  to  reduce  the  voltage  (quite  high  at  the  generator, 
for  economy  of  copper  wire),  to  one  suitable  for  the  service  required.  This 
is  accomplished  by  distributing  transformers,  a  number  of  which  were  on 
display  in  this  exhibit,  "knocked  down"  to  permit  their  study  and  inspec- 
tion by  the  visitor. 

One  quarter  of  the  whole  exhibit  was  devoted  to  the  display  of  every 
conceivable  electrical  device  used  in  the  home.  It  included  electric  fans, 
ranges,  heating  devices  of  all  kinds,  ozonizers,  small  motors.  More  interest 
was  shown  by  the  general  public  in  electric  ranges  than  in  any  other  device 
in  the  entire  space;  for  it  was  generally  felt  that  electric  cooking  was  on  the 
way,  and  everybody  is  interested  in  getting  something  to  eat.  In  addition 
to  the  cleanliness,  safety,  and  general  desirability  of  cooking  with  current, 
the  automatic  type  of  range  shown  had  the  added  advantage  of  saving 
considerable  care  on  the  part  of  the  housewife,  because  both  the  timing  and 
the  temperature  were  controlled  automatically.  The  range  ovens  utilized 
the  fireless  cooker  heat-storage  principle.  The  current  brought  the  oven 
to  the  desired  temperature,  after  which  the  cooking  was  carried  on  by  the 
stored  heat.  The  perfect  results  obtained  in  the  prevailing  types  of  gas 
range  could  be  duplicated  in  these  electric  ranges  owing  to  the  improved 
internal  ventilating  system  used.  Surplus  moisture  was  carried  off,  con- 
densed, and  deposited  in  a  small  reservoir  provided  for  the  purpose,  but  no 
heat  was  permitted  to  escape. 

The  first  storage  battery  Lord  Kelvin  saw  filled  him  with  excitement  and 
delight.  Here  was  his  dream  come  true,  the  baling  up  of  energy  so  that  it 
could  be  carted  about  and  delivered  anywhere,  like  flour  or  bricks.  Yet 
the  storage  batteries  of  those  days  were  heavy  and  clumsy  things,  so  heavy 
and  clumsy  and  relatively  ineffective  that  for  a  long  time  Edison  said  the 
best  one  he  knew  of  was  a  ton  of  coal. 

Ultimately  the  great  American  genius  of  practical  research  gave  his 
attention  to  the  storage  battery,  and  when  Edison  gave  his  attention  to  a 
subject  something  was  quite  likely  to  come  of  it.  His  device  was  on  exhibition 
in  the  Palace  of  Machinery,  a  comparatively  light  and  highly  reliable  thing, 


by  that  time  widely  used.  Its  production  involved  one  of  the  cleverest 
and  most  delicately  refined  processes  in  the  whole  range  of  manufacture. 
Years  of  experimentation  to  obtain  reliable  conductivity  in  the  positive 
chamber,  resulted  in  the  adoption  of  flake  nickel  for  this  purpose — nickel  so 
finely  divided  that  it  would  carry  current  through  the  other  substance,  nickel 
hydrate,  without  interfering  physically  with  the  properties  of  the 
Problem  latter.  It  had  to  come  as  close  to  that  impossibility  of  physics, 
penetration,  as  possible.  Practically,  it  just  about  had  to  be  there 
and  not  be  there  at  the  same  time;  or  the  nickel  and  the  nickel  hydrate 
had  to  occupy  the  same  space  at  the  same  time — which  "can't  be  done." 

But  Edison  came  near  doing  it.  He  deposited  on  an  electrode  alternate 
layers  of  copper  and  nickel  so  thin  that  it  took  a  hundred  of  each  or  two 
hundred  of  both  to  equal  the  thickness  of  a  visiting  card.  Then  he  cut  up 
the  composite  sheet  into  squares  of  about  a  sixteenth  of  an  inch  diameter 
and  dissolved  out  the  copper,  leaving  pure  nickel  flakes  so  thin  they  would 
float  in  the  air  like  down. 

This  was  the  miracle  of  the  Edison  storage  battery  shown  at  the  Exposi- 
tion— not  a  very  spectacular  thing  in  appearance,  rather  a  drab,  uninterest- 
ing object,  like  a  lunch  box  full  of  plain  food;  but  when  we  go  back  to  Lord 
Kelvin's  point  of  view,  and  then  come  forward  to  Edison's  pertinacious  hunt 
for  an  impalpable  conductor  and  his  craft  in  getting  so  close  to  it,  it  takes  on 
an  inspiring  significance.  These  were  the  storage  batteries  that  actuated 
the  busy  little  one-ton  trucks  that  ran  about  the  aisles  of  the  palaces  bringing 
in  exhibit  material  and  delivering  it  from  booth  to  booth. 

In  the  development  of  electricity  the  meter  played  a  vital  part,  for  on  an 
old  flat-rate  scale  it  would  have  been  impossible  ever  to  have  set  a  price  for 
current  with  any  certainty  or  justice  to  producer  or  consumer,  and  the 
inevitable  economic  result  of  uncertainty  would  have  followed — that  the 
consumer  would  have  had  to  pay  enough  to  insure  against  loss,  and  the  art 
would  have  languished  under  too  heavy  a  price  load.  So  exhibits  of  meters 
were  of  great  interest  to  electrical  engineers,  as  the  general  subject  should 
have  been  to  the  public  at  large.  And  while  meters  are  not  new,  nor  very 
exciting,  there  was  one  application  of  them  that  was  new  and  that  demon- 
strated the  growing  refinements  of  economy  in  the  electrical  field.  That  was 
the  street-railway  ampere-hour  meter  of  the  Sangamon  Electric  Company, 
of  Springfield,  Illinois. 

The  factory  of  this  company  was  devoted  exclusively  to  the  manufacture 
of  electric  meters  and  their  accessories,  and  its  display  was  very  comprehen- 
sive, including  many  examples  of  transformers  and  shunts.  The  function 
of  the  street-railway  meter  was  so  broadly  typical  of  the  times,  and  touches 




common  experience  so  closely  as  to  warrant  attention.  This  device  re- 
corded the  amount  of  current  used  to  run  a  car,  and  its  mam  ^^^^^.^^ 
service  was  to  develop  efficiency  and  economy  among  motormen,  ^^^^^ 
so  that  the  power  bill  would  not  mount  above  the  dividend  Ime. 
That  is  matter  of  interest  to  everybody.  When  things  are  wasted  somebody 
has  to  pay,  and  that  somebody  is  usually  the  general  dear  public. 

At  the  same  time  that  it  was  checking  current  consumption  by  the 
motorman,  this  meter  brought  to  light  wasteful  defects  in  the  car,  for  the 
motorman  had  to  have  an  "out"  and  he  found  it:  tight  brake-shoes,  bad 
gear  reductions,  inefficient  motors.  On  systems  where  these  meters  had 
been  installed,  savings  amounting  to  as  much  as  20  per  cent  had  been 
effected  in  power  bills  alone.  _  .        . 

An  electric  indicator  for  locating  underground  mains  and  service  pipes 
without  digging  up  the  pavement  and  all  the  surrounding  scenery  was 
exhibited  by  the  A.  P.  Smith  Manufacturing  Company  of  East  Orange,  JN.  J . 
This  firm  showed  everything  for  the  water-man-tools  for  making  con- 
nections under  water  pressure,  for  inserting  valves  in  mains,  cutting,  drilling, 
and  tapping  water  pipe,  lead  furnaces  for  jointing  iron  pipe,  everything  to 
delight  the  macadam-digger's  heart. 

The  Standard  Underground  Cable  Company  made  a  meritorious  exhibit 
of  conductors  for  electric  distribution  showing  the  modern  construction  and 
that  of  30  years  ago.  The  later  characteristic  appeared  in  the  use  of  paper, 
varnished  cloth,  and  rubber  for  insulation.  This  company  showed  junction 
boxes  cable  terminals,  submarine,  and  underground  power  cables;  and 
something  new,  in  the  shape  of  copper-clad  steel  wire  that  had  a  con- 
ductivity of  30  or  40  per  cent  of  whole  copper  wire,  with  much  more  strength. 
Its  braiding  machines  for  putting  the  insulation  around  the  conductor  were 
shown  in  operation,  doing  their  mechanical  Maypole  dance.  It  was  a  great 
exhibit,  perhaps  the  greatest  thus  far  made,  of  electrical  conductors. 


THE  Exposition  spent  nearly  $5,000,  directly,  for  the  advancement  of 
science  in  the  practical  field  of  electrical  transmission  and  distribu- 
tion.    This  went  into  the  construction  of  the  special  High  Tension 
Research  Pavilion,  just  east  of  the  Palace  of  Machinery,  in  which  C.  H. 
Thordarson  of  Chicago  installed  his  new  million-volt  transformer,  and  where 
he  conducted  some  striking  experimentation  to  test  new  types  of  insulator. 
The  work  probably  disclosed  the  existing  limits  of  the  practical  in 
theUmit      handling   current   at   high   voltages — and   in    addition    aroused 
intense  interest  on  the  part  of  the  public  through  the  spectacular 
displays  attending  the  experimentation.     Incidentally,  it  was  the  first  time 
in  history  that  the  public  had  been  given  a  chance  to  play  with  charges  from 
such  a  giant  piece  of  apparatus. 

Briefly  stated,  the  practical  purposes  of  Thordarson's  recent  experi- 
mentation had  been  to  find  a  way  to  dampen  surges,  to  eliminate  the  corona 
and  corona  losses,  and  to  develop  an  insulator  that  would  stand  up  under  a 
load  of  current  at  a  million  volts.  How  far  successful  his  researches  were  it 
is  not  possible  at  present  to  state,  for  they  were  not  concluded  at  the  end 
of  the  Exposition,  but  at  this  writing  are  still  going  on  at  his  laboratory  in 
Chicago.  Their  importance  in  Exposition  history  is  that  they  became  not 
merely  an  exhibit  of  the  fruit  of  past  invention,  but  an  exploration  of  new 
fields,  a  forward  step  in  science  and  the  electrical  art,  which  the  Exposition 

Thordarson  himself  was  a  man  of  most  interesting  personality;  a  manu- 
facturer of  electrical  instruments  and  material,  with  the  youthful  enthusiasm 
of  the  real  inventor.  He  was  an  Icelander,  who  had  come  to  Uncle  Sam's 
land  of  opportunity  and  begun  manufacturing  on  a  modest  scale,  expanding 
his  facilities  as  he  progressed.  In  the  rapidly  developing  field  of  electricity, 
he  took  as  his  point  of  scientific  attack  the  problems  of  transmission,  and  the 
instrument  that  makes  transmission  over  long  distances  commercially 
possible:  the  transformer.  He  had  been  trying  to  produce  a  better  type  of 
transformer,  and  then  to  handle  the  "stepped  up"  current  without  losing  too 



much  of  it  in  the  air.  Success  would  get  the  world  ahead  one  more  stride, 
and  as  that  was  what  the  Exposition  was  for,  it  was  glad  to  assist  by  putting 
up  the  necessary  building,  inasmuch  as  there  was  no  exhibit  Palace  in  which 
this  particular  sort  of  "exhibit"  would  have  been  safe. 

The  Research  Pavilion  was  a  place  of  mystery  to  thousands  of  visitors 
during  its  construction.  The  electro-static  stress  was  to  be  so  high  that  no 
nails  could  be  used  in  it,  and  it  had  to  be  put  together  with  bolts  running 
parallel  with  the  wires.  And  the  bolts  had  to  go  clear  through  the  timbers 
so  that  both  ends  should  be  out  in  the  open — not  enclosed  in  the  wood,  which 
they  might  have  ignited.  As  it  was,  they  were  quite  irritable,  and  long, 
blue  sparks  could  be  teased  from  them  with  little  provocation.  The  ends 
of  the  building  were  open  like  the  hangar  of  a  Zeppelin,  so  that  the 
wires  could  have  good  clearance,  for  they  were  quite  petulant  too,  spectacle 
and  in  darkness  were  disposed  to  grow  angry  beards  of  bluish  light. 
Inside  the  building  was  a  cement  pit  lined  with  sheet  metal.  The  Exposi- 
tion borrowed  225  barrels  of  high-grade  oil  from  the  Union  Oil  Company  of 
California  with  which  to  fill  this  pit,  in  order  that  the  transformer  might  be 
immersed  in  it  for  insulation. 

Thordarson  himself  had  spent  $30,000  in  the  development  of  the  trans- 
former. Unfortunately  the  exhibit  could  not  be  made  ready  until  late  in 
the  season,  and  it  was  not  until  September  that  the  inventor,  and  A.  S. 
Lindstrom,  former  Superintendent  of  the  Electrical  Section  of  the  Depart- 
ment of  Machinery,  who  had  become  his  assistant,  could  get  the  apparatus 

No  such  transformer  had  ever  been  built  before.  The  thing  weighed 
about  30,000  pounds,  was  made  up  of  26,000  pieces  of  paper,  fiber,  alu- 
minum, copper,  steel,  and  iron,  and  was  designed  to  handle  1,000  kilowatts, 
or  a  little  over  1,300  horse  power,  at  60  cycles. 

The  design  of  the  primary  and  secondary  windings  was  a  radical  depart- 
ure from  the  practice  of  the  time,  and  was  the  main  characteristic  of  the 
device.  The  method  of  coiling  the  conductors  and  insulating  the  coils  was 
entirely  new.  There  was  no  taping  of  coils  and  no  covering  of  wires  with 
cotton,  silk,  or  paper.  The  coils  consisted  of  flat,  aluminum,  8  mil.,  one 
ampere  conductor,  and  the  turns  were  insulated  from  their  neighbors  by 
three  papers  two  mils,  thick.  It  took  a  year  and  a  half  of  laboratory  work 
to  make  and  assemble  the  parts  for  12  specially  designed  winding-machines, 
and  conduct  special  research  to  determine  the  necessary  materials. 

Four  hundred  miles  of  paper,  aluminum,  and  copper  were  used  in  the 
construction  of  the  coils  and  paper  tube;  the  million-volt  coil  involving  90 
miles  of  aluminum  and  270  miles  of  paper  ribbon.     The  low-voltage  side. 


wound  to  receive  2,200  volts,  was  made  up  of  122  coils,  every  two  coils  being 
bridged  across  the  2,200-volt  terminals.  The  center  tap  of  each  set  of  coils 
was  wired  to  ground  through  the  transformer  frame.  The  paper  tube  that 
insulated  the  primary  and  secondary  coils  weighed  over  a  ton.  The  million- 
volt  side  was  made  up  of  190  coils,  each  coil  being  equally  spaced 
lo^Build  ^^^  wound,  and  capable  of  developing  5,300  volts.  All  the  coils 
were  connected  in  series,  with  one  end  grounded.  The  bare 
edges  of  all  the  primary  and  secondary  turns  were  exposed  to  the  free  oil 
and  depended  on  it  for  insulation. 

Heavy  discharges  that  occurred  between  coils  in  the  oil,  from  surges 
above  a  million  volts,  did  not  cause  a  short-circuiting  of  the  windings.  In 
some  of  the  tests  two  million  volts  in  surges  arose,  and  when  an  arc  did  occur 
it  was  always  repaired  in  less  than  a  day,  for  owing  to  the  open  winding  it 
was  never  necessary  to  take  the  transformer  apart. 

In  contradiction  to  the  general  belief  that  the  absorption  of  water  from 
the  air  by  the  oil  would  lower  its  dielectric  strength  and  therefore  necessitate 
having  the  transformer  covered,  the  contrary  appears  to  have  been  the  case 
for  the  oil,  as  an  insulator,  improved,  although  exposed  to  fog  and  general 
humidity  that  entered  through  the  open  ends  of  the  building. 

Outside  the  High  Tension  Pavilion,  a  number  of  demonstration  appli- 
ances were  suspended  between  50-foot  wooden  poles.  Two  large  horn  gaps 
in  the  shape  of  three-quarter  inch  gas  pipes  were  put  in,  one  being  suspended 
on  the  million-volt  wire,  the  other  hanging  by  an  insulated  rope,  the  end 
being  permanently  grounded  through  a  stream  of  water  12  feet  in  length. 
This  water  jet  became  quite  luminous  when  the  transformer  was  in  action. 

A  wire  screen  measuring  50  feet  square  was  suspended  30  feet  above  the 
ground  and  connected  to  the  transformer,  with  a  safety  net  beneath.  At  a 
million-volt  pressure  it  took  400  horse  power  to  charge  this  large  wire  screen 
alone;  and  the  energy  was  not  from  a  high  frequency  source.  Walking 
under  the  screen,  one  was  curiously  affected.  The  ends  of  the  fingers  glowed. 
If  a  hat  were  held  up,  angry  little  sparks  would  jump  from  the  hat  band  to 
the  fingers.  A  metal  ball  tossed  in  the  air  became  a  shooting  star.  Ladies' 
hat  pins  were  highly  charged.  A  sheet  metal  condenser  supported 
Toying  with  ^^  ^  ^^jj  ^qq^^^  frame  would  spit  little  streaks  of  lighting  four  or 

Lightning  .  .  .  .  .  , 

five  inches  long  at  a  piece  of  iron  pipe  pointed  at  it  and  keep  it 
up  until  you  got  tired  of  the  queer  strain  in  your  elbow.  At  night  engineers 
and  scientists  were  invited  to  tamper  with  the  charge  by  means  of  helium 
and  neon  gas  tubes.  When  the  tubes  were  waved  in  the  air  the  negative  and 
positive  ions  could  be  readily  detected,  the  negative  showing  a  narrow 
bright  line  and  the  positive  a  sluggish,  heavy,  dim  one. 




Spectacular  demonstrations  under  this  wire  screen  were  carried  on 
nightly,  with  two  to  three  thousand  people  in  attendance,  each  trying  out  the 
effects  of  the  electro-static  charge  in  his  own  way.  The  voltage  during  these 
"stunts"  rarely  rose  over  half  a  million.  A  number  of  secondary  wires  10 
feet  in  length  were  suspended  in  the  air  on  slender  wooden  pieces,  each  being 
insulated  from  the  rest.  All  of  the  wires  became  highly  charged,  and  elec- 
tricity at  a  "pressure"  of  75,000  volts  would  pass  through  the  spectators' 
bodies  when  within  a  few  inches  of  contact.  There  were  no  bad  results  from 
it  because  there  was  no  energy  from  amperage  within  the  secondary  wires. 

These  stunts  were  well  enough  to  amuse  the  crowds;  but  the  real  business, 
or  part  of  it,  was  to  test  and  exhibit  the  insulator  that  should  support  the 
wire  and  hold  the  current  on  it  in  such  a  highly  nervous  condition  as  a  million 
volts.  For  this  purpose  nothing  better  had  been  found  than  plain  hemp 
rope  soaked  with  paraffin  and  then  dipped  in  hot  tar  to  keep  the  water  out. 
But  with  it  arose  the  difficulty  that  when  the  current  did  decide  to  travel  on 
it,  say  in  surges,  it  burned  up.  So  it  was  passed,  at  the  point  of  junction 
with  the  conductor,  through  wire  baskets,  looking  a  good  deal  like  fern  bask- 
ets, which  spread  out  from  the  conductor  over  the  rope,  serving  as  electro- 
static insulators  and  distributing  the  strains  equally,  so  that  local  circuits 
could  not  be  set  up  at  the  point  of  contact  between  rope  and  wire. 

There  was  no  way  to  measure  the  corona  loss,  but  the  demonstrations 
indicated  that  at  voltages  of  more  than  500,000,  air  ceases  to  insulate,  and 
some  electrical  engineers  inferred  that  no  great  increase  in  present  commercial 
working  voltages  could  be  expected  until  methods  were  found  to  prevent 
these  losses.     They  were  convinced,  however,  that  a  great  step 

,     .  r  1      •  •       1      1       f  u  Where  the 

had  been  made  m  transformer  design,  particularly  from  the  me-      ^^^  ^^^-^^ 
chanical  standpoint,  and  they  were  profoundly  impressed  by  the 
transformer's  capacity  for  punishment  and  the  ease  with  which  it  could  be 

The  Thordarson  exhibit  in  the  Machinery  Palace  itself  contained  a  great 
many  interesting  electrical  displays.  A  40,000-volt  laboratory  transformer 
showed  the  phenomena  of  induction,  transformation  and  repulsion.  When 
it  was  connected  at  2  volts  people  were  permitted  to  hold  pliers  gripping 
charged  copper  wires,  which  were  burnt  in  two  while  they  held  them,  by  the 
heavy  flow  of  current.  A  number  of  interesting  phenomena,  such  as  the 
X-Ray  and  wireless  were  demonstrated  to  the  public.  This  was  one  of 
the  most  fascinating  places  in  the  Palace  of  Machinery  and  not  only 
entertained  but  instructed  large  crowds  daily. 


THE  largest  exhibitor  in  the  Palace  of  Machinery  was  the  United 
States,  which  filled  29,000  square  feet  with  models  of  warships, 
transports,  vehicles  used  in  the  Service,  from  the  wagon  that  went 
with  Sherman  from  Atlanta  to  the  Sea  to  the  Philippine  carabao  cart; 
and  ammunition,  from  pistol  cartridges  to  16-inch  steel  shells  nosed  with 
lead  to  lubricate  their  way  through  a  ship's  armor.  A  complete  plant  for 
making  small-arm  cartridges  came  from  the  Frankford  arsenal  at  Phila- 
delphia, and  ground  out  rifle  ammunition  and  clips  for  it,  during  the  season. 
There  was  a  moving  picture  theater  as  part  of  the  exhibit  in  this  Palace  for 
further  visual  education  of  the  public  in  the  nature  and  functions  of  the 

The  School  of  Submarine  Defense  at  Fort  Monroe,  Va.,  exhibited  the 
processes  involved  in  making  the  harbors  of  the  United  States  inhospitable 
to  undesirable  guests,  by  planting  mines.  In  a  glass  tank  it  showed  these 
obstacles  to  hostile  navigation  sown  rather  thickly  just  under  water.  A 
miniature  warship  approached,  passed  several  in  safety,  and  then  came  into 
contact  with  one  that  was  exploded  from  shore,  when  it  turned  turtle  and 
sank.  This  exhibit  seemed  to  have  the  utmost  fascination  for 
Joys  of         ^^^  schoolboys  that  came  in  classes.      They  could  hardly  be  torn 

Disaster  ,^,,.,,  i--ii  l 

away.  Teacher  didn  t  see  much  m  it,  but  the  young  savages  she 
had  undertaken  to  pilot  through  the  exhibits  watched  open-mouthed  the 
approach  of  the  doomed  vessel.  Clearly  seeing  the  mines  it  could  not  see, 
they  hung  on  its  progress  to  certain  doom,  and  when  the  electric  light  simu- 
lated the  explosion  and  the  ship  turned  over  and  sank,  burst  into  cheers, 
and  demanded  to  be  permitted  to  enjoy  the  catsatrophe  again.  It  only 
occurred  at  stated  intervals.  At  the  edge  of  the  tank  a  model  of  part  of  a 
fort  showed  how  coast  defense  guns  and  mortars  emphasized  the  welcome 
of  the  mines. 

There  was  a  slab  of  six-inch  armor  plate  that  had  been  shot  full  of  shell 
holes.  Four  of  the  shells  that  had  done  the  work  had  been  recovered  whole 
and  were  standing  by:  a  five-inch  that  weighed  52  pounds,  a  six-inch  that 



weighed  94,  an  eight-inch  at  285,  and  a  ten-inch  at  55J.  There  were 
also  some  rather  neat  contrivances  in  the  shell  line  for  dropping  on 
vessels'  decks  by  high-angle  fire,  guaranteed  to  keep  right  on  dropping 
until  they  exploded  in  the  ward  room,  or  the  engine  room  if  they  could 
get  in. 

The  United  States  exhibit  in  this  Palace  was  made  by  the  Army,  the 
Navy,  and  the  Department  of  Commerce.  One  of  the  attractive  features 
of  it  consisted  of  a  large  turret  with  square  port  holes,  through  which  you 
could  look  in  and  see  a  review  by  the  panorama  method  of  every  sort  of 
fighting  craft  the  United  States  Navy  has  ever  used— beautiful  illuminated 
marine  views,  of  the  utmost  interest  historically.  There  was  the  "Bon 
Homme  Richard,"  of  1778,  and  the  super-dreadnaught  "California"  of 
191 5,  and  every  type  between.  Old  double-deckers  and  apple-bowed  frigates 
went  sailing  by,  followed  by  the  Monitor  and  the  Merrimac  types,  and  side- 
wheelers,  rams,  destroyers,  and  submarines.  In  addition  to  these  illumi- 
nated pictures  there  was  a  large  number  of  fine  cruiser  models  and  of  first- 
class  battleships.  Marine  corps  uniforms  and  kits  were  shown.  There  was 
a  recruiting  station  with  cases  of  sporting  goods  on  display,  as  an  additional 

The  Bureau  of  Yards  and  Docks  showed  a  model  of  Drydock  4  of  the 
United  States  Navy  Yard  at  New  York— 703  feet  long— with  a  battleship 
in  it.  In  a  steel  tank  was  a  model  of  the  United  States  floating  dock  at 
Cavite,  Philippine  Islands,  a  dock  that  measures  100  by  500  feet. 

The  first  foghorn  San  Francisco  ever  had  was  a  cannon,  an  old  cast- 
iron  smooth-bore  that  looked  as  though  it  had  been  a  thousand  years  old 
when  it  first  went  into  service  at  Point  Bonita  in  1855.  Its  carriage  was  so 
dilapidated  the  barrel  had  to  be  supported  on  a  steel  horse.  It  was  not 
contemporaneous,  but  beside  it  was  a  1,000-pound  fog  bell  with  an  automatic 
striker,  and  the  newest  and  hoarsest  foghorns  that  ever  deso-  ^.^^^,„„ 
lated  the  night.  The  Bureau  of  Lighthouses,  Department  of  Foghorn 
Commerce,  exhibited  a  steel  model  of  the  Fowey  Rocks  Light 
Station,  off  the  coast  of  Florida;  one  of  the  newest  and  most  effective  sta- 
tions in  existence.  The  whole  lighthouse  exhibit  was  of  much  value.  Here 
were  great  double  lenses,  compositions  of  curving  prisms,  rotated  on  ball 
bearings  by  clockwork.  The  lantern  and  lens,  for  the  Galveston  jetty  were 
shown,  and  the  old  lens  from  Alcatraz,  the  first  on  the  Coast,  installed  m 
1854,  and  used  until  1902.  The  lantern,  lens,  and  watchroom  for  Cape 
St.  Elias,  Alaska,  were  on  exhibition.  The  whole  evolution  of  the  lighthouse 
lamp  was  illustrated,  the  series  concluding  with  an  example  of  the  newest 
fourth  order  lens,  composed  of  circular  concentric  open  prisms,  which  will 


take  the  light  from  a  600  candle-power  lamp  and  magnify  it,  in  the  direction 
of  the  beam,  to  80,000  candle-power. 

Partof  the  War  Department's  exhibit  were  some  remarkably  instantane- 
ous photographs  of  a  twelve-inch  shell  leaving  the  muzzle  of  a  coast  defense 
gun.  They  were  taken  at  Fort  Monroe  with  what  was  said  to  be  the  fastest 
shutter  ever  manufactured,  and  they  caught  the  shell  halfway  out  of  the 
gun,  two  feet  from  it,  and  at  various  distances  after  that.  The  balloon- 
like emission  of  gas  appeared  quite  plainly,  not  following  the  shell  in  a 
gradually  expanding  jet,  but  bursting  away  at  a  right  angle  to  the  bore  of 
the  gun  and  forming  an  immense  globe  before  it.  It  was  said  the  exposure 
interval  of  the  shutter  with  which  these  pictures  were  made  was  a  five- 
thousandth  of  a  second;  a  very  short  open  season. 

There  was  a  display  of  old  uniforms  such  as  the  various  branches  of 
the  country's  military  service  had  worn  in  times  happily  gone  by.  Some  of 
them  were  fearful  to  contemplate. 

Old  rifles,  dating  back  to  1500  a.d.,  were  exhibited  in  racks;  a  most 
interesting  collection,  including  wheel  locks,  flint  locks  and  cap-and-ball 
muskets.  How  often  would  you  suppose  two  bullets  fired  from  opposite 
sides  would  collide  in  a  battle?  Once  in  a  thousand  years  of 
Millions  fighting?  If  they  collided  out  in  the  open  between  the  lines,  of 
course  there  would  be  no  way  to  find  it  out.  But  here  were  two 
bullets  that  had  met  inside  a  gun  during  a  battle  of  the  Civil  War,  a  captured 
and  preserved  collision.  They  made  quite  a  bulge.  The  barrel  was  subse- 
quently cut  open  for  about  half  its  length  to  show  this  unusual  coincidence. 
The  old  relic  is  probably  much  exhibited  but  will  always  be  sure  of  a  popular 
welcome  for  the  rarity  of  the  occurrence. 

The  Signal  Corps  and  the  Artillery  exhibited  some  excellent  stuffed 
mules,  one  with  a  complete  wireless  outfit  on  his  back.  Vital  things  were 
shown,  such  as  the  Army  boot  and  the  Army  shoe  as  they  had  been  worn 
from  1857  down  to  1914.  Some  of  the  early  ones  would  make  the  death 
agony  welcome.  There  were  signal  corps  phones,  and  switch  boards.  And 
all  about  were  transparencies  showing  war  scenes.  There  were  some 
examples  of  ordnance — two  three-inch  rifles,  and  a  six-inch  howitzer  with  an 
oil  recoil  cylinder. 

A  series  of  14  transparencies  illustrated  the  military  history  of  the 
country.  There  were  scenes,  sometimes  consisting  of  reproductions  of  fam- 
ous paintings,  later  of  photographs  colored,  from  the  Revolutionary  war,  the 
War  of  1812,  the  Mexican  War,  the  Civil  War,  the  Indian  wars,  the  Spanish 
War,  the  Philippine  Insurrection,  and  the  Siege  of  the  Legations  at  Pekin. 

Shortly  before  the  opening  of  the  Exposition  the  Life-Saving  Service  and 




the  Revenue  Cutter  Service  had  been  consolidated,  and  the  names  had  been 
changed  by  act  of  Congress  to  the  "United  States  Coast  Guard,"  on  Janu- 
ary 28,  191 5.  So  its  exhibit  in  the  Palace  of  Machinery  was  in  a  sense  the 
first  exhibit  of  the  last  named  service.  Its  history  and  traditions,  however, 
were  those  of  the  old  services;  and  what  the  Coast  Guard  was  for,  appeared 
pretty  plainly  in  a  posted  record  covering  the  years  1904  to  1914.     It  ran: 


VALUE,  INCLUDING  CARGOES,  ^92,934,435. 

PERSONS  ON  BOARD,  28,448. 







The  function  and  early  activity  of  the  Cutter  Service  was  indicated  by  an 
old  framed  commission  reading: 


The  document  was  dated  at  Philadelphia,  March  21,  1791. 

Before  the  civil  engineers  there  were  the  military  engineers,  and  those  of 
the  United  States  Army  keep  their  hands  in  during  peace  times  by  directmg 
great  public  works.  The  Panama  Canal  is  an  instance  of  what  they  may  do 
when  they  have  a  good  field  in  which  to  operate.  The  Government  exhibit 
in  the  Palace  of  Machinery  contained  a  great  many  fascinating 

^  *  ]     i_  !_•  L  he  Army 

engineers'  models  of  improvement  projects,  and  the  achievements     Engineers 
of  the  Army  engineers  in  execution  of  them,  accompanied  by 
complete  data  so  the  public  might  learn  something  of  the  nature  of  such 

In  this  way  were  represented  lock  and  dam,  and  flood  control  projects 
on  the  great  rivers  of  the  Middle  Western  States,  especially  in  the  case  of  the 
Mississippi.     A  brief  history  of  the  work  of  the  Mississippi  River  Commis- 


sion  from  1879  to  1914  was  illustrated  by  models  showing  the  ways  of  dealing 
with  caving  banks,  a  model  of  a  hydraulic  grader  at  work,  a  model  of  a 
dredging-plant,  a  model  of  a  spur  dike,  and  two  volumes  of  maps  of  the  whole 
river  from  Minneapolis  to  the  Gulf  of  Mexico.  There  were  models  of  dredg- 
ers, and  also  of  pontoon  equipment  for  bridges  in  time  of  war. 

From  this  part  of  the  Government's  space  were  distributed  leaflets  giving 
descriptions  and  brief  histories  of  government  projects  such  as  the  improve- 
ment of  Los  Angeles  Harbor,  the  general  project  for  the  improvement  of 
navigation  and  control  of  debris  and  floods  in  the  Sacramento  and  Feather 
Rivers,  the  project  for  improving  the  entrance  of  New  York  Harbor, 
exemplified  by  a  lot  of  models  of  ships  showing  the  growing  requirements 
of  navigation  as  a  result  of  the  rapid  increase  in  the  size  of  vessels,  the 
project  for  improving  the  bar  at  the  mouth  of  the  Columbia  River,  and  the 
project  for  Galveston. 

Ever  stroll  down  the  Appian  Way  and  wonder  how  its  ancient  flagstones, 
with  their  chariot  ruts,  held  their  places  so  long,  and  how  much  the  Romans 
really  knew  about  road  construction?  The  office  of  Public  Roads,  Depart- 
ment of  Agriculture,  had  an  exhibit  in  the  Palace  of  Machinery  that  would 
tell  you  more  about  roads  in  a  minute  than  any  extant  history  of  Rome  we 
know  of.  There  was  a  model  of  Rome's  old  Market  Street  show- 
G  dR  d  '^^^  J*^^*-  ^°^  road  building  was  done  by  the  Romans;  and  some 
25  section  models,  about  three  and  a  half  by  five  feet  in  size, 
illustrated  the  main  general  practices  from  that  time  down  to  the  present. 
There  were  models  of  early  French  roads,  of  Tresauget  paving,  of  Telford,  of 
early  Macadam,  of  bituminous  Macadam,  rock  asphalt,  asphalt  block,  brick, 
concrete,  gravel,  clay-sand,  and  plain  old  dirt.  With  the  road  models  were 
others  showing  drainage  and  foundation  work — most  people  never  think  a 
road  needs  a  foundation — a  roller,  a  quarry  and  rock-crushing  plant,  some 
culverts  and  bridges.  An  automatic  projection  machine  showed  a  series  of 
road  pictures.  The  educational  value  of  this  display  was  high.  The  public 
takes  its  roads  too  much  for  granted,  and  has  too  little  understanding  of  the 
expenditures  necessary  to  have  good  systems  of  communication.  The 
Romans  knew  it;  and  the  Americans  ought  to  begin  learning  it. 


THE  mining  industry  in  the  United  States  employs  about  two  and  a 
half  million  men  directly,  and  in  addition  furnishes  over  60  per  cent 
of  the  total  freight  haul  of  the  railroads.  It  is  a  great  basic  industry 
of  the  national  life,  second  only  to  agriculture  in  volume  and  economic 
importance.  A  living  picture  of  this  industry,  its  processes,  its  needs  and  its 
products,  was  what  Prof.  Charles  E.  van  Barneveld,  Chief  of  this  Depart- 
ment, aimed  to  make  of  the  Palace  of  Mines  and  Metallurgy.  Yet  peculiar 
obstacles  existed  in  the  nature  of  the  industry,  which  should  be  noticed  here 
as  a  possible  part  of  the  problem  of  organizing  the  next  exposition. 

The  foundation  plan  urged  by  van  Barneveld,  for  every  exhibit,  was 
"  the  raw  material  and  what  is  made  from  it."  It  taught  the  public  a  great 
deal,  for  the  public  had  a  great  deal  to  learn;  a  great  deal  about  economics 

in  which  it  is  vitally  interested  on  the  bread-and-butter  side.     It         „   ^  . 

•  /-    1  •  •  r        •      1  r    L  u  •  Needed 

would  be  strange  if  this  vast  picture  ot  a  vital  part  ot  the  machin-    knowledge 

ery  of  production,  a  picture  to  which  so  many  thoughtful  people 
had  given  the  closest  study,  had  had  no  effect  to  reduce  the  reckless  and 
promiscuous  corporation-baiting  proclivities  that  had  been  making  them- 
selves felt  in  American  life  in  so  sinister  a  manner  during  the  two  decades 
preceding  this  period. 

Van  Barneveld  addressed  the  mining  industry  in  general  through  mining 
journals  of  standing — such  as  the  "Mining  and  Scientific  Press,"  of  San  Fran- 
cisco; the  "Engineering  and  Mining  Journal,"  of  New  York;  the  "Mining  and 
Engineering  World,"  of  Chicago;  the  "Colliery  Engineer,"  of  Scranton,  Pa.; 
"Mining  Science,"  of  Denver — calling  attention  to  the  scope  and  status  of  the 
Exposition,  and  the  opportunity  it  offered  to  promote  popular  intelligence 
about  mining,  and  the  uses  of  minerals,  as  a  large  part  of  the  basis  of  material 
civihzation.  Favorable  editorial  recommendations  followed.  Some  of  the 
great  corporations  that  alone  were  competent  to  produce,  with  economy  and 
advantage  to  the  public,  things  the  public  vitally  needed,  had  not  been 
happy  in  the  public  confidence.  In  some  quarters  they  were  envied  and 
suspected.     Some  of  the  great  anthracite  coal  companies  were  just  then 

VOL.  IT — 13  193 


undergoing  governmental  investigation.  "Trust  busting"  was  in  order, 
and  picked  out  the  most  highly  organized  commercial  institutions. 

For  the  common  welfare  these  needed  to  be  understood  and  the  public 
needed  to  understand  them,  so  that  it  could  see  how  it  was  being  served.  In  a 
circular  letter  sent  wide,  to  every  mining  engineer,  metallurgist,  mine  owner, 
mine  operator,  and  mine  manager  of  importance  in  the  country,  van  Barne- 
veld  said: 

"When  it  comes  to  questions  of  legislation.  Federal  representation  and 
support,  litigation  arising  from  disputes  over  smelter  fumes,  tailings  disposal, 
and  stream  pollution,  do  the  press  and  the  general  public  sympathize  with 
the  mining  industry?  By  no  means.  Their  sympathies  are  usually  with 
the  other  side." 

The  aim  was  to  reach  the  mining  engineer  through  his  technical  societies 
and  his  journals,  and  by  personal  contact;  the  State  agencies  for  the  pro- 
motion of  settlement  and  exploitation  in  the  various  mining  States;  the 
chambers  of  commerce  and  promotion  organizations  in  the  mining  counties, 
districts,  and  cities;  the  mining  companies;  the  consumers  of  the  raw  mate- 
rial; the  seUing  organizations;  and  the  large  manufacturers  of  specialities, 
mining  supplies,  mining  machinery  and  accessories. 

Such  conventions  as  the  meeting  of  the  American  Institute  of  Mining 
Engineers  at  Butte,  in  August,  1913,  and  the  Lake  Superior  Institute  of 
/"  Mining  Engineers  at  Duluth,  the  Chief  attended  in  person.     Always  the 

basic  idea  he  impressed  on  his  auditors  was  that  the  Palace  of  Mines  and 
Metallurgy  was  not  to  be  made  a  museum  of  geology  and  mineralogy,  nor  a 
mining  machinery  warehouse,  but  an  educational  exhibit  of  the  mining  and 
metallurgical  industries.  The  object  was  to  give  the  public  some  con- 
ception of  the  cooperation  necessary  to  the  discovery,  appropri- 
aji'lndustr  ^^ion,  development,  and  use  of  the  hidden  mineral  wealth  of  the 
Nation,  to  bring  out  the  dependence  of  civilization  upon  the 
mining  industry,  and  to  emphasize  the  fact  that  a  country's  economic  posi- 
tion in  the  world  is  largely  determined  by  the  supply  of  the  economic  miner- 
als it  possesses  or  controls. 

He  received  his  own  impressions  of  the  possibilities  of  the  field.  At 
Washington  he  discussed  the  matter  with  Prof.  Holmes,  late  Director  of  the 
United  States  Bureau  of  Mines,  who  had  been  Chief  of  the  Mining  Depart- 
ment at  the  St.  Louis  exposition,  and  was  told  that  he  must  not  depend  on 
the  materialization  of  more  than  25  per  cent  of  the  promised  exhibits,  but 
must  be  prepared  toward  the  opening  date  to  fill  in  vacancies  made  by 
sudden  and  inexplicable  cancellations. 

To  the  ordinary  difficulties  that  the  financial  stringency  of  1913  and 




1 914  presented— difficulties  that  beset  all  the  departments  more  or  less— 
were  added  the  great  distance  of  San  Francisco  from  industrial  metal  pro- 
ducing centers  and  its  freight-raising  effects  on  the  heavy  materials  involved. 
In  addition,  the  mining  industry  is  largely  monopolistic,  non-competitive, 
and  has  no  direct  interest  in  stimulating  wholesale  or  retail  trade,  so  that 
there  was  a  comparative  lack  of  commercial  incentive.  Against  this  had 
to  be  set  out  the  advantages  to  be  derived  from  having  the  aims  and  pro- 
blems and  services  of  the  industry  better  understood;  and  some  commercial 
benefits  to  be  expected  from  advertising  the  excellence  and  diversity  of  the 
output.  This  by  no  means  balanced  the  handicaps.  The  gold  miner  is 
always  likely  to  be  refractory  to  an  exposition  appeal,  for  he  has  already 
what  everybody  else  is  trying  to  get,  and  his  problem  is  not  selling  but  spend- 
ing. Then  there  was  the  pleasing  device  known  to  the  politicians  as  "pair- 
ing." It  was  deadly  when  a  few  red-hot  competitors  found  out  they  were 
all  about  to  exhibit,  and  decided  to  save  a  lot  of  trouble  and  expense  by  not 

doing  it.  T  •     J 

Operators  felt  that  the  industry  should  be  exhibited  by  the  United 
States  Geological  Survey  and  the  United  States  Bureau  of  Mines.  If  a 
State  wished  to  exhibit  it  wished  to  do  so  in  its  own  building.  The  industry 
was  largely  syndicated.  The  machinery  trade  was  in  such  condition  that 
it  offered  little  encouragement.  The  best  avenues  of  approach  ^^^^^^^^ 
were  found  to  be  through  the  technical  men,  the  chemists  and  Elements 
metallurgists  and  engineers,  who  realized  the  advantages  of 
informing  the  world  about  the  mining  profession  and  thus  having  an  intelli- 
gent sentiment  to  deal  with.  They  could  usually  give  the  clew  to  the  men 
of  vision  in  the  various  organizations.  Advertising,  purchasing,  and  selling 
departments  of  the  large  organizations  were  generally,  as  a  matter  of  policy 
and  interest,  unsympathetic. 

In  spite  of  discouraging  conditions  the  space  in  the  Palace  was  all  applied 
for  by  July  20,  19I4,  and  15,000  square  feet  more,  and  many  appHcations 
were  on  file  for  locations  in  a  special  Metallurgical  Building  then  under 
advisement.  The  outbreak  of  the  European  war  had  the  same  effect  on 
this  Department  as  on  the  others,  perhaps  accentuated  by  the  interest  of  the 
metal  trades.  The  excuse  was  too  good  for  the  reluctant  and  half-hearted 
to  ignore,  and  cancellations  came  in  flocks.  Van  Barneveld  made  another 
trip  East  (he  made  four  in  all),  with  the  strong  moral  support  of  the  Exposi- 
tion's determination  to  open  on  time,  war  or  no  war,  and  succeeded  in  hold- 
ing some  of  his  exhibitors  and  enlisting  more.  But  the  cancellations  of 
Australia,  Canada,  South  Africa  and  some  other  foreign  reservations,  to  be 
expected  under  the  circumstances,  vacated  some  50,000  square  feet.     A 


part  of  this  was  allotted  to  more  or  less  related  exhibits  in  Social  Economy, 
such  as  safety,  sanitation,  and  welfare  work,  workmen's  compensation  and 
insurance.  And  10,000  feet  were  allotted  to  the  Government  for  a  model 
Post  Office.  By  late  November  there  were  but  16,000  feet  unassigned,  and 
on  Opening  Day  this  had  been  cut  down  to  5,000.  By  March  i  the  whole 
Palace  was  allotted. 

The  Palace  of  Mines  and  Metallurgy  was  451  by  579.5  feet  in  outside 
dimensions,  with  very  little  out  for  courts.  It  cost  $338,549.  The  "  Mine" 
occupied  10,000  square  feet  in  the  basement.  Blocks  of  exhibit  space 
ranged  from  1,000  to  7,500  square  feet,  and  a  rough  division  was  made  into 
75  per  cent  for  domestic  and  25  per  cent  for  foreign  exhibits. 

The  main  policy  of  the  Department  of  Mines  and  Metallurgy  was  to 
bring  out  the  dependence  of  civilization  upon  the  mining  industry.  It  did 
better  than  that,  for  in  the  outcome  it  contained  impressive  visual  lessons  of 
the  vital  function  of  the  expert  in  modern  industry,  and  of  the  value  of 
organization  to  produce  the  basic  materials  of  civilization.  The 
Study  tn       exhibit  of  the  United  States  Steel  Corporation,  for  example,  was 

Organization^  ,    ,  .   .  r  i  i_-l-   •  r 

not  only  an  exhibition  of  metallurgy,  not  only  an  exhibition  ot 
iron  mining,  but  it  was  a  great  picture  of  the  organization  of  modern  indus- 
try and  the  interdependence  of  many  parts  to  bring  about  a  complete  result. 

This  sort  of  effect  was  the  reward  of  a  large  intention.  It  would  have 
been  easy  to  make  the  Palace  a  raw  material  warehouse,  with  tons  of  broken 
rock  on  view,  but  nobody  would  have  been  much  the  gainer  by  visiting  such 
a  place.  Exhibits  were  planned  of  the  minerals  of  economic  importance, 
metallic  and  non-metallic,  from  the  natural  state  to  the  article  sold  to  the 
consumer  through  the  retail  trade  of  the  country.  There  was  a  consistent 
effort  to  present  to  the  public  the  needs  and  conditions  of  the  mining  indus- 
try, as  such.  For  this  reason  the  Chief  felt  that  plants  in  operation  were  to 
be  preferred  to  cases  full  of  specimens,  if  he  could  only  get  enough  of  them. 
And  he  has  remarked: 

"Had  I  been  appointed  a  year  earlier,  in  time  to  make  the  suggestion 
effectively,  I  would  have  said:  'Give  the  Mines  Building  to  the  Machinery 
Department.  Give  me  15  acres  with  a  fence  around  it,  and  $250,000  in 
cash,  and  I  will  put  up  a  show  that  will  open  your  eyes.'  It  is  my  firm 
conviction  that  just  as  certain  industries  must  be  fostered  by  special  induce- 
ments, donations,  and  subsidies,  so  the  mining  industry,  having  little  incen- 
tive to  exhibit,  must  be  financed." 


MOST  of  the  people  that  visited  the  Palace  of  Mines  and  Metallurgy 
asked  at  once  "Where's  the  Mine?"  They  might  ask  it  in  French 
or  Bulgarian,  or  Japanese,  but  in  some  tongue  they  asked  it. 
When  they  found  out,  they  passed  by  all  the  oleaginous  and  metallic  won- 
ders of  the  collection,  until  they  had  been  down  in  the  shaft  and  through 
the  long  levels  and  into  the  stopes.  It  was  estimated  that  more  than 
4,000,000  persons  explored  it  during  the  season.  On  July  5,  and  agam  on 
November  1  (San  Francisco  Day),  it  had  above  20,000  visitors. 

It  was  not  a  minature  model,  but  a  life-size  one,  built  at  great  pains  by 
the  United  States  Bureau  of  Mines,  of  the  Department  of  the  Interior,  with 
the  help  of  the  mining  and  allied  industries.  Everything  was  on  the  natural 
scale.  Important  mining  companies  of  the  country  had  contributed  the 
"properties,"  as  a  theatrical  man  would  call  them,  to  the  setting  ^  ^.^^ 
of  an  unusual,  underground  mimicry.  There  were  hundreds  of  ^g  q^^^ 
thousands  of  dollars  worth  of  ore,  timber,  and  machinery,  which 
had  cost  $14,000  to  install.  Ten  men  were  employed  about  it,  under  a  mine 
foreman.  Twelve  mining  companies  and  about  20  manufacturers  of  machin- 
ery and  appliances  contributed  |2i,ooo  for  construction  and  maintenance. 

It  gave  reality  instead  of  illusion,  but  it  gave  illusion  as  an  introduction. 
You  entered  an  elevator  cage  as  you  would  to  descend  an  actual  shaft,  and 
began  what  you  were  told  was  a  descent  of  several  hundred  feet.  The  cage 
oscillated,  scraped,  bumped  a  little,  passed  rapidly  rising  rock-walls,  and 
timbering,  and  cross  cuts,  and  mouths  of  drifts;  and  the  air  rushed  upward 
from  the  damp  depths  by  the  power  of  an  electric  fan  under  the  floor,  and 
after  an  adventurous  descent  that  would  have  fooled  any  "Cousin  Jack 
from  Cornwall,  it  came  to  a  sudden  halt  at  the  bottom,  and  you  got  out  the 
opposite  side,  not  an  inch  lower  for  your  journey  than  the  floor  of  the  Mines 
and  Metallurgy  Palace  where  you  had  entered.  Then  you  made  the  real 
descent  by  stairs  instead  of  the  regulation  ladder,  which  was  the  only  con- 
cession of  realism  to  convenience. 

Here  you  were  in  the  "Mine"  itself,  lighted  by  safety  lamps,  fitted  with 



mine  telephones,  equipped  with  13  pieces  of  the  most  modern  air  and 
electricity  driven  machines,  from  rock  drills  to  electric  locomotives  that 
had  taken  the  place  of  the  ancient  mule  for  hauling  ore  cars  about  on  the 
little  railways.  You  were  in  "bad  ground."  There  was  typical  mine  tim- 
bering all  about  you,  and  it  seemed  drippy  overhead. 

You  were  actually  six  feet  below  the  level  of  the  Bay  just  outside,  in  a 
sort  of  pit  excavated  from  the  hydraulic  fill  in  old  Harbor  View  Cove,  and  if 
pumping  had  stopped  for  twenty-four  hours  the  seepage  would  have  flooded 
the  place.  The  bottom  of  the  "  Mine  "  was  floored  with  concrete  five  inches 
thick,  and  sub-drained  by  radial  troughs  leading  to  a  central  sump.  The 
latest  ventilating  devices  kept  it  supplied  with  pure  air,  although  verisi- 
militude was  materially  assisted  by  a  confection  of  underground  odors; 
which  it  took  a  forced  draught  to  prevent  from  becoming  highly  marine. 

There  were  stopes  and  drifts  and  rooms,  representing  metal  mines  and 
coal  mines,  some  of  the  most  famous  in  the  world,  arranged  through  the 
cooperation  of  managers  and  owners.  You  saw  types  of  the  workings  of 
gold,  lead,  copper,  and  iron  mines,  from  Arizona  to  Minnesota.  Then  you 
entered  coal  mines  in  Pennsylvania,  in  Kentucky,  in  Wyoming,  in 
Concentrate  Washington.  If  you  had  visited  those  places  you  would  have 
seen  little  more,  and  nowhere  could  you  have  seen  so  much  in  one 
comfortable  trip.  All  modern  devices  relating  to  the  industry  were  illus- 
trated, down  to  the  fuse  and  powder  rooms  and  the  self-closing  doors  that 
assisted  ventilation  by  preventing  short  circuits  of  air.  Life-saving  appara- 
tus, and  every  sort  of  first-aid-to-the-injured  device,  was  in  its  proper,  handy 
place,  and  there  was  a  room  equipped  for  laying  out  an  injured  man  and 
getting  him  into  the  best  condition  for  removal  to  the  hospital. 

Of  course  there  was  a  moving-picture  room.  But,  better  than  that, 
realism  was  carried  to  the  ultimate  throughout  by  such  painstaking  arrange- 
ments as  old  timbering,  shipped  from  mines  where  it  had  actually  been  in 
use,  by  walls  of  ore  set  in  concrete  and  picked  over,  by  haulage  ways  and 
tracks,  under  foot.  In  one  case  a  miner's  jacket  hung  on  a  nail  with  his 
lunch  bucket,  a  local  daily  paper  sticking  out  of  one  pocket,  and  a  tin  of 
tobacco  out  of  another.  Train  loads  of  ore  and  coal  had  been  contributed 
to  build  up  side  walls  and  strata.  There  were  six  booths  for  the  exhibition  of 
radium  so  that  numbers  of  people  could  have  a  glimpse  of  the  mystery 
without  having  to  wait. 

At  two  o'clock  every  afternoon  the  "Mine"  blew  up,  with  a  terrific 
emphasis  of  coal  dust,  or  fire  damp,  or  whatever  it  is  that  explodes  in  mines, 
in  spite  of  all  the  safety  devices  therein  illustrated.  Clouds  of  black  smoke 
billowed  to  the  dome  of  the  Palace.     Directly  a  specially  equipped  motor 



DOWN  IN  "the  mine" 


truck  of  the  United  States  Bureau  of  Mines  Rescue  Corps  started  down  the 
Avenue  of  Progress  from  a  point  near  the  Fillmore  Street  entrance,  swept 
around  the  corner  into  the  Esplanade,  and  dashed  up  to  the  north  entrance 
of  the  Palace  of  Mines  and  Metallurgy,  where  the  crew  of  five  jumped  off 
smartly  and  proceeded  to  get  into  goggles  and  self-contained  breathmg 
apparatus,  and  then  illustrate  how  far  organized  society  has  progressed  m 
conserving  the  lives  of  those  that  minister  to  it;  at  least  in  the  mining  trade. 
The  crew,  with  a  stretcher,  rushed  into  the  mine  and  brought  out  an 
asphyxiated  miner  with  a  broken  leg  and  a  scalp  wound.     The  victim  was 
laid  out  on  a  raised  platform  where  everybody  could  see  him,  and  while  the 
rescuers  worked  on  him    with  artificial  respiration  methods,  and  a  lung 
motor,  and  bound  his  broken  leg  and  dressed  his  cut,  just  as  they  would 
have  done  in  the  mine  itself  under  actual  explosion  conditions,  Superm- 
tendent  Steidle  explained  through  a  megaphone  that  it  would  be  bad  prac- 
tice to  wash  the  scalp  wound,  as  it  might  become  infected  from  ^^^^^ 
the  cleanest-looking  water,  that  the  broken  leg  must  be  securely  ^  Life 
splinted  with  pieces  of  broken  boxes  wrapped  in  bandages  so  that 
on  the  long,  rough  journey  to  the  outer  air  and  the  hospital  the  sphntered 
bone  would  not  cut  through  and  make  a  compound  fracture,  that  there  were 
a  number  of  points  on  the  body  where  a  simple  tourniquet  would  tie  off  an 
artery  temporarily  and  stop  a  hemorrhage— and  gave  other  reasons  for  all 
the  operations  of  the  crew. 

They  made  a  stretcher  from  two  drill  steels  run  through  the  arms  of  two 
jumpers  turned  inside  out  and  buttoned,  picked  up  the  patient  and  placed 
him  on  it,  and  delivered  him  over  to  the  nearby  model  hospital  booth  of  the 
United  States  Public  Health  Service,  just  across  the  aisle,  where  Dr.  C.  C. 
Pierce,  detailed  by  the  United  States  Public  Health  Service  as  Sanitary 
Officer  of  the  Exposition,  explained  the  subsequent  treatment,  and  told  what 
the  functions  of  the  Public  Health  Service  were. 

The  little  drama  was  worked  out  with  far  more  realism  and  fidelity  to 
detail  than  most  presentations  on  the  stage.  People  crowded  about  the 
platform  and  the  hospital  half  an  hour  ahead  to  see  it,  and  never  failed  to 
thrill  and  gasp  at  the  climax  when  the  lung  motor  arrived,  just  as  though  a 
human  life  had  been  really  in  danger.  They  learned  many  things  it  is  of 
the  greatest  value  to  have  the  public  understand,  and  that  is  the  best  service 
an  exposition  can  do. 

Visitors  were  treated  to  some  illustrative  statistics;  were  told  that  in 
1913,  168,380  men  were  injured  in  mines  and  quarries  in  the  United  States 
alone,  and  3,651  more  were  killed;  that  in  the  preceding  five  years  nearly 
25,000  men  had  been  schooled  in  mine  rescue  and  first-aid-to-the-injured 


work,  so  that  miners  could  help  their  injured  comrades  while  the  more  expert 
rescue  crews  were  coming,  or  get  them  to  the  hospital  in  condition  to  be 
saved;  that  90  men  had  been  rescued  by  the  Bureau  of  Mines  Corps,  since  it 
was  instituted,  and  680  others  had  been  rescued  by  volunteers,  many  of 
whom  had  been  trained  in  the  ways  described;  that  in  addition  to  the  25,000 
schooled  in  this  work,  lectures  had  been  given  at  demonstrations  in  the 
different  mine  fields  of  the  country  to  150,000  persons,  mostly  miners,  so 
that  they  should  know  what  to  do  to  take  care  of  themselves  and 
the  Work  their  fellow  workers  and  the  property  of  their  employers.  The  posi- 
tions of  six  rescue  stations  of  the  Bureau  were  shown  on  a  map,  and 
the  whereabouts  were  indicated  of  the  eight  rescue  cars  then  in  operation  in 
their  visits  to  various  mines  to  make  demonstrations  and  perform  rescue  work. 

As  an  exhibit,  the  "Mine"  presented  mining  as  an  industry,  which 
accorded  with  the  policy  of  this  Department,  and  it  showed  the  relation  of 
the  Federal  Government  and  modern  medical  science  to  that  industry. 

The  designing  and  construction  of  the  demonstration  mine  were  in 
charge  of  the  following  managing  committee,  which  had  charge  of  operation: 

Herbert  M.  Wilson,  Bureau  of  Mines,  Pittsburgh,  Pa.,  Chairman, 
representing  the  Bureau  of  Mines. 

Chas.  E.  van  Barneveld,  Chief,  Department  of  Mines  and  Metallurgy, 
Panama-Pacific  International  Exposition,  San  Francisco. 

Wm.  C.  Coffin,  Jones  &  Laughlin  Steel  Co.,  Pittsburgh,  Pa.,  representing 
the  mining  industry. 

Frank  Harrison,  Westinghouse  Electric  and  Manufacturing  Co.,  East 
Pittsburgh,  Pa.,  representing  manufacturers  of  mining  machinery  and 

H.  M.  Wolflin,  407  Underwood  Building,  San  Francisco,  Cal.,  represent- 
ing the  California  Industrial  Accident  Commission. 

The  superintendent  of  the  demonstration  mine  was  Edward  Steidle,  and 
the  foreman  was  A.  A.  Krogdahl,  both  of  the  Bureau  of  Mines.  The  pre- 
paration of  all  preliminary  plans,  estimates,  and  designs  for  construction 
was  under  the  direction  of  Lauson  Stone,  of  the  Bureau  of  Mines;  the  final 
plans  and  contracts  were  amended  and  verified  by  the  Department  of  Mines 
and  Metallurgy  and  by  the  Division  of  Works  of  the  Exposition.  Mr.  Wilson, 
Chairman  of  the  above  committee,  was  of  the  greatest  possible  assistance. 

This  is  not  a  history  of  exhibitors,  nor  even  of  the  exhibits,  but  of  the 
Exposition  as  a  whole.  Nevertheless,  this  "Mine"  feature  was  so  notable  a 
success  that  it  justifies  presenting  the  names  of  the  concerns  that  contributed 


funds  or  apparatus  and  materials,  or  made  exhibits  that  contributed  to  the 
general  effect.     They  were  the: 

American  Blower  Company,  Detroit;  mine  fans. 

American  Mine  Door  Company,  Canton,  O.;  automatic  mine  doors,  manway 
doors  and  plain  swinging  doors. 

Asbestos  Protected  Metal  Company,  Pittsburg,  Pa.,  asbestos — protected 
walls,  floors,  and  roofs. 

Baltimore  F'namel  and  Novelty  Company,  Baltimore;  enamel  signs. 

Bucyrus  Company,  South  Milwaukee,  Wis.;  motion  pictures  of  mining  with 
steam  shovels  and  dredges. 

Bunker  Hill  &  Sullivan  Mining  and  Concentrating  Company,  Kellogg,  Idaho; 
stope  in  typical  lead-silver  mine,  with  ore  cars  and  stoping,  sinking,  and  drifting 
drills  and  tools. 

Byron  Jackson  Iron  Works,  San  Francisco;  centrifugal-mine  pump  and  winze 

Coal  Age  and  Engineering  and  Mining  Journal,  New  York;  technical  journals. 

Coast  Manufacturing  and  Supply  Company,  Liyermore,  Cal.;  safety  fuse. 

Colorado  Fuel  and  Iron  Company,  Denver;  all  rails. 

Concordia  Safety  Lamp  Company,  Pittsburgh,  Pa.;  electric  mine  lamps. 

Consolidated  Coal  Company,  Jenkins,  Ky.;  working-room  with  turret  coal 
cutting  machine,  electric  coal  auger,  mine  car,  steel  ties,  and  electric  pump  on  truck. 

Consolidation  Coal  Company,  Baltimore;  a  Kentucky  by-product  and  gas 
coal  mine. 

Copper  Queen  Consolidated  Mining  Company,  Bisbee,  Ariz.;  a  copper  mine. 

Cyclone  Drill  Company,  Orrville,  O.;  working  model  in  connection  with 
exhibit  of  the  Coast  Manufacturing  and  Supply  Company. 

Denver  Engineering  Works,  Denver,  Colo.;  head-frame  and  electric  hoist. 

Denver  Rock  Drill  ManufacturingCompany;stoping,sinking, and  driftingdrills. 

Draeger  Oxygen  Apparatus  Company,  Pittsburgh,  Pa.;  three  sets  of  artificial 
breathing  apparatus  and  an  oxygen  pump. 

Dunham,  Carrigan  &  Hayden  Company,  San  Francisco;  wheelbarrows,  picks, 
and  shovels. 

Edison,  Thomas  A.,  West  Orange,  N.  J.;  electric  mine  lamp. 

Ensign-Bickford  Company,  Simsbury,  Conn.;  Cordeau-Bickford  safety  fuse. 

Fairmont  Mining  Machinery  Company,  Fairmont,  W.  Va.;  portable  electric 
pump,  steel  ties,  coal  auger,  and  models. 

Fuller,  W.  P.  &  Company,  San  Francisco;  plate  glass  for  smoke  room. 

General  Machinery  and  Supply  Company,  San  Francisco;  single  stage  air 
compressor  and  receiver;  Word  Bros,  drill  sharpener. 

Goldfield  Consolidated  Mines  Company,  Goldfield,  Nevada;  working  stope  in 
a  gold  mine,  with  stoping  drill,  piston  drill,  and  column  drill,  ventilation  fan,  ore, 
and  tool  for  working. 

Goodyear  Tire  and  Rubber  Company,  Akron,  O.;  air  and  water  hose. 

Gould  Manufacturing  Company,  San  Francisco;  New  Deluge  electric  ditch 

GulfRefining  Company,  Pittsburgh,  Pa.;  oil  and  gasoline  for  auto  rescue-truck. 

Hendrie  &  Botholf  Manufacturing  and  Supply  Company,  Denver,  Colo.; 
Leadville  drill  column  hoist. 

Hill  Publishing  Company,  New  York;  technical  publications. 

Hockens  mith  Wheel  and  Mine  Car  Company,  Penn  Station,  Pa. ;  Coal  mine  cars. 


Hercules  Powder  Company,  Wilmington,  Del.;  motion  pictures  of  methods  in 
large  quarry  blasts. 

Homestake  Mining  Company,  Lead,  South  Dakota;  gold-quartz  mining 
shown  by  model,  with  equipment  and  sample  cases  of  ore. 

Indiana  Limestone  Quarrymen's  Association,  Bedford  and  Bloomington,  Ind.; 
motion  pictures  of  quarrying  and  cutting  limestone. 

Ingersoll-Rand  Company,  New  York  and  San  Francisco;  jackhammers, 
stoping  drills,  water-feed  hammer  drills,  piston  drills,  stretcher  bar  hoist,  drill 
sharpener,  and  oil  fired  forge. 

JefFery  Manufacturing  Company,  Columbus,  O.;  breast  turret  coal  mining 
machine,  and  truck  and  turret  coal  cutting  machine. 

John  Simmons  Company,  New  York;  carbide  hand  and  cap  lamps. 

Jones  &  Laughlin  Steel  Company,  Pittsburgh,  Pa.;  scene  from  Lincoln  iron 
mine,  Mesabe  range,  Minnesota,  with  ore  car,  piston  rock  drill,  jackhammer  drill, 
and  ore. 

Joshua  Hendy  Iron  Works,  San  Francisco;  safety  mine  cage. 

Koehler  Manufacturing  Company,  Marlboro,  Mass.;  safety  lamps  for  detect- 
ing explosive  gas. 

Lehigh  Coal  and  Navigation  Company,  Landford,  Pa.;  scene  illustrating  the 
mining  of  a  thick  anthracite  vein  on  a  steep  pitch;  gangway  and  chutes. 

Linde  Air  Products  Company,  New  York;  oxygen  for  rescue  demonstrations. 

Life  Saving  Devices  Company,  Chicago;  artificial  respiratory  apparatus. 

Mining  Press,  San  Francisco;  technical  journals  and  books. 

Mine  Safety  Applicances  Company,  Pittsburgh,  Pa.;  artificial  breathing 
apparatus,  safety  lamp  testing  box,  recording  volumeter,  recording  hydro  air 
pressure  gauge  for  fan,  and  first  aid  materials  for  the  demonstrations. 

Nevada  Consolidated  Copper  Company,  New  York;  motion  pictures  of  surface 
mining,  and  milling  and  smelting  of  copper  ores. 

Nicholas  Power  Company,  New  York;  Power's  No.  6A  cameragraph. 

Pacific  Coast  Coal  Company,  Seattle;  steeply  pitching  seam,  with  chute,  post 
puncher,  radial  axe  shearing  and  undercutting  machine,  and  jackhammer  drill. 

Pocahontas  Fuel  Company,  New  York;  scene  from  a  Virginia  coal  mine,  with 
turret  coal  mining  machine,  truck,  and  track  jack. 

Pyrene  Manufacturing  Company,  New  York;  fire  extinguishers. 

Riverside  Portland  Cement  Company,  Los  Angeles;  cement  for  floor  and 

Southern  Wyoming  Mine  Operators'  Association,  Cheyenne,  Wyo.;  Rocky 
Mountain  coal  mine  scene. 

Sullivan  Machinery  Company,  Spokane,  Wash.;  post  puncher. 

Superior  Oxygen  Company,  Pittsburgh,  Pa.;  oxygen  for  rescue  demonstrations. 

United  States  Public  Health  Service,  Washington,  D.  C;  surgical  equipment 
and  attendants. 

Utah  Copper  Company,  Salt  Lake  City;  motion  pictures  of  surface  mining, 
milling,  and  smelting. 

Western  Electric  Company,  New  York;  mine  telephone  system  and  portable 
mine  rescue  telephone. 

Westinghouse  Electric  and  Manufacturing  Company,  Pittsburgh,  Pa.;  storage 
battery  mine  locomotive,  trolley-gathering  locomotive,  motors  for  various  pur- 
poses. Sirocco  for  ventilation. 

White  Company,  Cleveland,  O.;  mine-rescue  auto  truck. 

Worthington,  Henry  R.,  San  Francisco;  special  vertical  direct-connected 
sump  pump. 




The  "Mine"  was  but  part  of  the  Government  exhibit  in  Mines  and 
Metallurgy,  and  it  was  the  first  time  the  mining  and  metallurgical  industries 
had  ever  been  officially  represented  among  Government  exhibits  at  an 
American  exposition;  the  Bureau  of  Mines  having  been  established  after 
the  preceding  one.  Certain  exhibits  showed  what  the  Bureau  of  Mines 
was  doing,  and  certain  others  what  was  going  on  in  the  Experimental  Metal- 
lurgical Laboratory  operated  by  the  Bureau.  Lantern  slides  and  short 
descriptive  lectures  supported  the  educational  effect  of  the  exhibits.  Mr. 
F.  G.  Cottrell  of  San  Francisco,  Chief  Physical  Chemist  of  the  Bureau,  did 
valuable  work  in  promoting  the  exhibit. 

Three  sets  of  artificial  breathing  apparatus  were  shown:  the  Fleuss,  the 
Draeger,  and  the  Westphalia  types,  all  loaned  by  the  makers.  These  could 
be  tested  in  a  gas-proof  smoke  room,  which  was  entered  by  men  wearing 
the  apparatus  before  descending  the  "mine"  to  bring  out  the  victims  of  the 
daily  explosion.  Nearby  was  an  exhibit  of  various  types  of  safety  lamp. 
The  manufacture  of  explosives  was  illustrated  in  part  by  an  exhibit  of  the 
materials  available.  There  was  a  welfare  exhibit  consisting  of  a  model 
industrial  village  and  in  it  was  a  model  of  a  wash  and  change  house  where 
the  men  could  change  from  street  clothes  to  working  clothes  and  wash  up 
after  work. 

The  war  in  Europe,  and  its  interference  with  trade,  gave  importance  to 
projects  of  coal  tar  manufacture  in  this  country,  and  the  Bureau  exhibited 
some  interesting  things  about  coke,  coking  coal,  and  some  of  the  by-products 
with  models  and  charts  showing  the  possibilides  at  hand  in  the  United 
States  for  the  development  of  the  production  of  chemicals  from  . 

I  1   T->-        1  1  1  J       J  J         Chemical 

this  source.     These  mcluded  Pittsburgh  coal  as  a  standard,  and       supplies 
also  Western  and  Alaskan  coals.     There  was  a  Government  mo- 
don-picture  booth  in  this  space.    Some  of  the  reels  showed  mine  rescue  work, 
the  operation  of  the  rescue  car,  first  aid  to  the  injured,  and  similar  subjects. 

The  Metallurgical  Laboratory  exhibit  was  in  two  divisions,  to  represent 
hydro-metallurgy  and  pyro-metallurgy,  or  smelting.  In  the  latter  division 
the  abatement  of  smelter  fumes  was  being  studied  and  demonstrated. 
Working  models  represented  the  latest  devices  employed  by  the  smelting 
companies  for  the  recovery  of  the  visible  constituents  of  the  fumes.  There 
was  a  model  assay  laboratory.  In  the  hydro-metallurgical  exhibit  was  a 
small  cyanide  plant  in  operation. 

Besides  the  exhibits  of  the  United  States  Bureau  of  Mines,  there  were 
in  this  Palace  exhibits  of  the  Mint,  the  Post  Office,  and  the  Geological  Sur- 
vey. The  last  named  was  in  a  measure  responsible  for  the  Alaskan  exhibit, 
which  flanked  it. 


The  exhibit  of  the  Geological  Survey  itself  was  an  impressive  showing 
of  governmental  activity  in  enabling  the  people  to  work  the  country's  inter- 
nal resources. 

The  central  feature  was  a  booth  with  two  dioramas,  cleverly  done  to  give 
an  illusion  of  reality,  or  at  least  of  representing  real  landscapes.  The 
first  depicted  an  undeveloped  district  in  the  arid  West.  Topographers  were 
at  work,  geologists  had  stripped  a  bed  of  coal,  and  other  topographers  were 
sampling  the  rocks.  A  gauger  was  measuring  the  stream,  and  his  findings 
would  determine  the  plans  of  the  hydro-electric  plant  which  appeared  in  the 
DeveloMn  ^^^^""^  scene,  showing  the  district  under  development,  and  of  the 
a  Country  legation  system  for  the  floor  of  the  little  valley.  In  the  second 
scene  the  coal  bed  was  being  mined  on  one  side,  and  in  another 
part  of  the  picture  an  oil  field  was  under  development.  A  sand-stone  bed 
was  being  quarried,  and  mining  and  milling  were  going  on  in  the  mountains. 
A  town  had  sprung  up  and  highways  and  railroads  were  being  developed  in 
every  serviceable  direction. 

Behind  the  scenes,  in  the  same  booth  but  facing  the  ends,  were  recessed 
screens,  on  one  of  which  were  shown  pictures  illustrating  the  different  kinds 
of  survey  work  and  the  part  they  play  in  the  development  of  the  country. 

At  one  end  of  the  space  was  shown  the  per  capita  production  of  minerals 
in  the  United  States,  first  in  1850,  next  about  the  time  of  the  Centennial 
Exposition,  and  in  1913.  The  exhibit  consisted  of  one  48-millionth  of  the 
actual,  production  of  each  mineral  in  1880  and  one  97-millionth  of  the 
production  in  1913. 

The  space  along  one  of  the  outer  aisles  was  devoted  to  a  series  of  cases, 
illustrating  what  our  common  things  are  made  of,  what  the  raw  material 
looks  like  as  it  is  obtained  from  the  earth,  and  where  it  occurs  in  the  United 
States.  Many  of  the  familiar  household  articles  were  there,  such  as  an 
aluminum  sauce-pan,  an  electric-bulb  filament,  and  a  fountain-pen  point; 
and  above  each  article  was  shown  the  mineral  from  which  it  is  made,  traced 
back  to  the  ore,  and  then  a  map  of  the  United  States  showing  where  the 
ores  occur.  At  the  west  end  of  the  space  was  an  exhibit  of  the  power  and 
fuel  resources  of  the  United  States,  including  maps  showing  the  distribution 
of  the  black  shale  from  which  oil  is  derived,  and  the  apparatus  used  in  the 
field  in  determining  the  shales  that  arc  worth  studying. 


THE  United  States  Steel  Corporation  showed  it  all,  from  coke  to 
harps — one  of  the  mightiest  of  industries,  with  an  organization 
like  an  army,  conducting  operations  on  the  scale  of  a  small  gov- 
ernment; and  with  ramifications  of  service  into  and  through  other  trades 
and  industries  that  the  casual  observer  of  current  affairs  would  not  appreci- 
ate until  he  had  seen  displayed  such  exhibits  as  the  peculiar  commodity, 
"flat  wire,"  and  all  the  manufactured  articles  made  therefrom — together 
with  the  corporation's  various  steel  products,  its  manganese-steel  car-track 
crossings,  its  cross-sections  of  the  huge,  built-up  columns  of  some  of  the 
world's  tallest  buildings  and  girders  of  the  greatest  bridges,  its  pressed  steel 
automobile  hubs,  uncrackable;  its  sheets,  smooth  as  glass,  on  which  colored 
pictures  were  lithographed,  its  "Circassian  walnut"  bedsteads  and"mahog- 
any"  chairs,  of  steel,  its  seamless  pipe  and  tubing,  its  steel  ties 
and  rolled  car-wheels — or  had  heard  one  of  its  charming  harp  and  industry 
organ  recitals,  given  daily  in  the  Palace  of  Mines  and  Metallurgy, 
at  about  the  noon  hour,  just  to  make  people  realize  that  from  ore  beds  in 
Minnesota  or  Michigan,  by  docks  and  fleets  and  furnaces  and  mills,  it  served 
even  the  finest  of  the  arts,  through  the  noblest  of  instruments.  The  exhibit 
came  near  epitomizing  modern  civilization,  and  did  epitomize  a  considerable 
material  part  of  it.  In  times  of  such  lightning  change  it  showed  at  least 
the  Day  of  Steel,  if  not  the  Age  of  Steel. 

Nor  was  it  merely  a  display  of  samples  of  products,  though  these  were 
stupendous,  especially  in  the  case  of  the  column  section  of  the  Woolworth 
building,  a  structure  750  feet  high.  In  its  42,000  square  feet  of  space  along 
the  south  side  of  the  Palace  of  Mines  and  Metallurgy  it  made  the  first  syste- 
matic effort  to  show  the  whole  industry,  collectively.  By  means  of  pictures 
still  and  moving,  charts,  maps  of  properties,  models  of  plant,  samples  of  raw 
materials  and  finished  products,  and  every  possible  graphic  repre- 

.    ,  ,.    .  ^,.'  .  c  .  .  The  Story 

sentation  of  the  conditions  of  life  among  its  army  ot  operatives,  it         of  Steel 
sought  to  tell  the  story  of  steel;  from  the  dirty  ore  beds  where  iron 
oxides  had  lain  for  ages,  a  mere  nuisance  to  the  voyageur  and  pioneer,  to  the 



blooms  and  billets  and  slabs  and  sheets,  the  I-beams  and  angle  bars  that 
were  the  materials  of  other  industries  on  industries;  down  even  to  the  Port- 
land cement  made  from  the  furnace  slag,  that  went  into  concrete  to  clothe 
and  fire-proof  the  steel  itself;  and  to  make  the  foundation  of  the  roads  along 
which  it  was  hauled. 

You  could  trace  it  all,  throughout  almost  a  continental  scope.  Here  was 
a  map  of  the  Lake  Superior  country  and  of  ore  fields  in  Minnesota,  Wiscon- 
sin, Michigan,  and  Alabama.  Nearby  was  a  model  under  glass  showing 
surface  and  section  of  the  ore  beds,  as  they  underlay  the  country  soil,  and  as 
they  were  stripped  open  with  steam  shovels,  and  as  trains  of  cars  on  railroads 
operated  by  the  corporation  for  the  purpose,  transported  the  ore  to  gigantic 
docks  at  such  ports  as  Duluth. 

Here  were  the  ore  docks:  a  model  made  up  of  over  25,000  pieces,  it  was 
said,  showing  ranks  of  bunkers  into  which  the  ore  was  dumped  from  trains, 
and  out  of  which  it  was  shot  through  long  tiers  of  chutes  into  the  holds  of  ore 
boats,  through  rows  of  hatches  that  occupied  the  entire  deck  space.  The 
boats  were  five  or  six  hundred  feet  long  and  would  carry  twelve  or  thirteen 
thousand  tons  of  ore.  There  was  a  fleet  of  them  on  the  Great  Lakes.  And 
for  a  record,  one  had  been  unloaded  by  the  grab-bucket  method  in  25 

Pictures  showed  these  boats  discharging  at  such  specialized  industrial 
ports  as  Gary,  Indiana.  The  Frick  coke  plant  was  represented  by  a  model. 
Every  process  of  rolling  and  cutting  was  shown  in  "movies." 

The  United  States  Steel  Corporation  was  the  father  of  a  large  family,  as  a 

list  of  the  subsidiary  organizations  contributing  to  this  great  exhibit  will 

indicate:  the  American  Bridge  Company,  American  Sheet  and  Tinplate 

Company,  American  Steel  &  Wire,  Carnegie  Steel,  Illinois  Steel,  Lorain 

Steel,    Minnesota    Steel,    National    Tube,    Shelby    Steel    Tube, 

em  ers  0]  Tennessee  Coal,  Iron  &  Railroad,  Universal  Portland  Cement, 
the  Family  •  o  1  • 

United  States  Steel  Products,  Bunsen  Coal,  H.  C.  Frick  Coke, 

National  Mining,  Oliver  Iron  Mining,  United  States  Coal  &  Coke,  Besse- 
mer &  Lake  Erie  Railroad,  Birmingham  Southern  Railroad,  Duluth  &  Iron 
Range  Railroad,  Duluth,  Missabe  &  Northern  Railway,  Elgin,  Joliet  & 
Eastern  Railway,  Newburgh  &  South  Shore  Railway,  Pittsburgh  &  Con- 
neaut  Dock,  Pittsburgh  Steamship,  Union  Railroad. 

A  mere  mention  of  these  names  of  railroad  and  steamship  lines,  and  iron, 
coal,  and  coke  companies,  is  in  itself  an  exhibit  of  the  stage  industrial  organ- 
ization had  reached  in  the  United  States  in  191 5.  Devoted  by  centralized 
direction  to  one  end,  the  production  of  steel  in  almost  all  forms  useful  to 
men,  they  represented  a  vast  economy  in  the  creation  of  wealth. 




You  could  ascend  to  a  second  story  roof  garden,  near  the  center  of  the 
space,  and  look  out  over  a  sort  of  microcosm  of  the  World  of  Steel.  You 
could  sit  in  the  corporation's  moving-picture  theater  and  see  a  portrayal  of  all 
the  processes  involved,  on  films  aggregating  25,000  feet  in  length  that  it 
took  over  six  hours  to  run.  Or  you  could  visit  the  cozy  demonstration  hall 
and  hear  a  recital  upon  the  Wurlitzer  Unit  Orchestra  which  formed  part  of 
the  Wire  Products  exhibit,  the  organist  being  accompanied  by  a  harpist. 
You  could  look  over  the  guide  provided  for  you  by  the  corporation  and  learn 
that  it  employed,  with  its  subsidiary  companies,  228,906  people,  with  a 
combined  pay  roll  of  $207,206,176  for  the  year  1913;  that  it  was  quite  a  tax- 
payer, and  in  city.  State,  and  Federal  taxes  contributed  some  $13,225,882 
that  year;  that  it  operated  125  blast  furnaces,  and  298  open  hearth  furnaces, 
and  33  Bessemer  converters;  that  it  owned  nine  ocean  steamers,  and  chart- 
ered 40  more,  operated  loi  steamers,  barges,  and  tug  boats  on  the  Great 
Lakes,  and  two  steamers  and  102  barges  on  the  Ohio  River,  and  1,036  miles 
of  railroad  track  and  sidings,  with  1,231  locomotives  and  49,267  cars;  that  its 
150  steel  works  and  other  plants  extended  across  country  from 
ocean  to  ocean  and  from  Minnesota  to  Alabama,  that  it  had  176  ^^^  p^^^^ 
branch  offices  and  agencies  in  46  foreign  countries,  and  that  in  a 
single  year  it  mined  28,738,451  tons  of  iron  ore,  quarried  6,338,509  tons  of 
limestone,  manufactured  16,663,480  tons  of  coke,  and  produced  16,656,361 
tons  of  steel  ingots  and  1 1,197,000  barrels  of  cement.  If  the  dryness  of  the 
figures  made  you  thirsty  there  were  sanitary  drinking  fountains  all  about  the 

It  would  be  tedious  to  enumerate  here  all  the  items  in  this  exhibit.  The 
corporation  itself  put  out  a  printed  description  that  made  a  56-page  booklet, 
and  the  matter  was  very  succinct  at  that.  To  assist  memory  we  may  recall, 
however,  the  steel  fencing  about  some  of  the  subdivisions,  made  of  sections 
of  sheet  piling,  the  stacks  of  blooms  and  billets  and  car  axles,  the  pyramid 
of  I-beams,  beginning  with  a  foundation  section  of  a  beam  27  inches  deep 
and  weighing  83  pounds  to  the  foot,  the  railway  rails,  switches,  frogs,  joints, 
junctions,  and  connections  of  the  Lorain  Steel  Company  (the  track  depart- 
ment of  the  institution),  the  contorted  pipes  and  tubing  of  the  National 
Tube  Company,  the  wire  fencing,  some  of  which  was  in  use  in  the  Live  Stock 
Section  of  the  Exposition,  and  finally  the  sample  of  the  tremendous  bottom 
chord  of  the  steel  arch  of  Hellgate  Bridge,  the  largest  work  of  the  kind  in  the 
country;  illustrated  by  a  three-foot  section  which  showed  the  fabrification  of 
the  various  steel  elements  to  form  the  main  member. 

The  application  of  galvanized  sheet  steel  to  the  construction  of  farm 
buildings  and  farm  engineering  works  was  exemplified  by  a  model  of  a  typi- 


cal  farm,  with  barns,  outbuildings,  silos,  windmills,  storage  bins,  tanks, 
culverts,  and  irrigation  flumes.  The  model  was  lighted  by  an  overhead 
decorative  fixture  of  sheet  metal,  containing  additional  illustrations  in  the 
form  of  illuminated  photographs. 

Sheet  metal  was  entering  more  and  more  into  modern  life,  which  is  almost 
as  much  as  to  say  that  it  was  making  things  cheaper  and  life  on  the  whole 
easier,  for  there  are  few  things  which,  like  the  electric  light,  succeed  at  higher 
prices  than  the  things  they  supplant.     An  example  was  the  growth  of  the 
use  of  sheet  metal  in  automobile  manufacture,  which  we  choose  not  because 
it  is  a  necessity  but  because  its  requirements  are  exacting.     Here  sheet  steel 
was  being  substituted  for  cast  iron,  forged  iron,  copper,  brass,  aluminum, 
and  wood,  and  every  reduction  in  the  total  number  of  parts,  every  rivet  or 
seam  avoided,  every  pound  of  metal  saved,  every  increase  in  strength  with- 
out additional  weight,  meant  a  saving  in  cost  and  an  increase  in 
d  Cr  wth  service.     And  every  new  thing  made  from  sheet  steel  developed 
the  art  of  working  it.     Models  showed  the  application  of  the  ma- 
terial and  the  methods  of  producing  and  shaping  it,  for  railroad  cars,  houses, 
household  utensils,  boats,  furniture,  food  containers,  and  innumerable  other 

The  general  exhibit  was  visited  by  large  groups  of  students,  and  of 
teachers  and  professors  from  the  universities  and  technical  schools.  Repre- 
sentatives from  competing  steel  concerns  were  received  with  every  courtesy. 
Consulting  engineers,  structural  engineers,  railroad  men,  came  to  learn  the 
relativemeritsof  alloy  steels,  heat  treatment,  the  latest  developments  in  steel 
wheels,  gears,  pistons,  crossties,  permanent  way  for  steam  and  electric 
roads,  all  the  forms  of  wire  from  that  used  in  pianos  to  that  of  suspension- 
bridge  cables;  and  cement.  The  Story  of  Steel  in  the  moving-picture  theater 
was  of  deep  interest,  and  it  was  estimated  that  between  75,000  and  100,000 
persons  saw  it. 

It  was  said  that  it  had  taken  fifty  cars  to  bring  this  material  to  San 
Francisco.  It  was  the  most  wonderful  and  comprehensive  exhibit  of  the 
steel  industry  ever  presented  to  the  public,  and  one  the  like  of  which  could 
not  have  been  made  in  Europe  at  that  time,  for  Europe  had  not  yet  evolved 
such  units  nor  their  organization  into  such  a  perfectly  coordinated  produc- 
ing machine.  In  its  presentation  of  the  scope  and  gigantic  organization  of 
industry  in  America  and  its  proofs  of  what  that  organization  could  accom- 
plish for  the  common  good,  it  was  of  far  higher  educational  value  than  the 
largest  collection  of  ores  and  "specimens"  ever  seen  at  an  exposition. 


IN  the  decade  that  had  elapsed  since  the  preceding  great  international 
exposition  in  America,  the  American  Rolling  Mill  Company  of  Middle- 
town,  Ohio,  had  given  the  modern  world  another  important  com- 
modity—iron said  to  be  99.84  per  cent  pure,  and  some  better  than  that, 
produced  in  large  commercial  quantities  at  prices  very  little  higher  than 
steel,  and  considerably  lower  than  those  of  Norway  or  Swedish  iron.  The 
development  appears  to  have  been  founded  on  a  close  study  of  the  ancient 
Asiatic  practices,  which  had  produced  such  triumphs  as  the  rustless  iron 
pillar  of  Delhi,  made,  it  is  supposed,  in  415  a.d.,  standing  exposed  to  the 
weather  ever  since,  and  showing  no  signs  of  corrosion  yet. 

Investigations  of  corrosion  had  led  to  the  belief  that  a  high  degree  of 
purity  made  iron  more  resistant  to  it.  Old-fashioned  puddled  iron  was  nearly 
pure,  but  a  main  trouble  with  it  was  the  limitation  of  output,  for  the  old- 
fashioned  furnace  could  hardly  turn  out  more  than  300  pounds  ^^^^^^^  ^^ 
at  a  time,  which  meant  high  cost  and  limited  use,  so  it  had  to  go  p^„^^,ig„ 
out  of  business.  R.  B.  Carnahan,  Jr.,  of  the  American  Rolling 
Mill  Company,  appears  to  have  led  the  way  to  the  manufacture  of  the  same 
high-purity  iron  on  a  modern  commercial  scale. 

The  value  of  such  iron  in  the  complex  and  multiform  requirements  of 
modern  life  is  far  greater  than  in  the  restricted  uses  the  ancients  had  for  it. 
Monumental  iron  pillars  may  be  beautiful,  and  as  exemplifications  of  lost 
arts  they  undoubtedly  possess  high  value,  but  it  is  far  more  important  now 
to  have  chicken  wire  and  farm  fencing  that  won't  rust  out  in  a  few  seasons 
and  throw  an  added  financial  burden  for  replacement  on  the  farmer  that  is 
trying  to  produce  our  food  for  us;  better  that  we  have  cheap  and  rustless  iron 
culverts,  and  durable  roofing,  and  sheets,  and  plates,  that  will  serve  us  longer 
in  the  manifold  forms  into  which  they  are  wrought  for  our  benefit. 

It  was  claimed  that  the  output  of  the  American  Rolling  Mill's  peculiar 
open-hearth  furnace  practices,  "Armco  iron,"  exhibited  in  various  forms 
in  the  Palace  of  Mines  and  Metallurgy  by  the  Rolling  Mill  Company  and 
the   National   Corrugated   Culvert   Manufacturing   Company,   had   great 

VOL.  rv — 14  ^"9 


purity,  rust  resistance,  superior  welding,  enameling,  and  galvanizing  prop- 
erties, high  electrical  conductivity  and  low  residual  magnetism.  It  was 
,,  ..  probably  the  purest  iron  ever  made  on  so  large  a  scale,  or  the  first 

Matter  ■  j  i  i        i  o  j 

0}  Quantity   ^^^^  ^^^"^  made  on  a  large  scale  that  was  so  pure,  whichever  way 
you  wish  to  take  it.     The  essential  thing  about  it  was  that  it 
restored  to  the  modern  arts  properties  of  iron  that  had  practically  been 
passed  by  in  steel  manufacture  as  of  less  interest  than  large  economies. 

The  quest  for  this  iron,  in  commercial  quantities,  had  been  beset  with 
troubles  that  gave  the  story  the  true  modern  epic  flavor.  It  appears  to 
have  begun  in  the  demand  of  the  culvert  manufacturers  for  a  metal  more 
durable  than  steel  in  that  service,  and  it  led  through  metallurgical  and 
chemical  investigations  of  such  objects  as  the  Delhi  pillar  mentioned  above, 
and  several  more  monumental  Indian  works  like  it,  with  a  number  of  seven- 
teenth-century Indian  guns;  of  Ceylonese  and  Cingalese  irons;  of  the  links 
of  the  Newburyport,  Mass.,  bridge,  built  in  1789,  and  one  of  the  first  suspen- 
sion bridges  ever  built;  even  of  nails  from  the  coffin  of  a  man  buried  in  1792 
and  disinterred  a  century  later. 

Carnahan  was  superintendent  of  the  American  Rolling  Mill  Company 
and  he  sought  purity,  beginning  with  the  old  puddled-iron  process.  But 
the  output  was  too  small,  and  he  determined  to  obtain  the  commodity 
from  a  high-power  furnace  under  modern  conditions.  He  had  the  valuable 
aid  of  Orley  H.  Moles,  and  a  large  staff  of  practical  furnace  experts  and 
metallurgists.  Progress  was  slow,  and  not  always  free  from 
by  Obstacles  danger.  Ihere  were  disasters.  But  patience  and  pertinacity 
won.  The  plant  now  produces  this  commodity  in  units  of  50  to 
80  tons,  of  a  purity  that  is  said  to  have  averaged  as  high  as  99.877.  Some 
claim  it  is  the  closest  approach  to  Ferrum,  or  chemically  pure  iron,  ever 

The  process  involves  points  of  interest.  Far  higher  temperatures  are 
dealt  with  than  in  steel  production.  The  raw  material  is  kept  for  a  long 
time  at  3,100  degrees  Fahrenheit,  until  it  is  thoroughly  superoxidized,  or 
"burned,"  a  state  steel  men  avoid,  and  one  in  which  the  iron  goes  wild  and 
tries  to  ramp  all  over  the  shop.  But  the  heat  burns  out  all  the  impurities, 
and  deoxidizing  agents  take  out  all  the  oxygen,  leaving  almost  nothing  but 
iron,  a  rare  thing,  soft,  malleable,  ductile,  and  durable,  practically  without 
copper  or  manganese  or  other  foreign  matter,  and  in  no  danger  of  any  inter- 
nal electrolysis.  It  was  the  recovery  of  a  lost  art,  on  a  scale  of  modern 
magnitude;  a  romance  of  commercialism.  Perhaps  all  the  lost  arts  could  be 
recovered  if  they  could  only  be  made  to  pay;  and  if  they  continued  to  pay 
we  may  be  sure  they  would  not  get  lost  again. 




METAL  tools  one  thinks  of  as  a  product  of  mining,  naturally  enough, 
but  it  struck  thousands  with  surprise  to  see  a  great  paint  exhibit 
in  the  Palace  of  Mines  and  Metallurgy;  until  they  walked  about 
it  and  found  the  lead  mill  in  operation  producing  the  raw  material.  This 
beautiful  Moorish  exhibit  temple,  with  its  Mooresque  decoration,  its  dome 
like  the  Mosque  of  Omar  in  miniature  supported  on  slender  Moorish  columns, 
and  its  mirrored  exhibit  booths  showing  through  horseshoe  arches,  was  one 
of  the  most  beautiful  and  popular  attractions  in  any  exhibit  palace.  It  cost 
W.  P.  Fuller  &  Company  of  San  Francisco  a  great  deal  of  money  to  install 
it  and  the  working  exhibit  that  went  with  it,  but  its  advertising  value  must 
have  been  large,  for  it  caught  the  public  attention.     The  public  could  not 

have  missed  it,  so  effectively  did  Mullgardt  design  it.     The  color  . 

1  ^  •  1-      1  •         •        1  J     u  Mimng 

scheme  offered  an  opportunity  to  display  paints  in  plenty,  and  the      ^^^  p^^^^ 

lead  mill  showed  how  the  paint  was  made,  illustrating  the  suc- 
cessive steps  from  the  casting  machine  to  the  use  of  the  finished  product. 
In  a  dozen  smaller  booths  about  the  central  domed  structure  were  displays 
of  various  brands  of  paint,  and  varnish,  and  specimens  of  finished  work. 

Even  after  seeing  this  paint  exhibit  few  people,  comparatively  speaking, 
realized  that  varnish  is  a  product  of  mining.  The  Standard  Varnish  Works 
of  New  York,  London,  Chicago,  and  San  Francisco  made  a  very  instructive 
exhibit  of  varnish  fossil  gums,  the  Kauri  resins,  a  beautiful  material  resem- 
bling amber  in  appearance.  One  specimen  had  been  carved  by  some  ambi- 
tious sculptor  into  a  portrait  bust  of  Tomati  Waka  Neue,  a  famous  New 

Zealand  chief  of  the  Maoris. 

In  precious,  semi-precious  and  gem  stones  there  was  a  beautiful  and 
wonderful  exhibit  by  Tiffany  and  Company  of  New  York.  It  was  like  a 
glimpse  into  a  corner  of  some  Rajah's  treasure  house.  Here  were  Burmese 
and  Afghan  rubies,  great  fire  opals  fiom  Mexico,  azurite  and 
malachite  from  Arizona,  Ceylon  sapphires  pink  and  yellow  as  ^^^^  World 
well  as  blue,  Australian  opals  and  opal  matrix,  wondrous  agates, 
black,  blue,  and  white,  in  large  and  satisfying  sizes;  Siberian  jaspers,  Tulare 


County  chrysoprase,  Indian  mocha  stone  with  markings  like  a  tree-calf 

There  was  a  square  yard  of  amethyst  crystals  from  Brazil,  and  over  a 
foot  by  six  inches  of  opal  deposit  on  a  chunk  of  sandstone.  There  was 
beautiful  pink  Kunzite,  recently  classified,  from  San  Diego  County;  there 
was  Russian  rhodonite,  chalcedony,  and  a  bit  of  Alaskan  jade  over  a  foot  and 
a  half  long,  from  six  inches  to  a  foot  in  width,  and  perhaps  six  inches  thick; 
but  it  was  dwarfed  by  a  jade  boulder  four  feet  long  and  a  yard  thick,  that 
weighed  1,500  pounds. 

The  exhibit  included  the  finest  collection  of  tourmalines  in  California, 
immense  crystals  of  smoky  quartz  and  amazon  stone.  The  sapphire  series 
was  very  splendid,  and  there  were  specimens  of  emerald,  aquamarine,  golden 
beryl,  and  morganite,  and  zircon,  some  of  them  the  largest  gems  of  their 
class  ever  found.  It  was  an  unusually  complete  series  of  all  known  forms  of 
precious  stone,  and  represented  over  ten  years  of  gathering  and  reserving  the 
finest  of  their  kinds  in  the  various  modes  of  their  occurrence,  and  their  manip- 
ulation into  objects  of  adornment  and  beauty.  It  was  highly  instructive 
and  was  made  more  so  by  the  many  exhibits  of  special  styles  of  cutting. 
And  in  addition,  there  was  a  case  of  illustrated  books  on  gems,  from  the 
library  of  Dr.  George  F.  Kunz  of  New  York. 

Two  great  petroleum  exhibits  besides  the  peg  model  of  the  Sunset- 
Midway  oil  fields  mentioned  elsewhere,  were  made  by  the  Standard  Oil 
Company  and  the  Union  Oil  Company. 

The  booth  of  the  latter  was  one  of  the  show  places  of  the  Palace.  It  was 
in  the  form  of  a  small  pavilion  in  which  a  diorama  was  exhibited;  and  over  its 
cornice  crawled  four  enormous  dinosaurs,  45  feet  high,  denizens  of  the  earth 
in  the  ages  when  the  oil  was  forming.  These  ancient  inhabitants  were,  in 
their  modern  form,  the  work  of  F.  G.  R.  Roth,  the  animal  sculptor, 
families  ^^"^^  °^  whose  creations  appeared  in  the  great  groups  above  the 
Arches  of  the  Rising  and  of  the  Setting  Sun.  Around  the  pavilion 
was  a  frieze  of  relatives  of  the  dinosaurs,  and  it  must  be  said  that  they  were 
an  interesting  but  a  severely  plain  family.  You  would  have  had  to  visit 
Alligator  Joe's  place  on  the  Zone  to  find  anything  less  pulchritudinous;  yet 
they  were  supposed  to  have  been  present  in  person  at  the  close  of  the  Cre- 
taceous period,  and  should  have  known  a  great  deal  about  oil. 

The  object  of  the  exhibit  was  to  enable  the  spectator  to  understand  the 
general  characteristics  of  the  California  oil  industry,  as  far  as  they  could 
be  seen  from  pictorial  representation  and  exhibition  of  products.  The 
diorama  inside  the  reptilian  pavilion  represented  a  typical  California 
oil  field,  with  all  its  desert  color  in  the  dry  season — very  beautiful  as  land- 


scape  viewed  in  this  manner.  The  picture  was  a  composite,  no  one  field 
being  represented.  There  were  wells  and  derricks,  tanks,  and  pumping 
plants,  a  typical  oil-field  town  and  a  refinery  on  tidewater,  with  wharves 
and  docks,  and  a  train  running  back  and  forth.  A  great  gusher  was  shown 
in  action,  its  derrick  reflected  in  the  lake  of  oil  it  had  created. 

There  were  geological  specimens  in  glass  cases;  fossils  and  other  things 
reminiscent  of  long  past  geologic  time.  There  was  a  bit  of  a  joint  of  an 
ichthyosaurus,  a  sort  of  submarine  dinosaur;  and  other  remains  by  which 
geologists  endeavor  to  determine  the  best  place  to  sink  a  well.  Tubes  and 
jars  on  tables  showed  the  manifold  uses  of  the  products  of  petroleum,  and 
standing  near  were  two  quite  large  pyramids  of  asphalt. 

The  Standard  Oil  Company  of  California  endeavored  to  show  the  work  in 
an  oil  field  by  models.  A  reproduction  of  the  famous  Section  36  in  the  Mid- 
way fields  of  California  represented  the  strata  to  a  depth  of  3,000  feet,  while 
on  the  surface  appeared  pumps,  tanks,  sumps,  and  employees'  quarters. 
There  was  a  panoramic  reproduction  of  the  field  near  Taft,  Cal.,  in  oper- 
ation. Oil  transportation  was  illustrated  by  means  of  models  of  a  ^^^^.^^ 
tank  steamer,  a  tank  car,  and  motor-  and  horse-drawn  trucks.  oilfield 
The  exhibits  of  product  included  asphalt,  lubricating  and  illumin- 
ating oils,  candles  and  parafiine  products,  floor  polishes,  lamps,  and  stoves. 
The  space  was  surrounded  by  models  of  oil  derricks  bearing  placards  that 
showed  the  production  of  various  sections  of  the  field. 

The  growing  use  of  wood-stave  pipe  in  mining  was  illustrated  by  the 
exhibit  of  the  Pacific  Tank  &  Pipe  Company  of  San  Francisco,  which 
showed  a  model  cyanide  plant,  a  section  of  large  wood-stave  pipe,  and 
several  kinds  of  water  tank  of  wood  stave. 

What  can  be  done  with  coal  in  this  country,  besides  extracting  its  energy 
in  the  form  of  steam  or  electricity,  was  demonstrated  by  the  exhibits  of  the 
American  Coal  Products  Company  and  the  Barrett  Manufacturing  Company 
of  New  York.  They  were  especially  instructive  as  to  the  accomplishments 
in  this  field  during  the  previous  twenty  years,  during  which  the  by-product 
coke  oven  had  been  in  use  instead  of  the  old,  wasteful  "  bee-hive  "  type.  On 
entering  the  space  you  saw  a  large  block  of  soft  coal  and  leading  from  it 
examples  of  coke,  crude  ammonia,  coal  tar,  and  benzol. 

As  derivatives  of  the  crude  ammonia,  there  were  shown  the  household 
article  sal  ammoniac,  with  ammonium  nitrate,  ammonium  bicarbonate,  and 
ammonium  sulphate,  the  last  named  coming  into  use  as  a  soil-nitrifying 
agent.  An  impressive  demonstration  of  its  effectiveness  as  a  fertilizer  was 
present  in  the  form  of  growing  plants  of  wheat,  oats,  barley,  and  rye,  all 
doing  well. 


There  were  aniline  oils  and  other  dyeing  materials,  and  toluol,  basis  of 
one  of  the  modern  high  explosives,  with  phenol,  or  carbolic  acid,  the  naph- 
thalines, and  various  oils  and  solvents  and  bactericides.  The  Barrett  Com- 
pany showed  prepared  roofing,  into  the  manufacture  of  which   tar  had 

entered,  sections  of  "tarvia"  pavement,  and  examples  of  water 
oome  uses  ,     ,  ^         .  .  '^ 

of  Tar  ^"'i  damp  proohng  m  construction,  made  possible  by  coal  tar. 

Models  indicated  the  advantages  of  coal-tar  pitch  as  a  binder  for 

wood-block,  granite  or  brick  pavement. 

The  Pacific  Refining  &  Roofing  Company  of  San  Francisco  built  a 
handsome  little  bungalow  as  its  booth,  and  exhibited  roofing,  roofing  and 
building  papers,  "Amiwud"  wall  board,  stop-leak  paint,  tar-treated  felts  for 
building  purposes,  insulating  tape  and  asphaltum. 

The  L.  C.  Trent  Engineering  Company  of  Los  Angeles  exhibited  a  ten- 
ton  working  model  of  the  equipment  for  the  Trent  Combined  Agitating, 
Settling  and  Thickening  Process,  a  recent  invention  that  greatly  reduces 
the  bulk  and  cost  of  equipment  and  the  cost  of  operation  in  one  of  the  essen- 
tial steps  in  the  continuous  cyanide  process.  It  was  said  that  the  machine 
was  destined  to  play  an  important  part  in  gold  recovery  as  it  made  for 
cheaper  extraction  and  therefore  would  make  lower-grade  ores  and  tailing 
dumps  available. 

In  addition  to  the  exhibits  in  the  Palace  there  was  an  exhibit  of  brick 
and  other  clay  products  for  building  purposes  in  the  grounds  west  of  the 
Maryland  Building.  This  consisted  of  a  well-built  brick  dwelling  of  six 
rooms,  on  the  most  modern  plan,  with  plenty  of  closet  and  storage 
Product  space,  a  model  "labor-saving"  kitchen,  and  a  sleeping  porch,  at 
that  time  considered  a  valuable  aid  to  the  health  of  the  occupants. 
The  building  was  erected  by  a  little  group  of  men  interested  in  burnt-clay 
products,  who  associated  themselves  as  the  Panama-Pacific  Clay  Products 
Association,  and  they  intended  to  furnish  the  home  and  make  it  a  rendez- 
vous for  architects,  contractors,  and  manufacturers,  but  conditions  in  their 
various  lines  were  such  around  Opening  Day  that  they  had  to  abandon 
that  part  of  the  plan,  and  the  house  was  furnished  by  Miss  Louise  Brigham, 
with  examples  of  her  furniture  made  from  boxes.  She  took  possession  about 
September  9,  1915,  and  after  that  it  is  estimated  that  over  65,000  people 
visited  the  brick  house  and  were  duly  impressed,  let  us  hope,  with  the 
necessity  and  wisdom  of  attaining  durability,  safety,  and  fire  resistance  in 
dwelling-house  construction. 




AFRICA  speaks  of  gold,  not  in  pennyweights,  like  the  jeweler,  but  in 
tons,  like  the  coal-man.  The  once  dark  continent  was  represented 
by  the  exhibit  of  the  Transvaal  Chamber  of  Mines.  The  method  of 
illustrating  output  by  a  large  gilded  object  was  pursued;  perhaps  as  good  as 
any  if  what  you  wish  to  represent  is  mere  volume.  The  central  feature  was 
a  gilded  obelisk  60  feet  high,  divided  into  sections  showing  the  relation  of  the 
Rand  gold  output  to  that  of  the  world.  Taking  the  world's  output  for  1913 
as  $452,133,440,  the  Transvaal  produced,  from  some  51  mines,  |i8o,8i2,720 
— about  nine  times  the  California  production.  Some  interesting  statistics 
were  available  at  the  booth,  showing  that  to  keep  this  pace  required  a 
consumption  of  52  tons  of  explosives  a  day,  17  tons  of  drill  steel  a  day,  and 
the  drilling  of  46  miles  of  holes  a  day.  In  the  years  1887  to  1913  ^  ^^^^.^ 
inclusive,  the  production  of  gold  on  the  Witwatersrand  had  come  ^p^Ve 

to  3,090  tons.     And  it  had  paid  $466,405,089  in  dividends  during 
those  years.     The  average  yield  was  $6.66  per  ton,  and  32  per  cent  of  the 
metal  had  been  recovered  by  the  cyanide  process. 

Flanking  the  obelisk  were  gilded  spheres  indicating  by  relative  size  the 
output  of  the  Transvaal  and  the  world  for  1913.  Before  it  was  a  glass 
case  enclosing  a  model  of  one  of  the  newest  mines  on  the  Rand,  showing 
modern  treatment  of  ores  in  amalgamating  and  cyanide  plants.  On  a 
table  was  a  large  cube  of  Transvaal  gold-bearing  rock — a  queer,  gray  block 
of  conglomerate  containing  light-gray  quartz  pebbles  in  a  darker  siliceous 
matrix  which  carried  the  pyrites.  The  cube  weighed  a  ton,  and  a  small 
gold  die  on  top  of  it  exhibited  the  average  yield  of  such  rock  for  1913,  which 
came  to  6.84  dwts.  Large  albums  of  photographs  showed  Rand  mining 
scenes,  and  there  were  two  steroscope  stands  of  views. 

One  of  the  most  valuable  and  complete  of  Japan's  exhibits  was  installed 
in  the  Palace  of  Mines  and  Metallurgy,  arranged  with  the  usual  Japanese 
taste  and  effectiveness.  The  showing  of  fossils,  rock,  ore,  and  other  miner- 
als found  throughout  the  Empire  seemed  very  complete.  The  status  of 
mining  was  demonstrated  by  wall  maps  and  diagrams.     But  perhaps  the 



most  interesting  object  on  display  here  was  the  model  of  the  Imperial  Steel 
Works  at  Chikuzen.  It  was  like  having  an  aeroplane  view  of  it  without  the 
smoke,  and  it  made  a  deep  and  most  vivid  impression  of  the  extensive 
organization  of  modern  industry  in  that  country.  Diagrams  and  tables 
nearby  showed  an  astonishing  growth  of  the  mining  industry,  especially — 
from  a  total  of  3,974,328  yen  in  coal,  copper,  iron,  gold,  silver,  and  petroleum 
in  1878,  to  175,960,033  yen  in  1913.  A  chart  in  colors  showed  the  distribu- 
tion of  minerals  in  Japan. 

In  the  study  of  volcanic  phenomena  and  earthquakes  the  Japanese  have 

long  been  leaders.     Models  of  volcanoes  were  part  of  the  exhibit;  one,  a 

model  of  the  great  mountain   Sakurajima,  which  had  recently  erupted. 

Topography  before  and  after  this  event  was  depicted  by  means  of  two  maps, 

one   in   section   and   the  other  in   relief.     Accompanying   these 

Analyzing  ,      .  r  •  i  ■  i 

Earthquakes  "^^ps   Were   translations   or   treatises   bearing  on   the  eruption. 
Similar  reliefs  and  cross  sections  of  another  Japanese  volcano,  the 
Aso,  were  part  of  the  exhibit. 

One  pretty  and  interesting  feature  of  the  Japanese  exhibit  consisted  of 
the  copper  rolls  by  which  calico  is  printed — the  "  positive  "  designs  appearing 
with  all  the  beauty  of  a  metal  brocade.  The  mineral  specimens  included  a 
grand  piece  of  chalcopyrite,  or  copper  pyrites. 

The  Chinese  exhibit  was  prophetic  of  important  mineral  development 
for  China,  as  soon  as  conditions  became  more  propitious.  In  fact  the  scale 
of  the  mineral  industries  in  that  country  had  been  expanding  toward  a 
condition  of  high  economic  effectiveness.  The  exhibit  showed  control  of 
productive  processes,  from  coal  and  pig  iron  to  steel  rails,  and  gave  promise 
of  large  operations  in  the  near  future.  In  the  center  of  the  section  was  a 
model  of  the  famous  Chinese  lead  mine  of  Sui  Kow  Shang  in  Hunan  province 
demonstrating  modern  activities  even  in  that  far-away  region.  All  sorts  of 
rich  ores  were  exhibited,  containing  almost  all  the  industrial  metals,  out  ot  a 
mineralization  of  the  country  so  extensive  and  rich  that  it  will  undoubtedly 
suffice  for  centuries  of  consumption.  A  mere  fragment  of  a  catalogue  of 
these  specimens  will  show  an  astounding  diversity,  for  there  were  cinnabar, 
antimony,  stibnite,  galena,  pyrrhotite,  arsenopyrite,  malachite,  chalcopy- 
rite, sphalerite,  magnetite,  cervantite,  flourite,  asbestos — right  down  the  list 
to  volcanic  ash.  The  section  also  contained  a  number  of  photographs  show- 
ing mine  workings,  and  the  Han  Yeh  Ping  Iron,  Steel  and  Coal  Company  of 
Hanyang-Hankow,  then  beginning  to  develop  on  a  commercial  scale.  It 
may  be  said  that  this  was  more  an  exhibit  of  resources  than  of  industry;  but 
one  could  imagine  no  limits  to  the  industry  that  would  develop  from  such 
resources,  given  only  time. 


Argentina  showed  crude  oil  from  the  coast  of  the  Comodoro  Rivadavia 
district,  and  points  at  Salta,  Jujuy  and  Mendoza.  There  was  a  good  show- 
ing of  building  stone,  including  specimens  of  onyx  marble.  There  was  mica 
from  the  Sierra  of  Cordoba.  The  exhibit  embraced  many  valuable  minerals, 
such  as  cassiterite  or  tin  ore,  wolframite  and  other  tungsten  ores.  There 
were  geological-survey  maps  and  others  showing  petroleum  deposits. 

Bolivia  made  an  impressive  showing  of  natural  mineral  wealth,  mainly 
in  the  form  of  tin-ore  specimens.  These  were  of  large  size  and  great  appar- 
ent richness.  There  were  lumps  of  ferruginous  cassiterite  containing  very 
high  percentages  of  tin,  and  there  were  crystals  of  cassiterite  that 
looked  as  though  they  were  almost  all  tin.  These,  in  addition  to  Treasury 
other  ores  in  cases,  silver,  copper,  wolframite,  bismuth,  and  some 
gold  quartz,  with  large  wall  photographs  of  the  region  of  Potosi,  made  an 
exhibit  that  convinced  one  of  the  vast  mineral  richness  of  this  mountain 
country  and  that  received  much  interested  attention. 

Uruguay  showed  copper  ores,  galena,  marble,  porphyry,  talc,  and  granite. 


THE  California  State  Commission  and  the  State  Mining  Bureau 
assembled  a  most  instructive  exhibit  of  the  California  mining 
industry  in  its  modern  aspects.  No  exhibit  that  could  be  assembled 
could  ever  do  justice  to  the  State's  mining  industry  in  its  historical  aspects — 
that  prodigality  of  natural  resource,  followed  by  the  boldest  and  most 
ingenious  exploitation,  which  produced  the  world's  best  mining  machinery 
and  some  of  its  greatest  mining  engineers,  and  sent  representatives  of  both 
over  the  world,  from  South  Africa  to  the  Urals.  The  latest  fruit  of  that 
ingenuity,  however,  was  shown  in  the  form  of  a  model  of  a  steel- 
Mining  in     ^^^jj^.      j^  dredge,  the  largest  in  the  world,  exhibited  by  the  Yuba 

Califorma       „  .         ^  c    i  i  j  u 

Construction  Company;  one  of  those  huge  and  monstrous  mech- 
anisms that  turn  the  surface  of  a  landscape  upside  down  and  leave  it  a  waste 
of  cobbles  and  bowlders,  in  order  to  snatch  from  the  crevices  the  metal  that 
has  washed  into  the  valleys  from  the  foothill  placers. 

Near  the  dredge  was  a  hydraulic  "giant"  or  "monitor";  the  counter- 
weighted  iron  nozzle,  like  a  cannon,  with  which  the  miners  ripped  down 
canyon  sides  and  swept  the  gravel  into  sluice  boxes  where  the  riffles  caught 
the  gold.  It  was  pointed  at  a  beautiful  model  of  a  placer  mine,  one  of  the 
auriferous  gravel  deposits,  in  which  miniature  "giants"  connected  to  mini- 
ature pipe  lines  were  at  work  directing  tiny  streams  of  water  against  the 
banks.  A  ten-stamp  circular-battery  mill  and  a  five-stamp  mill  were  shown 
in  operation. 

A  leading  feature  of  this  exhibit  was  the  glass  model  of  the  Mammoth 
Mine,  showing  the  drifts  and  winzes  and  stopes,  all  the  workings,  by  means 
of  paint  on  parallel  panes  close  enough  together  so  that  you  could  see  the 
exact  position  of  every  part. 

Another  was  a  most  interesting  illustration  by  means  of  what  is  called 
a  "peg  model,"  of  the  Sunset-Midway  oil  fields.  This  was  in  a  gallery  built 
above  the  State  Mining  Bureau  office  and  mineral  exhibit,  of  which  the 
model  was  a  part.  It  is  not  easy  for  the  imagination  to  depict  the  conditions 
underground  which  give  rise  to  successful  oil-drilling  operations.    This  model 






showed  in  a  remarkable  manner  what  those  conditions  probably  were  in 
that  particular  field,  as  far  as  oil  is  concerned.  It  began  with  a 
map  of  the  region,  16  by  45  feet  in  size,  from  which  projected  ver-  ^^^  ^^"l 
tical  aluminum  rods  at  the  position  of  every  oil  well,  their  tops 
representing  the  ground  surface  over  an  area  of  5J^  by  15  miles.  From  the 
logs  of  these  wells  was  derived  the  knowledge  of  the  conditions  encountered 
when  they  were  being  sunk.  The  wells  were  so  numerous  that  the  rods 
representing  them  stood  very  close  together,  and  when  these  rods  were 
connected  at  different  levels  by  threads  of  different  colors,  you  had  what 
was  probably  a  pretty  accurate  picture  of  the  way  in  which  the  water-bear- 
ing and  the  oil-bearing  sands  were  distributed.  Sea  level  was  marked  on 
them,  and  below  it  the  undulations  of  the  strata  appeared.  The  model  was 
installed  by  the  Kern  County  Oil  Protective  Association  and  was  the  largest 
of  the  sort  ever  built. 

Again,  a  late  phase  of  mining  and  metallurgy  in  Cali  fornia  was  an  exhibit 
of  the  first  pig  iron  obtained  by  the  Noble  Electric  Steel  Company.  This 
came  from  Heroult-on-the-Pitt,  in  Shasta  County,  where  there  was  an 
abundance  of  iron  ore,  and  where,  during  the  previous  decade,  progress  had 
been  made  toward  the  smelting  of  ores  on  a  commercial  scale  by  electricity. 
The  output  was  of  superior  quality,  and  the  process  sometimes  produced  a 
fine  grade  of  steel  from  the  retort. 

Nor  should  we  forget  the  gems,  especially  the  beautiful  tourmalines, 
bloodstones,  and  chalcedony,  from  Death  Valley,  and  the  fine  specimens  ot 

California  is  the  leader  among  the  Nation's  gold-producing  States,  turn- 
ing out  about  $20,000,000  of  this  metal  every  year.  As  for  petroleum,  this 
State  led  in  that  liquid  mineral  in  1915,  with  40  per  cent  of  the  American 
production,  or  25  per  cent  of  the  world's  production,  its  output  exceeding 
by  over  40  per  cent  that  of  all  Russia,  the  heaviest  producer  among  foreign 

An  impressive  exhibit  of  the  mining  industry  of  a  State  was  that  of 
Missouri.  It  was  well-devised  and  well-installed,  and  very  instructive  as  to 
the  importance  of  zinc  and  its  associated  ores.  One  side  represented  a  lead- 
mine  face,  and  the  other  a  zinc-mine  face,  and  before  the  booth  was  a  railing 
made  of  spelter  pigs,  calcide  crystals  and  zinc  ore,  with  a  cornice  of  the 
finished  spelter.  Something  of  the  industrial  range  of  this  material  was 
indicated  in  the  familiar  armor  of  the  washboard,  solid  zinc  nails, 
and  other  commodities.  There  was  a  great  deal  of  pig  lead  on  dis-  -^  Mil^ouri 
play,  and  of  barytes,  in  which  Missouri  leads.  Mining  was  il- 
lustrated by  charts,  models,  and  photographs;  ore  treatment  shown  by  a 


working  model  of  a  Joplin  mill,  with  zinc  concentrates  and  ingots.  This  mill 
bore  statistics  and  information  on  mining  in  Missouri  tending  to  make  it  ap- 
pear about  as  exciting  as  a  game  of  checkers.  "The  burro  is  extinct  in  Mis- 
souri because  the  prospectors  and  miners  go  to  their  work  in  railroad  trains, 
interurban  street  cars  or  automobiles."  Again,  "  Missouri  mines  more  tons 
of  crude  lead  and  zinc  ores  than  the  combined  tonnage  of  lead,  zinc,  copper, 
gold,  and  silver  of  any  other  State  in  the  Union." 

Though  comparisons  are  perilous,  this  was  without  doubt  the  best  lead 
and  zinc  exhibit  in  the  building.  There  were  also  clay  products,  an  attract- 
ive feature  being  a  large  American  flag  in  colored  tiles. 

Idaho  had  a  fairly  complete  exhibit  of  the  lead  and  silver  ores,  zinc 
ores,  and  ores  of  copper,  gold,  tungsten,  nickle,  nickle  cobalt,  molybdenite, 
and  antimony,  shown  against  a  representation  of  mountain  scenery  with 
exposed  veins.  There  was  great  diversity  shown,  from  coal,  iron,  and 
phosphate  rock  to  fine  kaolin.  Every  sample  was  accompanied  by  the 
enclosing  wall  rocks.  There  were  photographs,  flow  sheets,  and  mine  maps, 
but  as  it  was  mainly  an  exhibit  of  ores,  without  explication,  it  did  not 
succeed  in  telling  much  about  the  mining  industry  in  that  State.  How- 
ever, it  was  a  great  exhibit  for  the  mining  man,  and  many  mining  men 
evinced  much  interest  in  it. 

Montana  was  represented  by  the  valuable  and  striking  educational 
exhibit  of  the  Anaconda  Copper  Mining  Company,  so  planned  that  the 
visitor  could  follow  the  various  steps  in  the  production  of  the  metal.  This 
was  a  very  coppery  place.  There  were  heavy  ornamental  copper  rails  about 
it,  copper  balls  on  the  posts,  and  a  central  structure  like  a  little  house,  with 
copper  mold  board,  copper  door  jambs,  copper  lintels  and  copper  cornices. 

The  geology  was  shown  by  maps  and  mine  models.  There  was  a  wonder- 
ful wooden  stope  model  of  the  Leonard  Mine,  which  looked  as  though  they 
had  undermined  the  world.  The  square-set  timbering  excited  the  enthus- 
iasm of  old  miners.  The  association  of  minerals  in  the  Butte  ores  was  shown 
by  large  blocks  with  the  actual  metal  contents.  Mining  methods  were  de- 
picted by  photographs  and  models,  smelting  by  its  successive  products,  and 
by  photographs  and  models,  and  finally  the  refining  methods  were  illustrated 
by  the  refined  product.  Such  exhibits  in  this  booth  were  logically 
From  Ore      (.Qrnpigtg_     You  saw  a  ton  of  second-class  crushed  ore,  a  smaller 

to  Consumer  ^  .     .  r  j    i_ 

cube  of  the  concentrate,  a  smaller  one  ot  the  matte  rormed  by 
smelting  a  ton  of  the  concentrate,  and  finally  about  a  5>^-inch  cube  of  the 
copper  from  it;  eloquent  of  the  number  of  tons  of  ore  it  must  have  taken  to 
fence  and  otherwise  decorate  the  booth  itself,  for  there  was  about  a  ton  of 
copper  tubing  in  the  railing.     The  cube  of  ore  was  3 1  inches  in  diameter,  and 


it  made  a  2iJ/<-inch  cube  of  the  concentrate,  which  in  turn  became  a  9^^- 
inch  cube  of  matte,  on  its  way  to  becoming  the  5>^-inch  cube  of  metal. 
Great  anodes  of  copper,  ruddy  cakes  and  ingots  of  it,  lay  out  on  tables,  with 
starting  sheets  and  cathodes.  Ultimately  the  exhibit  cubes  went,  by  gift, 
to  the  College  of  Mines,  University  of  California. 

So  a  great  industry  was  represented,  from  the  bowels  of  the  earth  to 
bicycle  pumps  and  other  brass  products,  shown,  at  this  point  in  the  story, 
by  the  American  Brass  Company  and  the  Bridgeport  Brass  Company,  all 
beautifully  complete. 

Two  hundred  and  forty-four  million  dollars  in  gold  would  make  a  cube 
Sy2  feet  in  diameter;  and  a  cube  of  that  size,  gilded,  represented  Alaska's 
output  for  the  years  1880  to  1914.  The  Alaskan  exhibit  was  made  by  the 
Government,  and  so  included  other  things  than  mining  displays,  yet  the 
mining  displays  were  the  most  pronounced  and  impressive  feature.  Dredg- 
ing and  ground-sluicing  methods  were  illustrated  and  there  was  a  large 
exhibit  of  ores.  The  mineral  wealth  of  the  region  was  demonstrated  by 
copper  ores  from  Kaasan,  Ketchikan,  Prince  of  Wales  Island,  Woewodsky 
Island,  Cordova,  the  Copper  River  Valley,  Sitka,  Fairbanks,  and  the  Nome 
region.  Gold  nuggets  and  gold  ores  were  merely  commonplace.  There 
were  specimens  of  bituminous  coal  from  the  Matanuska  fields,  of  semi- 
anthracite  from  the  Bering  River  fields,  and  of  lignite  from  the  Cook's 
Inlet  fields.  There  was  marble  from  Orr's  Island,  oil  from  Kutulla,  and 
antimony,  gypsum,  and  graphite  from  other  sections,  all  testifying  to  the 
treasure  hidden  away  in  the  Far  North. 

And  when  the  needs  of  man  shall  have  exhausted  it,  the  population  that 
mineditand  the  descendants  of  that  population  will  in  the  main  continue  to 
inhabit  that  country  just  as  the  Native  Son  and  the  Native  Daughter  inhabit 
this,  and  the  Government  exhibited  the  means  of  their  subsistence:  products 
of  an  intelligent  agriculture  conducted  on  an  amazingly  fertile  soil:  red 
clover,  rhubarb,  rye,  oats,  wheat,  barley,  potatoes,  cabbage,  beans,  peas, 
tomatoes,  berries,  and  small  fruits.  Forestry  products  also  were  shown — 
one  a  seven-foot  section  of  a  spruce  that  a  notice  informed  the  visitor  was 
180  feet  high  when  it  was  at  home,  where  there  were  lots  more  like  it. 

Although  Utah  had  her  best  mining  industry  exhibit  in  her  own  building, 
she  showed  in  the  Palace  an  obelisk  of  Utah  coal  30  feet  high,  weighing 
26,265  pounds,  bearing  the  reassuring  announcement  "  Utah  coal  fields  cover 
15,200  square  miles,  and  contain  197  billion  tons,  equal  to  the  United  States 
demand  for  386  years." 

Nevada  has  been  the  most  spectacular  mining  State  in  the  Union,  not 
excepting  California.     The  Comstock  Mines  awoke  the  attention  of  the 


world,  and  the  world  had  hardly  recovered  before  Nevada  did  it  again  with 
the  Goldheld,  Tonopah,  Manhattan,  and  Bullfrog  fields.  Marvelous  has 
been  the  output  of  her  gold  and  silver  treasuries,  magical  and  romantic 
beyond  the  telling  the  effect  of  them  on  the  fortunes  of  men.  San  Francisco 
knows  that  story  well,  for  its  most  dramatic  episodes  were  enacted  on  her 
stock  exchanges.  Economically,  financially,  historically,  Nevada  and 
California  are  almost  one;  and  in  the  minds  of  local  people  more  of  senti- 
mental interest  attached  to  the  mineral  exhibit  of  Nevada  than 
of  Silver'^  to  that  of  any  other  State.  Independent  of  such  considerations, 
it  was  a  fine  exhibit  from  a  prodigious,  we  had  almost  said  an 
inexhaustible,  store;  well-planned,  well-balanced,  showing  not  only  the 
mineral  resources  but  the  mineral  industry  of  the  region.  Not  many  of  the 
State  exhibits  accomplished  that.  It  was  not  merely  a  display  of  rich  and 
diversified  minerals,  but  by  means  of  samples,  charts,  photographs,  models, 
flow  sheets,  the  visitor  was  given  a  comprehensive  and  most  enlightening 
view  of  the  ways  in  which  those  minerals  had  been  made  available. 

Mine  timbering  was  illustrated  at  the  entrance  to  the  booth  by  a  piece 
of  old  pine,  12  or  I4  inches  in  diameter,  that  had  been  longitudinally  com- 
pressed and  distorted  like  a  column  of  putty  by  the  tremendous  compression 
in  some  drift  perhaps  thousands  of  feet  under  ground.  Timbering  sets  were 
exhibited,  square  and  diamond.  There  were  maps  and  charts  and  two  glass 
models  of  mines  (the  charts  showing  mineral  production  since  the  mines 
were  worked),  and  columns  of  figures  illustrating  the  output  of  the  different 
"camps"  in  gold,  silver,  lead,  copper,  and  zinc,  from  the  latest  available 
data.  One  of  the  first  air  drills  ever  used  in  mining  was  part  of  the  exhibit; 
it  dated  from  1872.  The  showing  of  rich  rock,  in  cases,  was  most  abundant. 
There  were  gold  nugaets,  copper  ores,  and  ores  of  tungsten,  molybdenum, 
antimony,  zinc,  graphite,  lead.  You  felt  surrounded  by  bullion;  caught,  at 
least  temporarily,  in  all  the  magic  of  world-renowned  bonanzas. 

The  mines  and  metallurgy  exhibits  of  the  State  of  New  York  were  of 
particular  interest  to  Californians  because  they  consisted  largely  of  non- 
metallic  mineral  substances,  such  as  graphite,  talc,  paint  pigments,  feldspar, 
roofing  slate,  building  stone,  garnets  for  abrasives,  and  that  great  synthetic 
mineral,  carborundum. 

One  of  the  principal  features  was  the  Worcester  Manufactviring  Com- 
pany's salt-mine  model.     A  brine  salt  plant  was  shown  in  operation,  with 
the  surface  works,  and  a  cross  section  representing  the  geological 
Minin  formation  down  to  the  rock-salt  bed.     The  pumping  and  evapo- 

rating processes  were  demonstrated — the  method  of  extraction 
being  to  admit  fresh  water,  pump  it  out  as  brine,  and  then  evaporate  it 




from  the  salt.  There  were  samples  of  iron  ores,  metallic  silicon,  pyrites  from 
which  sulphuric  acid  was  produced,  and  there  was  a  22-foot  panorama  show- 
ing the  old  iron  mines  at  Mineville  in  the  Adirondacks. 

Another  model,  exhibited  by  the  Sterling  Salt  Company,  showed  the 
direct  operation  of  mining  for  rock  salt  as  though  it  were  coal. 

A  jet  of  water  served  to  illustrate  the  mineral  output  of  High  Rock 
Spring,  at  Saratoga. 

For  a  long  time  New  York  held  a  leading  place  in  the  production  of  iron, 
largely  through  the  contribution  of  the  Adirondacks.  The  industry  was 
put  on  a  permanent  basis  about  the  year  1750,  and  materially  assisted  the 
cause  of  American  independence  during  the  Revolutionary  War.  It  would 
not  be  regarded  by  a  western  metal  miner  as  much  of  a  mining  State  today, 
and  yet  its  mineral  industries  yield  something  over  $42,000,000  a  year  in 
crude  materials.  Not  so  bad,  when  we  consider  that  California's  gold  yield 
is  about  $20,000,000  a  year  and  her  whole  mineral  yield,  including  petroleum 
comes  to  something  like  $91,000,000. 

Placer  platinum  was  perhaps  the  most  significant  feature  of  the  exhibit 
made  by  the  Oregon  Bureau  of  Mines.  Besides  this  there  were  gold  ores 
and  nuggets,  lead-silver  ores,  building  stones,  marbles,  coal,  gems,  and  a 
fine  collection  of  photographs  arranged  about  a  central  relief  map  of  the 

Louisiana  was  represented  in  this  Department  by  specimen  cubes  of 
Avery  Island  rock  salt,  and  ground  salt  in  commercial  grades  for  dairy, 
packers'  and  domestic  uses;  and  also  by  lignite,  limestone,  sulphur,  petro- 
leum, sand,  gravel,  and  shell. 


THE  Palace  of  Mines  and  Metallurgy  contained  a  number  of  exhibits 
that  were  classified  under  the  Department  of  Social  Economy,  but 
were  related  to  the  mining  and  metallurgical  industries  because  of 
their  bearing  on  the  lives  of  the  labor  employed  in  those  fields.  And  there 
were  a  few  banking  exhibits  here,  because  banking  means  thrift  and  thrift 
is  vital  to  welfare — whether  you  work  in  a  mine  or  a  rolling  mill  or  a  factory, 
or  work  directing  one  of  those  institutions. 

The  United  States  Steel  Corporation  had  endeavored  to  centralize  more 
or  less  disconnected  social  work,  under  the  direction  of  its  Corporation 
Committee  on  Safety,  and  as  a  result  possessed  a  highly  organized  (every- 
thing about  the  Corporation  seemed  to  be  highly  organized)  Bureau  of 
Safety,  Sanitation,  and  Welfare,  which  at  the  time  of  the  Exposi- 
■^"■?w  ,s      tion  had  been  in  operation  about  three  years.     Since  the  incep- 

and  Welfare  \.  ^  .  ,        ,  •  l    j 

tion  of  the  centralized  effort,  m  1906,  the  corporation  had 
expended  about  $5,000,000  in  this  line  of  endeavor.  The  Bureau  acted  as  a 
central  station  in  obtaining  information  and  disseminating  it  among  the 
subsidiary  companies,  making  studies  of  the  risk  element  as  well  as  of 
sanitation,  and  teaching  the  latest  methods  of  preventing  accidents. 

By  motion  pictures  and  lantern  slides  at  meetings  of  employees,  the 
causes  of  accidents  were  depicted.  Monthly  prizes  were  given  for  safety 
records,  and  prizes  were  offered  for  safety  suggestions.  Safety  precepts 
were  printed  on  pay  envelopes,  and  displayed  in  signs  about  the  various 
works.  There  was  a  constant  suggestion  of  care  to  keep  down  accidents. 
And  first  aid  to  the  injured  was  taught,  to  minimize  damage  when  accidents 
did  occur.  All  the  features  of  this  work  that  could  be  shown  visually  were 
exhibited  by  the  corporation  in  its  welfare  booth,  and  by  the  films  in  the 
moving-picture  theater  next  door. 

Results  of  its  profit-sharing  plan  were  shown  through  photographs  and 
models  by  the  Ford  Motor  Company  in  its  sociological  exhibit.  There  were 
working  models  of  the  Ford  factories  at  Detroit  and  at  Ford,  Ontario,  show- 
ing well-appointed  buildings  designed  not  only  to  produce  motor  cars  but  to 



produce  them  under  comfortable  conditions  for  the  laborers.  Placard 
statements  showed  the  growth  of  the  workman's  bank  account  since  the 
profit-sharing  plan  went  into  effect.  That  plan  as  it  existed  in  this  institu- 
tion in  191 5  may  be  described  briefly  thus: 

The  Ford  Motor  Company  paid,  for  eight  hours  work,  approximately  5% 
more  than  the  same  skill  commanded  in  the  local  market  for  ten  hours  work. 
There  was  added  to  the  wages  of  each  man  each  day  a  portion  of  the  profits, 
yielding  him  on  pay  day,  altogether,  for  each  full  day  worked,  either  5,  6  or 
7  dollars  per  diem.  Those  men  in  the  factory  that  were  getting 
as  much  as  38  cents  per  hour  came  under  the  five-dollar  rating,  ^"^^"^ 

those  that  were  getting  from  38  to  48  cents  per  hour,  got  six 
dollars  per  day,  and  those  getting  from  48  cents  upward  got  seven  dollars 
per  day.    On  this  basis,  if  a  man's  wages  were  $2.75  per  day,  there  would  be 
added  for  a  full  day's  work  ^2.25,  as  his  share  in  the  profits,  which  would  be 
paid  him,  were  he  eligible  under  the  plan,  in  cash  when  pay  day  came. 

This  was  the  foundation  for  the  report  that  the  minimum  wage  in  the 
Ford  plants  was  $5  a  day. 

How  would  the  workman  use  this  money?  There  was  no  compulsion 
about  it,  but  the  exhibit  showed  some  interesting  facts  on  that  point,  by  the 
good  old  before-and-after-taking  method.  Illustrations  of  the  before-taking 
condition  showed  a  foreign  boarding  house  as  found  by  the  Ford  social 
investigator.  It  contained  12  rooms  crowded  with  beds,  and  it  sheltered 
65  men,  women,  and  children.  Another  picture  showed  a  basement 
occupied  by  a  workman  with  a  family  of  six,  and  the  beds  were  elevated 
on  tin  cans  to  keep  them  out  of  the  water.  Another  family  of  six  lived  in  a 
two-room  shack  and  kept  the  coal  in  the  bathtub. 

Within  a  year  after  the  profit-sharing  plan  was  put  into  operation  the 
percentage  of  employees  living  in  such  undesirable  conditions  had  declined 
from  23  to  two.  The  bank  accounts  of  employees  increased  from  $996,000 
to  $3,830,000,  and  the  value  of  homes  contracted  for  rose  from  $3,440,000  to 
$8,380,000.  An  interesting  feature  of  the  exhibit  was  the  showing  that  the 
20,000  Ford  employees  included  men  of  53  nationalities. 

Insurance  in  various  forms  is  a  closely  allied  subject,  and  an  essential 
element  in  social  welfare.  There  were  most  interesting  and  important 
exhibits  in  this  Palace,  by  the  Prudential  Insurance  Company  of  America, 
the  Metropolitan  Life  Insurance  Company  of  America,  the  .^tna  Life,  the 
Modern  Woodmen  of  America,  the  Royal  Neighbors  of  America,  and  others. 

The  Prudential  illustrated  the  underlying  principles  of  insurance  and  its 
relation  to  human  welfare  by  320  charts  compiled  by  its  statistician. 

The  Metropolitan  exhibited  actual  welfare  work  designed  to  keep  people 

VOL.  IV  — 15 


healthy  and  prolong  their  lives.  It  illustrated  its  free  visiting-nurse  service, 
its  organization  of  Health  and  Happiness  Leagues  among  children  that  were 
policyholders,  and  its  cooperation  with  health  departments  of  cities  and 
States,  and  other  civic  and  social  agencies.  There  was  a  model  of  its 
sanatorium  at  Mt.  McGregor,  in  the  foothills  of  the  Adirondacks,  for  the 
care  of  the  tuberculous  among  its  own  employees. 

The  ^tna  Life  sought  to  impress  the  lesson  of  accident  prevention. 
The  exhibit  included  a  model  of  a  factory,  on  a  scale  of  an  inch  to  the  foot, 
wherein  appeared  machinery,  guarded  and  unguarded,  and  working  condi- 
tions that  were  unsafe  alongside  similar  conditions  reformed.  On  the 
reformed  side  the  stairways  were  built  at  a  proper  angle  to  a  platform  half- 
way down,  and  were  railed  and  toe  boarded.  On  the  other  side 
^^^.^      .    the  stairway  had  a  steep  pitch,  no  handrails  or  toe  boards,  and 

Equipment  ■'  ^  •   i  i      r  •  r\      ^1. 

ran  from  floor  to  floor  without  platform  mterruption.  Un  tne 
model  side  all  machines  were  guarded  with  angle-iron  and  wire-mesh  guards. 
The  main  overhead  belts  were  guarded  and  the  motors  enclosed  in  wire 
screens  or  equipped  with  rails  and  toe  boards.  There  was  a  first-aid  room, 
and  a  sprinkler  system,  and  the  whole  was  whitewashed.  The  bad  side  was 
dark  and  all  the  machinery  open.  Charts  showed  the  reduction  in  acci- 
dents through  the  use  of  safety  devices. 

This  exhibit  was  very  effective,  and  many  of  the  larger  manufacturing 
concerns  in  California  sent  their  superintendents  and  shop  foremen  to  the 
Palace  to  study  it. 

In  addition  to  these  individual  exhibits  there  was  a  collective  Insurance 
and  Universal  Safety  exhibit,  to  emphasize  the  service  performed  by  all 
classes  of  insurance,  in  prevention  as  well  as  protection — protection  meaning 
in  this  case  the  indemnity  paid  for  loss.  It  sought  to  impress  on  the  visitor 
a  sense  of  the  national  disgrace  of  permitting  160,000  buildings  to  be  de- 
stroyed by  fire  in  the  United  States  each  year;  and  in  other  ways  endeavored 
to  promote  the  conservation  of  life,  health,  and  property.  This  exhibit  was 
under  the  general  direction  of  the  Insurance  Field  Company,  of  Louisville, 
Ky.,  and  the  Safety  Press  Company,  of  New  York. 

A  conspicuous  object  in  this  quarter  of  the  Palace  was  a  model  50  feet 
high,  in  white  plaster,  of  the  Bankers'  Trust  Company  building,  at  the  cor- 
ner of  Wall  and  Nassau  Streets,  New  York.  With  this  exhibit  was  an  ofBce 
in  which  visiting  bankers  could  make  their  headquarters. 





WHEN  the  interests  of  primitive  man  were  at  all  scattered,  say 
between  the  creek  where  he  caught  his  catfish,  the  woods  where  he 
killed  his  bear,  and  the  cave  where  his  wife  chewed  the  fleshing  oflF 
the  pelt  and  made  the  bearskin  into  an  Inverness  to  keep  him  warm  and 
tolerably  good-natured,  he  had  little  opportunity  to  cultivate  the  higher  life 
of  the  mind  and  spirit,  because  he  had  to  put  in  most  of  his  time  hiking  from 
the  cave  to  the  creek  and  the  creek  to  the  woods  and  the  woods  back  to  the 
cave.  If  he  forgot  his  club  he  couldn't  telephone  his  wife  to  bring 
it  on  the  next  car,  like  the  family  umbrella;  he  had  to  go  all  the  j^^^J^^ 

way  back  afoot,  sometimes  with  the  game  gaining  on  him.     Those 
were  indeed  the  times  of  the  high  cost  of  living.     The  contrasts  of  to-day 
would  seem  to  justify  a  few  kind  words  about  Transportation. 

Things — most  things — cannot  be  made  where  they  are  used,  nor  used 
where  they  are  made.  We  need  too  many.  To  get  a  thing  from  the  place 
where  it  is  made  to  the  place  where  it  is  used  is  to  put  into  it  a  large  part  of 
its  value — often  almost  all  of  it.  Certainly  if  the  freight  of  the  country 
never  became  freight,  but  had  to  stay  where  it  was  produced,  the  whole  of  it, 
if  it  were  produced  at  all,  would  be  worth  very  little.  If  we  all  had  to  stay 
where  we  were  born  we  couldn't  have  Congress. 

Transportation  cheapens  things,  and  provides  reliable  supplies.  Far 
later  than  the  primitive  time  we  have  so  faithfully  depicted  above,  when  a 
crop  failed  in  one  locality  the  people  had  to  starve  there  because  no  means 
existed  of  getting  large  quantities  of  food  to  them  rapidly,  from  another 
locality,  or  getting  them  in  numbers  to  the  place  where  the  food  had  been 
produced.  In  1914  and  '15  transportation  saved  a  European  people  from 
extinction  after  their  land  had  been  desolated  by  war.  And  there  was  not 
only  swift  steam  and  electric,  land,  and  water,  and  aerial  transportation,  of 
tangible  commodities  and  of  people,  but  instantaneous  transmission  of 
thoughts,  ideas,  orders,  offers,  acceptances,  obligations,  contracts.  Through 
electricity  and  "the  power  o'steam,"  and  of  gasoline,  the  work  of  the  world 
served  millions  where  once  all  that  could  be  done  hardly  sufficed  to  keep  a 



few  thousands  in  wretchedness.     Transportation  in  its  most  recent  develop- 
ment was  certainly  worth  a  palace. 

In  that  Palace  appeared  some  of  the  most  effective  instrumentalities  of 
this  benign  and  wealth-creative  activity:  the  finest  locomotives  ever  built, 
urban  trolley  cars  of  the  most  economical  and  efficient  type,  models  of  the 
most  luxurious  steamships,  with  life-size  reproductions  of  their  decks  and 
cabins  and  staterooms  and  cooking  galleys;  the  best  in  automobiles  and 
automobile  appHances.  There  were  no  submarines— they  lay  at 
Tmvd  anchor     outside— but     suspended    overhead    were    aeroplanes: 

Beachey's,  and  the  one  in  which  Fowler  made  the  first  aeroplane 
transit  of  the  route  of  the  Panama  Canal.  The  classification  was  very 
complete  and  included  carriages,  wheelright's  work,  automobiles  and 
bicycles,  saddlery  and  harness,  railways,  material  and  equipment  used  in  the 
mercantile  marine,  in  the  naval  service  and  in  aerial  navigation;  naval  and 
military  ordnance;  dirigibles,  spherical  balloons,  equipment  for  military 
ballooning,  aeroplanes,  motors;  and  the  literature  of  the  whole  subject. 

The  Palace  of  Transportation  stood  just  west  of  the  Palace  of  Mines  and 
Metallurgy.  It  was  one  of  the  larger  exhibit  Palaces,  being  574  by  614  feet 
in  largest  dimensions,  with  two  considerable  angles  taken  out  for  courts. 
It  was  made  additionally  expensive  to  construct  (it  cost  $451,500)  on 
account  of  the  thirteen  railroad  tracks  and  the  great  transfer  table  connect- 
ing with  them,  all  which  had  to  have  pile  foundations,  as  we  have  elsewhere 
indicated.  The  trackage  in  the  Palace  came  to  3,348  linear  feet.  And 
unless  you  knew  about  that  transfer  table,  floored  over  for  the  operating 
season,  you  could  no  more  tell  how  those  giant  locomotives  got  into  the 
building  than  how  the  ship  model  got  into  the  bottle. 

Captain  Asher  Carter  Baker  was  the  first  Chief  of  the  Department  of 
Transportation  of  this  Exposition,  and  brought  in  as  exhibitors  the  Penn- 
sylvania System,  the  Westinghouse  Electric  &  Manufacturing  Company, 
and  some  other  large  concerns.  When  he  became  Director  of  the  Division 
of  Exhibits,  Blythe  H.  Henderson  became  Chief  of  the  Department,  and 
carried  on  the  work  throughout  the  season.  His  Superintendent  of  Instal- 
lation and  later  of  Exhibits  was  John  Henry  Scanlon. 

The  automobile  was  a  leading  feature  of  transportation  in  the  Exposition 
decade.  The  Automobile  Association  of  California  arranged  a  grand  parade  for 
July  15,  1914,  in  connection  with  the  dedication  of  the  Automobile  Section 
in  the  Palace  of  Transportation.  Over  52,000  invitations  to  participate 
were  sent  to  owners  in  and  about  the  Bay  region  and  the  result  was  the 
largest  parade  of  machines  ever  held  in  the  city.  Sub-Director  Sesnon 
was  asked  to  act  as  Grand  Marshal  and  Master  of  Ceremonies  at  the  build- 


ing.  About  5000  automobiles,  auto  trucks  and  auto-cycles  participated. 
Mayor  Rolph,  Capt.  Baker,  and  Chester  N.  Weaver  were  the  speakers  at  the 
ceremonies.  The  occasion  aroused  great  interest  and  secured  much  support 
from  the  factories,  which  ultimately  took  75,000  square  feet  of  space  in  the 
Palace,  or  about  30  per  cent  of  the  available  exhibit  area. 

No  charge  was  made  for  exhibit  space  in  any  of  the  palaces,  but  after 
the  automobile  entries  began  to  multiply,  a  movement  was  started  among 
the  manufacturers  through  which  they  contributed  $1.50  a  square  foot 
occupied  by  their  exhibits,  for  extraordinary  installation.  This  took  the 
form  of  the  most  beautiful  and  effective  decoration  to  be  seen  in  any  of  the 
Palaces.  All  about  and  through  the  space  occupied  by  the  auto-  j^^^^^^-^^^i 
mobile  exhibits  there  was  carried  overhead,  on  the  columns  and  j„staiiai'ion 
girders  of  the  building,  dividing  this  section  into  great  bays  aloft, 
a  sort  of  pictorial  frieze,  of  modeling  and  painting  after  the  fashion  of  the 
cyclorama,  depicting  scenery  along  the  Lincoln  Highway,  the  Columbia 
River,  and  other  great  routes  of  automobile  travel.  It  advertised  the 
automobile  most  effectively,  for  what  the  purchaser  of  a  car  buys  is  not  just 
some  wheels,  upholstering  and  an  engine,  but  access  to  the  beauties  of  the 
landscape  and  the  grandeurs  of  a  continent. 

And  these  things  were  exhibited  in  the  most  attractive  way.  The  spaces 
available  were  large  and  free  like  all  outdoors,  and  the  representation  was 
carried  out  on  a  grand  scale.  The  foreground  topographical  modeling  was 
deep  and  interesting,  the  painting  of  the  modeling  and  the  canvas  into  which 
it  merged  was  in  oil  and  made  a  beautiful  color  study.  The  panoramic 
map  of  the  Lincoln  Highway,  from  New  York  to  San  Francisco,  was 
365  feet  long,  and  with  the  modeled  foreground  was  25  feet  deep,  and  it 
suggested  most  vividly  the  character  of  all  the  intervening  country:  the 
Prairie  States,  the  Rockies,  the  tinted  desert,  the  Sierra,  the  long  sweep 
down  their  western  flank  to  San  Francisco  and  the  terminus  in  Lincoln  Park 
overlooking  the  Golden  Gate.  In  addition,  at  the  map's  east  end  were 
shown  the  automobile  roads  along  the  Atlantic  seaboard,  reaching  from 
New  York  down  to  Atlanta,  and  at  the  west  the  roads  from  San  Francisco 
to  San  Diego. 

Another  panoramic  map  300  feet  long  showed  the  Pacific  Coast  roads 
and  scenery  from  Lower  California  to  Vancouver,  B.  C.  The  State  of 
Oregon,  proud  of  its  Columbia  River  Highway,  contributed  canvases 
extending  approximately  200  linear  feet  in  the  same  manner.  A  third  pano- 
rama showed  the  highly  developed  road  system  in  the  State  of  Washington. 
A  flat  painting  about  250  feet  long  showed  the  roads  leading  from  Galveston 
north  to  Winnipeg.     The  Ocean  Boulevard  of  San  Francisco  looking  south 


from  the  Golden  Gate  was  the  subject  of  a  painting  nearly  loo  feet  in  length. 
Another  painting  io8  feet  long  showed  the  Panama  Canal.  Four  hundred 
and  fifty  linear  feet  of  such  painting  showed  the  missions  of  California. 
Other  smaller  paintings  and  colored  photographs  depicted  in  detail  separate 
points  of  interest  and  beauty  along  some  of  these  routes. 

Only  in  an  exposition  could  such  a  decoration  have  been  carried  out  in  so 
effective  a  manner.  It  was,  in  execution,  the  work  of  W.  E.  Benton  and 
quite  a  staff  of  artists,  under  the  general  direction  of  the  Division  of  Exhib- 
its, with  the  advice  of  a  committee  of  automobile  men  consisting  of  W.  L. 
Hughson,  Chester  N.  Weaver,  and  J.  I.  McMullin,  and  it  made 
Good  Roads  ^^^  ^^^*  Setting  for  automobile  display  ever  seen  in  the  country  up 
to  that  time.  The  work  began  in  October,  1914,  and  through 
the  labor  of  large  squads  of  staff  modelers  and  artists  was  completed  by 
Opening  Day. 

It  may  be  said  that  the  original  inspiration  of  the  scheme  was  to  stimu- 
late the  growing  interest  in  good  roads,  and  especially  to  help  the  develop- 
ment of  the  Lincoln  Highway,  at  that  time  laid  out  from  ocean  to  ocean  but 
not  yet  entirely  complete.  The  completion  of  the  first  transcontinental 
tour  over  it  from  New  York  to  San  Francisco,  we  have  recited  in  one  of  the 
chapters  dealing  with  the  events  of  the  Exposition  year.  It  occurred  on 
August  25,  191 5. 




THE  most  conspicuous  object  in  the  Palace  of  Transportation,  and  one 
of  the  most  conspicuous  in  the  whole  Exposition,  was  a  huge,  black, 
double-ender  giant  of  blinking  metal  that  revolved  in  a  majestic  and 
elemental  way  just  under  the  central  dome:  the  electric  locomotive  of  the 
Westinghouse  Electric  &  Manufacturing  Company,  built  for  the  Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad's  New  York  terminal  system,  and  embodying  the  best  ideas 
of  the  engineers  of  both  corporations.  It  was  poised  12  feet  ^i^ctric 
above  the  floor.  You  saw  no  way  by  which  it  could  have  got  up  locomotive 
there,  nor  sustain  itself  when  it  did.  But  there  it  turned  and 
turned  and  never  tired,  with  the  deliberation  of  all  time  and  as  though  the 
energy  of  a  small  world  were  in  it;  whereas  it  was  being  swung  about  by  a 
mere  little  ten-horse-power  motor. 

This  was  the  largest  locomotive  of  its  kind  ever  built.  It  weighed  156 
tons,  was  65  feet  long,  had  driving  wheels  72  inches  in  diameter,  had  a 
capacity  of  4,000  horse  power,  could  exert  a  tractive  effort  of  79,200  pounds, 
and  its  normal  speed  with  a  full  train  behind  it  was  60  miles  an  hour.  It 
represented  the  first  side-rod,  gearless,  electric  locomotive  in  this  country. 
In  November,  1914,33  of  this  type  had  been  in  use  over  four  years,  and  the 
one  exhibited  had  traveled  over  120,000  miles  hauling  trains  in  and  out  of 
the  Pennsylvania  terminal  at  New  York  City.  It  operated  by  the  third-rail 
contact  method,  running  through  the  tunnel  under  the  Hudson  River,  and 
was  smokeless,  clean,  safe,  and  swift. 

Grouped  about  it  were  the  other  exhibits  of  the  Westinghouse  Company, 
of  which  it  formed  the  central  feature;  diversified  types  of  railway  motors 
and  control  systems,  including  equipment  designed  for  use  on  the  highest 
direct-current  potential  that  had  ever  been  employed  in  commercial  service 
down  to  that  date:  5,000  volts.  And  it  had  been  successfully  operated  on 
potentials  as  high  as  7,200  volts.  There  were  working  exhibits  of  electric 
starting,  lighting,  and  ignition  outfits  for  gasoline  cars,  there  were  motors  and 
controllers  for  electric  cars,  and  all  sorts  of  accessories  used  in  the  generation 
and  transmission  of  electricity. 



A  new  general  feature  was  the  use  of  pressed-steel  frames  for  much  of  the 
apparatus.  A  recent  innovation  was  a  pressed-steel  frame  railway  motor 
with  a  rating  of  36  kilowatts  at  600  volts,  weighing  2,1 10  pounds,  which  was 
said  to  be  several  hundred  pounds  lighter  than  any  previous  motor  of  equal 

One  unit  of  a  three-pole  oil  circuit-breaker,  the  largest  ever  made,  was 
part  of  this  exhibit.  The  complete  apparatus  was  designed  for  carrying  3cxd 
amperes  at  165,000  volts.  A  section  was  cut  out  of  the  tank,  which  per- 
mitted you  to  enter  and  see  the  construction;  and  the  thing  was  large  enough 
A  L  r  ^°  admit  several  people.      Very   instructive  in  electricity  was  a 

Breaker  number  of  partly  wound  motors  in  this  exhibit.  There  were 
rectifiers,  gears,  trolley-line  material,  meters,  insulating  stuff. 
This  was  a  very  complete  and  comprehensive  display,  and  its  management 
throughout  the  season,  the  courtesy  extended  visitors,  and  the  intelligent 
and  patient  effort  to  inform  all  that  sought  information,  reflected  credit 
on  the  company  and  on  its  representative  in  the  Palace,  Mr.  H.  W.  Cope. 

Another  significant  exhibit  in  this  Palace  was  that  of  the  General  Electric 
Company  which  had  much  to  show  in  the  way  of  electric-railway  equipment. 
In  fact  its  exhibit  in  this  Department  was  one  of  the  largest  and  most  com- 
plete displays  of  electric-railway  devices  ever  shown.  There  was  a  whole 
group  of  locomotives;  among  them  the  huge  Butte,  Anaconda  &  Pacific 
engine  of  the  type  designed  to  haul  4,600-ton  train  loads  of  copper  ore — an 
example  of  the  high-voltage,  direct-current  system  that  seemed  destined  to 
do  transcontinental  duty  before  the  next  international  exposition  in  this 
country.  These  were  the  first  direct-current  electric  locomotives  for  oper- 
ation at  2,400  volts  ever  built.  Then  there  was  a  60-ton  electric  locomotive 
for  freight  service,  a  16-ton  one  for  industrial  yard  switching,  a  20-ton 
trolley  type,  and  a  6-ton  storage  battery  one  for  use  in  mines. 

A  very  instructive  General  Electric  exhibit  consisted  of  the  working 
parts  of  an  electric  car.  Motors  and  control  were  shown  in  operation,  with 
an  illuminated  diagram  to  illustrate  the  various  changes  in  the  current  as  it 
did  its  work.  There  was  a  complete  line  of  this  company's  ventilated  rail- 
way motors,  a  battery  truck  crane  and  a  comprehensive  showing  of  railway 
supplies  and  signal  accessories. 

The  exhibit  of  the  General  Electric  Company  in  the  Transportation  Palace 
occupied  about  9,000  square  feet  of  space.  Several  hundred  stereomotorgraph 
views  showed  the  whole  range  of  modern  electric-traction  development. 
Here,  too,  you  saw  a  model  of  the  "electric  mule"  that  does  duty  at  Panama 
hauling  ships  through  the  Canal,  much  as  the  old  hide-and-hoofs  type  of 
hay-burner  once  hauled  boats  on  the  Erie.    The  model  was  built  on  the  scale 


of  half  an  inch  to  the  foot.  The  "mules"  themselves  are  32  feet  long  and 
weigh  86,000  pounds.  Braking  is  accomplished  automatically  by  solenoid 
brakes  powerful  enough  to  stop  them  in  two  revolutions  of  the  wheels. 

One  of  the  effective  transportation  conveniences  shown  by  the  General 
Electric  Company  was  the  battery  truck  crane,  a  short,  heavy,  storage- 
battery  vehicle  with  a  swinging  crane  mounted  in  front,  the  hook  of  which 
could  be  raised  by  a  one-ton  hoist  operated  from  the  vehicle  battery.  It 
was  a  most  serviceable  little  go-cart,  that  could  be  used  for  hoisting  or 
carrying  on  the  hook,  or  for  towing  trailers,  and  was  of  value  in  unloading 
cars.  It  could  be  used  for  spotting  freight  cars,  as  it  had  a  drawbar  pull  of 
about  2,000  pounds. 

By  means  of  photographs  and  drawings  of  the  United  States  Naval 
Collier  "Jupiter,"  this  company  exhibited  modern  electric  propulsion  for 
vessels,  in  the  development  of  which  it  was  a  leader.  The  advantages  of  the 
electric  drive  for  vessels  were  pronounced  in  the  case  of  warships  where  it 
was  necessary  to  make  high  speed  at  times,  and  at  other  times  to  cruise 
economically  at  low  speed.  And  in  vessels  of  all  types  it  meant  wiring 
instead  of  steam-piping.  The  "Jupiter"  was  propelled  by  one  turbine 
generating  unit  with  an  induction  motor  coupled  to  each  of  the  propeller  shafts. 
The  generator  was  of  the  three-phase  type,  designed  for  about  5,000  kilowatts 
at  about  2,300  volts,  and  was  quite  similar  in  design  and  con- 
struction to  the  machines  generally  used  ashore  for  lighting  and  n"'l 
power.  Inasmuch  as  the  "Jupiter"  could  not  be  navigated  into 
the  Transportation  Palace  and  anchored  there,  the  exhibit  was  accepted 
as  eligible  for  review  in  the  manner  indicated  above. 

No  exhibition  in  the  transportation  field  of  this  age  would  have  been 
complete  without  examples  of  electric  cars,  and  the  St.  Louis  Car  Company 
showed  what  were  probably  the  latest  types.  One  was  a  duplicate  of  the 
standard  design  used  on  the  Los  Angeles  trolley  lines.  It  had  semi-steel 
bottom  framing,  with  wooden  superstructure,  and  had  a  center  entrance 
on  each  side.  There  was  an  emergency  door  to  the  right  of  the  motorman's 
position  at  either  end.  The  central  part  was  enclosed  and  there  were  open 
sections  at  the  ends.  It  would  seat  50  passengers,  and  50  more  could  stand. 
Mechanical  control  of  entrance  and  exit  doors  on  both  these  styles  had 
practically  eliminated  car-step  accidents. 


SOME  of  the  locomotives  exhibited  in  the  Palace  of  Transportation 
were  so  colossal  in  scale  as  to  excite  fears  on  the  part  of  sundry  skepti- 
cal visitors  that  they  were  being  imposed  upon.  Occasionally  one 
would  rap  furtively  on  a  cylinder  or  a  drive  wheel  with  a  knife  or  a  key  to 
make  sure  it  was  not  papier  mache.  "They  do  such  things  at  these  exposi- 
tions a  feller  has  to  watch  out;  neighbor  o'  mine  went  to  St.  Lewis  on  the 
Santa  Fee  railroad  and  got  a  bad  quarter  shoved  on  him — ^just  carelessness." 
Since  the  days  of  old  Matthias  W.  Baldwin,  locomotives  have  grown 
larger  and  larger,  rails  heavier,  and  tracks  better  built  and  ballasted  to 
support  them.  To-day,  locomotives  are  great,  self-propelled  power  plants. 
Economy  has  been  found  in  size — all-compelling  economy.  The  heaviest 
train  loads  must  be  handled  that  physical  conditions  will  permit,  for  it 
saves  train  movements.  So  bridges  have  to  be  stiffened  and 
Mechanical     ^^j     reduced,  and  curves  enlarged  or  eliminated.     Superheated 

Development  &  -         ,    •  ,1  c      y        r\-\  u 

Steam  comes  m,  domg  more  work  on  the  same  luel.     Uil  burners 
are  used.     And  for  coal  burners  there  is  the  mechanical  stoker. 

The  largest  locomotive  shown  by  the  Baldwin  Locomotive  Works  had 
one:  the  Street.  The  coa  was  passed  through  a  2>^-inch  screen  before 
being  loaded  on  the  tank;  whence  it  was  literally  screwed  into  the  locomotive 
by  a  helical  conveyor  operating  under  a  long  slot  in  the  floor.  Thence 
it  was  elevated  by  a  conveyor  belt  of  small  buckets  to  a  point  above  the 
fire  door,  was  sent  through  three-inch  tubes,  and  then  driven  into  the 
firebox  by  steam  jets.  The  device  was  operated  by  a  small  steam  engine 
on  the  boiler  head  which  took  steam  direct.  This  engine  was  controlled  by 
the  fireman  by  means  of  one  small  lever. 

And  the  machine  not  only  fed  coal  to  the  locomotive;  in  itself  it  was  a 
powerful  element  of  mechanical  evolution,  for  it  made  it  possible  to  build 
larger  locomotives  than  firemen  had  been  able  to  feed  with  shovels;  loco- 
motives that  would  burn  six  or  seven  tons  of  coal  an  hour  and  keep  it  up  as 
long  as  the  fuel  held  out,  whereas  the  human  fireman  at  his  best  could  handle 
only  two  or  three  tons  an  hour  and  was  soon  exhausted. 





The  locomotive  on  which  this  system  was  shown  was  very  large — for 
that  day;  the  largest  and  most  efficient  single-expansion  freight  engine.  It 
was  of  the  2-10-2  type,  built  for  the  Chicago,  Burlington  &  Quincy  Railway, 
and  some  of  its  dimensions  were:  cylinders,  30-inch  diameter;  stroke,  32 
inches;  diameter  of  boiler  88>2  inches;  firebox  132  inches  with  272  ^  ^ 
square  feet  of  heating  surface;  drive  wheels  60-inches  diameter;  Engine 
length  over  all,  engine  and  tender,  84  feet  10  inches;  height, 
15  feet  ID  inches;  total  weight  of  engine  and  tender  about  565,000  pounds. 
The  tractive  force  of  this  engine  was  71,500  pounds. 

Steel  passenger  coaches  greatly  increased  the  weight  of  trains  and  made 
necessary  a  type  of  locomotive  that  would  start  a  tremendous  load  and 
keep  it  moving  with  speed.  These  requirements  were  met  by  the  Mikado 
type,  an  example  of  which,  built  for  the  Southern  Pacific  passenger  service, 
was  exhibited.  This  was  an  oil  burner,  not  quite  so  long  as  the  one  described 
above,  but  with  larger  drive  wheels — 63-inch  diameter.  Other  dimensions 
were  slightly  smaller,  and  the  tractive  force  was  51,000  pounds. 

Then  there  was  a  Pacific  type,  built  for  the  Atchison,  Topeka  &  Santa 
Fe,  which  had  drive  wheels  73  inches  in  diameter,  standing  higher  than  a 
six-foot  man,  and  was  "omnivorous,"  for  a  few  slight  changes  would  turn  it 
from  an  oil  to  a  coal  burner.  And  there  was  a  Mikado  type  built  for  the 
San  Pedro,  Los  Angeles  &  Salt  Lake  Railroad  Company,  and  another 
Mikado  for  logging  service,  which  was  shown  by  the  McCloud  River  Rail- 
road. The  Baldwin  Works  exhibited  electric  motor  trucks,  designed  both 
for  light  city  service  and  for  heavy,  high-speed  interurban:  two  very  diflFer- 
ent  types. 

The  exhibit  of  the  American  Locomotive  Company  consisted  of  four 
locomotives,  of  which  the  most  interesting  to  the  general  observer  was  a 
huge  2-8-2  Mikado-type  freight  engine  built  for  the  Pekin-Kalgan  Railway 
of  China.  This  came  to  the  Exposition  on  its  own  "legs."  There  was  a 
Mikado  type  for  logging  service,  and  two  locomotivesof  the  O-4-O-T  type 
representing  this  company's  latest  designs  for  contractors,  quarries,  mines, 
and  for  other  special  industrial  services.  These  last  had  all  the  weight  on 
the  two  pair  of  drivers,  whereas  the  logging  type  had  it  distributed  over  four 
pair  so  it  could  step  easy  on  light  rails  and  poor  roadbed.  The  locomotive 
built  for  China  was  designed  for  heavy  trains  at  high  speed,  but  was  flexibly 
suited  for  fast  freight  one  day  and  slow  the  next,  as  might  well  occur  in  a 
newly  developing  country. 

Other  equipment  had  to  keep  up  with  train  and  locomotive  evolution, 
and  the  latest  types  of  brake  shoe  were  illustrated  by  the  exhibit  of  the 
American  Brake  Shoe  and  Foundry  Company.     It  showed  flanged  and 


unflanged  reinforced  brake  shoes,  locomotive-driver  brake  shoes,  electric- 
railway  brake  shoes  and  brake  heads,  and  shoes  with  non-metallic  filling, 
which  reduces  noise. 

In  191 5  it  was  considered  salutary  to  have  the  public  understand  the 
organization,  economic  relations,  and  services,  of  the  railroads,  and  the 
Pennsylvania  System  decided  that  it  should  have  a  conclusive  demon- 
stration at  San  Francisco  of  the  nature  of  such  an  institution.  The  Penn- 
sylvania's space  in  the  Palace  of  Transportation  was  a  magnificent  spread  of 
railroading  exhibits,  reinforced  by  moving  pictures  in  its  unique 
iTe  Public  ^^^^^^  theater.  And  the  Pennsylvania  could  do  it.  This  was 
one  of  the  great  systems  of  the  country,  consisting  of  the 
Pennsylvania  Railroad,  the  Pennsylvania  Lines  west  of  Pittsburgh,  and 
their  affiliations,  operating  in  fifteen  States.  It  was  11,730  miles  long,  had 
26,200  miles  of  track,  employed  in  the  ordinary  course  of  the  day's  work 
some  220,000  men,  and  ran  more  than  7,500  locomotives  and  281,500  freight 
cars  to  say  nothing  of  6,884  passenger  coaches  in  which  it  transported 
more  than  half  a  million  people  a  day.  Its  signal  system  alone  cost  over 

All  the  attendants  about  the  Pennsylvania's  space  were  uniformed, 
which  gave  it  quite  an  official  railroad  air.  They  were  men  temporarily 
detached  from  regular  duties  to  represent  the  different  branches  of  the 
service,  and  they  knew  what  they  were  talking  about — quite  an  improve- 
ment over  the  attendants  at  some  of  the  commercial  exhibits.  The  affair 
was  in  charge  of  H.  T.  Wilkins. 

The  extent  of  the  system  was  shown  by  one  of  the  greatest  maps  ever 
made — a  topographical  relief  model,  26  feet  wide  and  42  feet  long,  the  largest 
of  its  kind  down  to  that  date,  giving  at  a  glance  the  topographical  features  of 
the  country,  on  a  scale  of  about  2  miles  to  the  inch,  from  the  Great  Lakes 
to  Kentucky  and  Virginia,  and  from  the  Atlantic  Ocean  to  the  Mississippi 
River.  On  it  the  larger  cities  were  indicated  by  electric  lamps  showing  their 
names  and  population;  State  capitals  and  important  historical  places  by 
small  flags;  and  State  boundary  lines  by  strips  of  bright  paint. 

There  was  also  a  model  of  New  York  City,  26  feet  square,  with  a  model 
of  the  Pennsylvania  Station  in  its  midst,  and  there  was  a  model  of  Hellgate 
Bridge,  on  the  Pennsylvania's  main  line.  There  was  a  model  of  the  pro- 
posed Union  Station  at  Chicago  which  would  be  about  three  years  building, 
and  another  of  the  Union  Station  at  Washington,  D.  C. 

Hellgate  Bridge,  spanning  an  arm  of  the  East  River  between  Ward's 
Island  and  Long  Island  City  was  one  of  the  greatest  engineering  under- 
takings of  the  country  down  to  that  time.     It  ^as  the  largest  arch  in  the 


world  and  contained  more  steel  than  the  Woolworth  building.  We  have 
seen  a  typical  section  of  one  of  its  main  members  in  the  exhibit  of  the  United 
States  Steel  Corporation  in  the  Palace  of  Mines  and  Metallurgy.  It  was 
the  longest  single-span,  four-track  railroad  bridge  ever  con- 
structed, and  provided  a  direct  rail  entrance  into  New  England,  wirier 
through  New  York,  from  the  Middle  States  and  the  South.  The 
great  arch  had  a  span  of  1,000  feet  and  rose  300  feet  above  the  water,  leaving 
a  clear  way  I40  feet  high  under  the  railroad  tracks.  The  towers  from  which 
it  sprang  were  120  by  140  feet  at  base,  rose  240  feet  from  the  ground,  and 
contained  3,000,000  cubic  feet  of  masonry  and  concrete.  The  bridge  was 
93  feet  wide  over  all — a  stupendous  work,  and  a  mark  of  modern  civilization 
just  as  the  Pyramids  were  of  ancient.     It  was  put  in  service  March  i,  1917. 

The  moving-picture  theater  of  the  Pennsylvania  exhibit  was  unique 
among  all  the  picture  places  in  the  Exposition.  It  consisted  of  two  all-steel 
passenger  coaches  built  at  the  company's  shops  at  a  cost  of  $13,000  each. 
These  were  put  on  rails  in  the  Palace  of  Transportation  side  by  side,  their 
adjacent  sides  were  cut  away,  their  floors  were  bridged  across,  and  they 
were  fitted  with  the  plush  upholstered  seats  of  first-class  passenger  coaches. 
It  took  three  days  to  show  all  the  reels  with  which  this  theater  was  equipped, 
and  it  attracted  over  137,000  people.  The  number  was  known  because 
souvenir  tickets  of  admission  were  distributed,  both  at  the  exhibit  space  and 
from  ticket  offices  along  the  line  to  people  coming  west,  and  then  a  coupon 
was  detached  by  the  "conductor"  at  the  entrance — all  which  helped  the 
physical  metaphor  of  going  on  a  journey  by  cinematograph. 

In  addition  to  its  beautiful  pavilion  on  the  Avenue  of  Progress,  an 
important  contribution  to  the  Exposition's  life  and  beauty,  the  Southern 
Pacific  Company  made  an  exhibit  in  the  Palace  of  Transportation  that  was 
most  impressive  and  valuable.  You  could  learn  a  great  deal  about  modern 
means  of  transportation  from  this  exhibit.  Besides  that,  the  company 
sought  to  show  the  high  standard  of  efficiency  with  which  its  property  was 
maintained  and  operated,  and  the  great  care  it  took  to  secure  the  safety  of 
its  passengers. 

It  laid  down  a  stretch  of  about  200  feet  of  the  latest  type  of  standard 
track,  with  the  ballast  retained  at  the  ends  by  plate  glass  so  that  you  could 
see  a  perfect  section  of  the  work.  Along  this  stretch  were  operative  block 
signals,  and  upon  it  was  a  small,  eight-wheel  locomotive  of  other 
days,  the  "C.  P.  Huntington,"  a  relic,  the  first  locomotive  over  p/cmeer 
the  Rocky  Mountains.  Nearby  was  a  locomotive  of  the  year  of 
the  Panama  Canal — a  Mallet  articulated  compound,  burning  oil,  with  16 
drivers  57  inches  in  diameter,  a  maximum  tractive  power  of  94,880  pounds 


and  a  hauling  ability  on  a  level  tangent  of  16,940  tons  at  ten  miles  an  hour. 
The  contrast  with  the  days  of  the  "sixties"  could  hardly  have  been  made 

more  vivid. 

The  Southern  Pacific  also  showed  a  cut-open,  or  cross-sectioned,  engme 
so  that  you  could  see  just  how  the  steam  entered,  did  its  work  and  left. 
From  it  a  good  many  people  drew  their  first  understanding  of  the  mystery 
of  steam.  It  showed  shop  products  in  great  variety,  from  steel  springs  to 
headlights,  indicating  a  large  manufacturing  ability;  it  seemed  able  to 
produce  in  its  own  shops  anything  it  needed  except  rails. 

Many  types  of  passenger  and  freight  car  were  shown,  indicative  of  the 
progress  of  the  decade  in  the  construction  of  traffic-carrying  units.  The 
steel  coach,  steel  street  car.  United  States  mail  car  and  steel  motor  coach 
demonstrated  the  safety  and  comfort  attained  in  Southern  Pacific  con- 
struction. There  was  a  great  safety  exhibit  in  the  shape  of  the  various 
devices  for  signaling,  and  for  stopping  trains  automatically  that  would 
otherwise  run  into  danger. 

But  perhaps  the  most  significant  part  of  this  exhibit  was  the  first  steel 
passenger  coach  ever  built  in  the  United  States— and  it  was  built  in  the 
Company's  shops  at  Sacramento  in  1905.  Since  that  time  the  construction 
of  wooden  passenger  equipment  has  been  discontinued  by  this  company. 

The  joint  exhibit  of  the  Western  Pacific,  Denver  &  Rio  Grande,  Missouri 
Pacific,  and  St.  Louis,  Iron  Mountain  &  Southern  Railway  lines  was  a 
striking  and  beautiful  piece  of  display  advertising  that  cost  about  $50,000 
to  build  and  equip.  The  exterior  was  a  hemisphere  52  feet  in  diameter, 
standing  44  feet  high,  strikingly  decorated  with  sculptured  figures  in  plaster, 
representing  the  prospector,  the  farmer,  the  fisherman,  the  brakeman,  the 
track  walker;  and  with  locomotives  in  relief.  On  the  face  of  the 
The  Globe     ^^^^^  ^^^  ^  ^.^jj^f  ^^p  ^f  ^^^  country  with  the  exhibiting  lines 

conspicuously  indicated;  and  every  22  seconds  a  miniature  train  of  little 
electric  lights  left  the  San  Francisco  end  and  went  through  to  St.  Louis; 
the  principal  cities  and  towns  on  the  line  lighting  up  as  it  passed. 

Inside  the  globe  and  in  the  vestibules  approaching  it  were  24  dioramas, 
very  beautiful  illuminated  pictures  of  the  Great  Salt  Lake,  the  Royal  Gorge 
and  other  scenic  grandeurs  along  the  lines;  while  the  inner  vault  above 
showed  a  blue-black  night  sky  gemmed  with  winking  stars.  In  a  room 
beneath  was  the  apparatus  that  operated  these  stars  and  the  electric  train 
overhead.  For  the  latter  it  had  been  necessary  to  run  1,500  wires  from 
the  miniature  "track"  to  a  drum  on  which  a  revolving  arm  made  and  broke 

the  circuits. 

In  the  field  of  traffic  promotion  this  was  one  of  the  most  effective  things 






done  in  the  whole  Exposition,  and  reflected  great  credit  on  the  railroads 
that  could  carry  out  so  artistic  and  striking  a  conception. 

Through  the  unwritten  epic  of  the  West,  that  story  of  adventurous 
migration  and  settlement  that  has  never  yet  been  fully  told,  runs  the  thread 
of  express  service  in  the  days  before  the  railway;  and  since  those  days,  in  the 
remote  places  the  rails  have  not  yet  reached.  It  was  a  service  that  carried 
intelligence,  treasure,  and  merchandise;  contracts  and  tidings;  the  foun- 
dations of  business  and  the  means  and  products  of  industry,  the  stuff  of 
commerce;  and  to  any  development  beyond  the  veriest  primitive,  it  was  as 
necessary  as  food.  In  the  day  of  the  railway,  commerce  relies  on  steam,  but 
once  it  depended  on  the  Pony  Express  and  the  old  "  Concord  thoroughbrace 
wagon,"  and  for  safety  of  property  entrusted  to  it  there  was  the  "messen- 
ger," with  his  long-barreled  six-shooter  and  short-barreled  shot-gun. 

Illustrating  those  times  and  men,  the  Wells  Fargo  Express  Company  made 
a  typical  exhibit  in  the  Palace  of  Transportation,  and  no  institution  of  the 
country  had  a  better  right.  There  was  a  working  model  express  office, 
and  there  were  samples  of  the  company's  package  chests  and  strong  boxes, 
and  exemplifications  of  its  methods  of  transporting  merchandise  of  all  kinds, 
from  dried  fruits  to  draft  horses.  There  was  a  little  moving- 
picture  theater,  where  visitors  could  rest  and  be  most  comfortably  gfth  li  d 
entertained,  and  there  were  samples  of  the  company's  private 
stamps,  affixed  to  letters  in  early  days  in  addition  to  the  Government  postage 
by  people  that  placed  more  reliance  on  the  express  company  than  they  did  on 
the  Government,  as  far  as  transportation  went. 

But  more  interesting  was  the  old  "thoroughbrace"  in  a  corner,  as 
perhaps  it  once  ran  on  the  Hangtown  Grade,  with  a  broken  express  box 
telling  its  story  of  the  "road  agent";  and  more  interesting  still  was  a  case  of 
personal  relics  with  bits  of  history  attached:  a  pair  of  old  blue  overalls 
riddled  with  buckshot  from  an  ambush,  a  six-shooter  wrecked  on  the  hip  of 
the  messenger  by  a  highwayman's  bullet,  "Big  Jim"  Miller's  great  silver 
watch,  the  reward  of  bravery;  Truesdell's  ice  mallet  with  which  he  brained 
one  robber,  and  the  rifle  he  took  from  him  to  shoot  the  other — all  witnesses 
to  valor,  to  trusts  discharged  in  lonely  battles  where  there  was  no  shoulder- 
to-shoulder  support  of  comrades,  no  Red  Cross  ambulance  to  succor  the 
wounded,  but  the  unseen  and  unaided  personal  heroism  of  the  individual. 
The  exhibit  in  these  particulars,  was  not  "contemporaneous,"  but  it  was 
significant  of  deeper  and  finer  things  than  many  that  were.      • 

The  contemporaneous  features  illustrated  all  the  modern  services  of  the 
company,  too  well  known  to  need  description  here,  and  included  a  moving 
picture  projected  in  the  little  theater,  which  depicted  the  travels  of  a  vase 


despatched  by  a  lover  to  his  sweetheart,  "by  Wells  Fargo";  so  that  in 
addition  to  all  its  other  functions,  the  company  did  the  parts  of  Mars  and 
Cupid  too. 

Two  thousand,  three  hundred  and  forty-five  pounds  of  pig  iron  hanging 
by  a  slender  thread  of  steel  an  eighth  of  an  inch  in  diameter  was  displayed 
by  the  Pennsylvania  and  Maryland  Steel  Companies  as  part  of  their  exhibit 
in  the  Palace  of  Transportation.  It  was  shown  here  because  the  little  bar 
that  sustained  all  that  load  was  what  was  left  in  the  middle  of  a  one- 
^  o'^T''  and-an-eighth-inch  Mayari  steel  frog  bolt,  turned  down  in  a  lathe 
for  the  purpose.  The  load  hung  under  a  canopy  and  it  hung  free, 
so  that  within  narrow  limits  set  by  the  proximity  of  the  canopy  pillars  you 
could  swing  it  about,  bending  the  steel  slightly,  and  breaking  it  if  you  could. 
But  you  couldn't.  It  stayed  there  throughout  the  season,  while  the  canopy 
sagged  over  and  got  out  of  plumb  with  the  weight;  but  it  did  not  break. 

Here  was  a  showing  of  railroad  materials  such  as  frogs  and  switches, 
special  track  work,  steel  castings,  steam-  and  street-car  rails,  marine  models 
and  shop  pictures;  but  the  exhibit  centered  about  Mayari  steel,  a  natural 
alloy  from  Cuban  ores  that  contained  the  alloying  elements  quite  evenly 
distributed  so  that  they  gave  a  uniform  product  at  moderate  cost.  It  was 
entering  into  automobile  manufacture  to  a  considerable  degree,  and  so 
was  serving  transportation  in  another  form  than  railroading. 

The  Cambria  Steel  Company  joined  in  this  exhibit  and  showed  some 
remarkable  samples  of  car  axles  tightly  twisted,  and  bent  into  hairpin  turns, 
without  cracking;  with  rails,  frogs,  joints,  tools,  and  wire  fencing. 

There  was  a  device  shown  in  the  Palace  of  Transportation  by  means  of 
which  a  running  train  could  pick  up  a  dozen  eggs  when  it  was  going  at  full 
speed,  and  drop  them  off  at  desrinadon,  and  not  only  do  it  in  such  a  manner 
that  not  an  egg  was  cracked,  but  so  that  every  egg  would  hatch  out  a  good 
and  serviceable  chick  that  would  grow  into  a  staid  old  hen  in  total 
Made  Safe    jg^Qj-ance  of  the  rapid  pace  at  which  she  had  traveled  before  she 

^^^  came  into  the  world.  It  would  operate  equally  well  with  honey 
in  the  comb,  or  with  any  other  fragile  and  perishable  commodity. 

This  was  the  Hupp  Automatic  Mail  Exchange  System,  meant  to  revolu- 
donize  the  taking  up  of  mail  by  moving  trains.  It  opened  and  closed  the  car 
door  by  a  mechanism  geared  to  the  axle  and  tripped  from  the  track,  deliv- 
ered the  mail  pouch  at  the  station  and  took  up  another  into  the  car,  at  any 
speed  required;  and  did  it  with  safety  to  the  contents. 

The  skeleton  frame  of  a  mail  car  was  on  exhibidon  with  a  set  of  the 
apparatus,  and  beside  it  the  long  stadon  trough  that  was  part  of  the  system. 
A  pouch  discharged  from  the  car  by  this  means  dropped  gendy  into  the 


trough  and  slid  along  it  as  far  as  the  momentum  imparted  by  the  car's  speed 
would  take  it,  coming  to  rest  without  the  slightest  jar.  Hence  the  possibility 
of  the  system  as  to  eggs  and  comb  honey.  The  device  had  just  been  put 
into  use  on  the  Chicago  &  Alton  railroad. 

The  McCloud  River  Lumber  Company  exhibited  a  logging  train  loaded 
with  saw  logs  that  must  have  been  a  source  of  wonder  to  people  from  parts 
of  the  country  less  favored  with  great  forest  growth  than  California.  There 
were  sugar-pine  and  white-pine  logs,  three  on  a  car,  in  16-foot  cuts,  one  of 
which  contained  2,025  board  feet  and  another  2,181.  This  was  the  train 
that  was  drawn  by  the  Mikado-type  Baldwin  locomotive. 

The  air  brake  was  a  great  invention,  we  understand,  but  compressed  air 
was  not  quick  enough  if  anything  quicker  could  be  devised,  or  if  any  way 
could  be  found  to  speed  that  up.  The  latter  thing  was  found  in  the  Electro- 
Pneumatic  Brake  of  the  New  York  Air  Brake  Company,  through  which 
the  air  brakes  could  be  set  on  every  car  of  a  train  at  once,  and  far  more 
quickly  than  had  ever  been  possible  before.  Its  action  seemed  practically 
instantaneous.     This  company  installed  a  working  model  in  the  ^^^ 

shape  of  a  rack  representing  a  train  of  12  cars,  with  locomotive  Brakes 
and  tender.  It  was  in  constant  operation,  made  the  mischief 
of  a  racket  in  the  Palace,  and  was  a  convincing  demonstration  of  mechanical 
efficiency.  The  brake  was  suitable  for  steam  or  electric  service.  With  it 
the  shortest  possible  stops  could  be  made  without  the  shocks  or  train  surges 
so  uncomfortable  and  so  fatiguing  to  passengers. 

The  United  States  Post  Office  car  in  this  Palace  was  part  of  the  Govern- 
ment exhibit. 

The  Flannery  Bolt  Company  made  a  large  and  important  exhibit  of  the 
Tate  flexible  staybolt  for  building  locomotive  boilers,  illustrating  its  use  in 
the  several  stages  of  building  a  boiler,  and  exhibiting  the  tools  with  which 
to  apply  it.  The  Rail  Joint  Company,  of  New  York,  showed  the  latest 
thing  in  rail  joints. 

The  German  American  Car  Company  of  Chicago  had  an  exhibit  of  tank 
cars  for  the  conveyance  of  wine,  mineral  water,  and  similar  commodities. 
These  cars  were  lined  with  cork. 

The  California  Dispatch  Line  of  San  Francisco  showed  a  wine-tank  car 
of  a  type  in  which  over  20,000,000  gallons  of  California  wine  were  trans- 
ported during  the  year  1914. 

"  We  care  not  who  builds  the  railroads  of  a  country  as  long  as  we  can  oil 
them,"  might  well  become  the  watchword  of  the  Galena-Signal  Oil  Com- 
pany, which  for  46  years  had  been  supplying  a  large  part  of  the  lubricant 
for  American  roads.    It  exhibited  samples  of  lubricant  for  every  conceivable 

VOL.  IV — 16 


purpose  connected  with  railroading,  all  manufactured  at  Franklin,  Pa., 
from  Pennsylvania  crude  petroleum.  This  company's  oil  keeps  the  wheels 
turning  on  railroads  all  over  the  world,  and  its  contract  with  the  Union 
Pacific,  made  in  1869,  was  still  working  in  191 5. 

A  large  number  of  those  wheels  were  made  by  the  Griffin  Wheel  Com- 
pany, of  Chicago.  Its  exhibit  showed  the  latest  patterns  in  steam-road, 
street-railroad,  mine-car  and  industrial  wheels.  There  were  chilled  iron 
wheels  weighing  940  pounds  each  and  from  these  there  were  wheels  of  all 
sizes  down  to  the  little  ones  used  on  the  tenders  of  the  Overfair  Railway, 
weighing  35  pounds.  There  were  two  pair  of  United  Railroad  veterans  that 
had  run  over  miles.     They  were  '?'!  inches  in  diameter 

Supplying  1  ,  ,  ,  ,  •  ,        ,  ,  , 

the  Wheels  ^hen  they  began  that  long  journey,  and  when  shown  at  the 
Exposition  they  had  been  worn  down  to  31;  a  rim  an  inch  thick 
had  been  ground  from  them  by  rolling  friction  on  the  rails.  The  double- 
flanged  crane  wheel  in  this  exhibit  was  of  interest  as  a  difficult  casting  to 

Of  much  interest  to  railroad  men,  in  the  line  of  equipment,  was  the 
exhibit  of  the  National  Malleable  Castings  Company,  which  showed  a 
complete  line  of  automatic  couplers,  journal  boxes,  hand  brake  and  air  brake 
equipment  castings,  cast  steel  draft  gear  yokes  and  coupler  pockets,  rail 
braces,  tie  plates,  and  a  large  assortment  of  open  hearth  steel  and  malleable 
iron  castings.  The  Sharon  coupler  was  a  leading  feature  of  the  exhibit. 
Representatives  of  this  concern  claimed  that  it  was  the  largest  manufacturer 
of  car  couplers  in  existence. 

^  III*  II 




YOU'VE  heard  of  landlocked  salmon?  Well,  we  have  landlocked 
people  in  this  country,  lots  of  them,  people  that  have  to  live  in  the 
interior  and  that  think  of  the  sea  and  of  the  ships  upon  it  only  in 
the  figures  they  get  from  books,  or  in  terms  of  canal  boats  and  river  packets. 
Liberating  to  the  imagination  of  the  landlocked  were  the  marine  exhibits  in 
the  Palace  of  Transportation.  They  covered  the  field  of  ocean  traffic  in  a 
complete  and  fascinating  manner  by  means  of  some  of  the  most  beautiful 
exhibits  in  the  whole  Exposition,  from  the  large  steamship  models  of  the 
International  Mercantile  Marine,  to  the  jewel-like  silver  figure  of  a  modern 
battleship  in  the  Japanese  section,  and  the  rich  and  splendid  bronze  and 
lacquer  reproductions  of  historic  Japanese  war  junks.  All  the  luxury  of 
modern  ocean  travel  appeared.     In  life-size  models  of  parts  of 

,  1  1     •  1      1  •  -J         Stationary 

ocean  palaces  you  could  sit  on  deck,  go  mto  staterooms,  mvade      Voyaeine 
cooking  galleys ;  learn,  in  short,  just  how  you  can  be  accommodated 
at  sea  when  you  are  fortunate  enough  to  travel.     It  had  a  tendency   to 
awaken  the  wanderlust   and  was  doubtless  designed  to  do  exactly  that. 

The  combined  exhibit  of  the  Alaska  Steamship  Company  and  the  Copper 
River  &  Northwestern  Railway  was  composed  mainly  of  enlarged  and 
colored  photographs  of  Alaskan  scenery;  with  various  preserved  Alaskan 
vegetables  and  fruits,  typical  productions  of  Alaskan  gardens,  mounted 
specimens  of  game,  and  some  relief  maps  showing  the  character  of  the  Alas- 
kan coast  as  far  up  as  Cook's  Inlet.  It  was  an  interesting  and  a  persua- 
sive exhibit.  At  this  time  the  Copper  River  &  Northwestern  was  the  only 
operating  standard  gauge  railroad  in  Alaska.  Its  line  was  i6o  miles  long, 
from  Cordova  to  Kennecot,  and  it  ran  through  some  notable  scenery,  cross- 
ing the  Copper  River  on  an  immense  steel  trestle  between  two  living  glaciers. 

A  real  section  of  Alaskan  life  as  a  visitor  would  see  it,  and  as  a  visitor 
would  be  interested  in  seeing  it,  was  staged  by  the  Pacific  Coast  Steamship 
Company,  in  a  booth  that  was  made  headquarters  for  the  Alaska  Cruise 
Club.  This  corner  of  the  Palace  possessed  great  fascination,  because  it 
gave  so  vivid  an  illustration  of  what  you  would  be  likely  to  enjoy  in  the 



Far  North.  Here  you  saw  a  painting  of  the  Muir  Glacier,  grand  and  beauti- 
ful, with  a  steamer  cruising  past  its  face,  and  a  foreground  made  of  driftwood, 
gravel  and  moss  to  give  the  realistic  appearance  ot  an  .Alaskan  beach.  The 
beach  came  forward  into  the  booth,  and  on  it  a  little  group  of 
Beach  "  '^^k^°  Indians  worked  throughout  the  season,  in  costume,  carv- 
ing totem  poles,  making  baskets,  moccasins,  and  scrimshaws,  and 
doing  other  things  of  importance  to  an  Indian.  Show  cases  all  about  were 
filled  with  such  work  and  with  carved  walrus  ivor>-,  and  specimens  of  copper, 
and  gold  nuggets.     There  was  a  life-size  copy  of  the  totem  pole  at  Wrangel. 

Just  how  you  could  reach  this  land  of  mystical  Arctic  charm  was  depicted 
in  a  most  tempting  way.  There  was  a  large  panorama,  25  by  71  feet,  repre- 
senting the  skyline  of  San  Francisco,  and  the  water  front  extending  westward 
to  include  the  Exposition  grounds  and  palaces,  the  Presidio  and  the  Golden 
Gate.  And  as  though  outbound  for  the  North  there  was  a  section  of  a 
steamer,  complete  to  the  smallest  detail,  bedroom,  sitting-room,  and  bath- 
room, furnished;  opening  off  a  bit  of  deck  where  you  could  stand  and  readily 
imagine  yourself  committed  to  the  pleasant  venture.  Thousands  of  visitors 
made  this  booth  a  resting  place,  and  sat  and  wrote  notes  at  the  little  desk  in 
the  stateroom. 

The  Holland-American  Line  built  in  the  Palace  an  exact  copy  of  parts  of 
the  new  triple-screw  turbine  steamer  "Statendam" — a  first  cabin  suite, 
regular  first  cabin,  second  cabin,  and  third-class  staterooms,  and  third-class 
dining-room  and  pantr\-.  The  "Statendam"  was  at  that  time  under  con- 
struction at  Belfast,  and  was  to  be  a  vessel  of  45,000  tons  displacement — so 
the  exhibit  was  stricdy  contemporaneous.  The  first  cabin  suite  was 
finished  in  Empire  style  dark  mahogany,  the  bedroom  in  white  enamel,  with 
gold  panels  in  silk,  and  with  carpets  to  match.  It  had  a  private  bath  adjoin- 
ing; and  it  represented  32  such  suites  on  the  steamer. 

After  you  had  enjoyed  these  steamers'  cabins  erected  in  various  parts  of 
the  Palace  and  had  examined  the  character  of  accommodation  the  liners 
offered,  you  could  see  representations  of  the  liners  themselves,  in  the 
enclosure  of  the  International  Mercantile  Marine.  Here  were  ten  large 
models  of  vessels,  in  glass  cases,  the  finest  models  ever  made,  of  some  of  the 
greatest  passenger  lines;  models  that  cost  thousands  of  dollars,  and  were 
almost  as  carefully  constructed  as  their  floating  prototypes,  and 
,,  ,  r^       so  arranged  that  vou  were  compelled  to  note  the  progress  made  in 

Models  ~  -.        .  '^  •  1         1         u     £ 

ocean  transportation  m  recent  years,     it  was  said  to  be  the  nnest 
collection  of  ship  models  ever  shown  at  any  exposition. 

For  this  exhibit  6,500  square  feet  of  space  was  enclosed  in  ship's  railing, 
and  a  lieutenant  of  the  British  Naval  Reserve  was  put  in  charge.     There  was 


a  compass,  chronometer,  and  engine  telegraph,  and  a  ship's  bell  that  tolled 
ship's  time,  to  the  confusion  of  some  of  the  visitors  that  tried  to  set  their 
watches  by  it.  And  for  the  weary  there  were  inviting  steamer  chairs 
scattered  all  about. 

The  bell  had  traveled  over  1,300,000  miles  on  the  old  White  Star  liner 
"Britannic,"  a  vessel  of  5,004  tons,  455  feet  long,  and  55  feet  wide,  which 
had  been  in  service  from  1874  to  1899.  There  was  a  model  of  her  about 
ten  feet  long  in  a  glass  case.  Nearby,  illustrating  the  advance  that  had 
been  made  in  the  size  of  ships,  was  a  model  of  the  new  "Britannic,"  a 
triple  screw  steamer  of  48,158  tons,  887  feet  long,  and  94  feet  wide,  that  had 
superseded  the  other  vessel  of  that  name.  Her  model,  exhibited  in  this 
booth,  was  about  20  feet  in  length.  In  the  Fall  of  the  following  year  the 
magnificent  vessel  herself  was  sunk  in  the  .^gean  Sea  while  in  service  as  a 
hospital  ship  for  the  British  Admiralty. 

These  models  were  large  and  beautiful  objects.  The  smaller  had  cost 
$5,000  and  the  larger  Si  5,000.  Every  detail  of  a  ship  visible  from  without 
appeared  to  be  represented,  and  you  could  compare  the  new  with  the  old. 
There  were  models  of  other  vessels  of  this  line:  the  "Teutonic,"  the  "Oce- 
anic," and  the  "Celtic,"  each  having  been  in  its  day  a  crack  liner  of  this 
company.  Side  by  side  were  two  models  of  the  Red  Star  Line,  the  first 
"Belgenland"  and  the  new  "Belgenland."  There  was  a  beautiful  model  of 
the  American  Line  twin  steamers  "St.  Paul"  and  "St.  Louis,"  one  that  had 
been  exhibited  at  a  number  of  foreign  expositions  and  had  taken  many 
medals  and  ribbons;  and  a  model  of  the  "  Westernland"  of  this  line.  And 
there  was  a  model  of  the  Panama-Pacific  Line  steamers  "Finland"  and 
"  Kroonland."  The  American  Line  was  represented  by  a  lo-foot  model 
of  the  interior  views  of  the  "Britannic."     The  columns   that 

.  ,  .  ,  1-11  r     1  •  Assocuiled 

rose  rrom  this  space  were  lettered  with  the  names  01  the  various  companies 
lines  comprising  the  International  Mercantile  Marine:  the  Ameri- 
can Line,  the  Atlantic  Transport  Line,  the  Dominion,  Leyland,  Red  Star, 
White  Star,  and  White  Star-Dominion.  Altogether  it  was  an  instructive 
showing  of  the  development  of  modern  shipping.  This  exhibit  and  that  of 
the  Holland-American  were  under  the  direction  of  T.  H.  Larke  of  San 
Francisco,  Pacific  Coast  Passenger  Agent  of  the  exhibiting  companies. 
Lieut.  Gordon  was  in  charge. 

The  American-Hawaiian  Steamship  Company  gave  the  public  a  repro- 
duction of  the  midship  deck  and  deck  houses  of  one  of  its  big  freight  steam- 
ers, with  a  great  many  appliances  installed.  There  was  in  addition  a 
reproduction  of  the  entrance  to  the  company's  terminal  situated  on  the 
Embarcadero  of  San  Francisco. 


IN  1876  one  Pyott,  of  the  Baldwin  Locomotive  Works,  made  a  steam 
automobile  (with  a  steering  wheel  quite  like  a  modern  one  but  the 
others  strangely  different)  with  which  he  intended  to  carry  passengers 
about  the  grounds  of  the  Centennial  Exposition  at  Philadelphia.     For  some 
reason  unknown  to  the  writer  they  wouldn't  let  him  in;  probably  too 

In  the  Louisiana  Purchase  Exposition  at  St.  Louis  in  1904  there  was  a 
large  and  very  fine  exhibit  of  roadsters,  runabouts,  surreys,  broughams, 
victorias,  landaus,  and  other  vehicles  meant  to  be  drawn  by  the  deliberate, 
domesticated  horse.  A  short  time  after  the  Panama-Pacific  International 
Exposition,  a  once  fashionable  livery  stable  down  the  Peninsula  sold  out  at 
auction  in  order  to  become  a  garage,  and  a  lot  of  these  venerable  traffic- 
blockers  went  for  two  and  three  dollars  apiece. 

No  transition  of  similar  importance  ever  took  place  with  such  rapidity, 
except  as  a  phase  of  war.  An  exhibit  of  horse-drawn  vehicles  at  San  Fran- 
cisco would  have  looked  like  a  hangover  from  the  days  of  Rip  Van  Winkle. 
Instead  we  had  the  automobile  in  its  glory  and  almost  in  its  ultimate  design, 
for  designs  were  perceptibly  approaching  a  common  type  of  simplicity.  It 
was  the  first  exhibit  of  the  kind  ever  held  in  connection  with  an 
Chmed  international  exposition,  and  by  far  the  finest  ever  seen  on  the 
Pacific  Coast.  In  fact  it  led  to  the  annual  automobile  show  that  is 
now  held  in  the  Exposition  Auditorium,  one  of  the  three  great  motor  vehicle 
shows  of  the  country. 

We  have  described  the  setting  in  the  Transportation  Palace  in  which  this 
exhibit  or  collection  of  exhibits  was  held.  Upward  of  60  of  the  leading 
manufacturers  of  American  automobiles  ultimately  participated;  and  in 
addition  to  their  exhibits,  there  were  English  and  Italian  makes,  although 
in  other  parts  of  the  Palace.  Some  of  the  most  beautiful  cars  ever  built 
were  on  display.  Every  concei/able  device  was  employed  to  make  plain 
the  mechanism  and  manufacturing  methods  involved.  There  were  cut- 
open  models  of  vital  parts,  of  gears  and  differentials,  engines  turning  in  glass 





cases  fitted  with  mirrors  so  you  could  see  all  sides  of  them  at  once,  and 
accessories  and  fittings  and  furnishings  of  all  possible  sorts.   . 

The  writer  was  in  the  office  of  the  Assistant  Director  of  Works  one  day 
early  in  the  season,  fondly  hoping  to  extort  a  little  information  with  which 
to  illuminate  this  narrative  when  one  of  the  engineers  came  in  and  said: 

"There's  a  lot  of  automobiles  running  around  the  grounds  loose,  without 
official  pennants.     They've  got  no  business  in  here,  have  they?" 

"They  have  not.  Get  some  Guards  and  pinch  'em,  or  run  'em  out,  or 
find  out  who  they  are  and  how  they  got  in,  or  do  something  to  'em.  That 
thing's  got  to  stop  profanely  quick."  Exposition  engineers  don't  always 
blue-print  what  they  do;  sometimes  they  just  do  it  and  make  blue-prints 
afterward.  In  this  case  there  was  nothing  to  be  done.  Investigation 
showed  that  automobiles  were  being  born  inside  the  grounds 
faster  than  they  could  be  tagged.     The  Ford  assembling  plant  in  '^Zly 

the  northeast  corner  of  the  Palace  of  Transportation  was  turning 
them  out  at  the  rate  of  a  car  every  ten  minutes  for  three  hours  every  after- 
noon except  Sunday. 

This  plant  was  one  of  the  main  show  places  of  the  Exposition.  Every 
afternoon  hundreds  of  visitors  lined  up  along  the  guard  rail  and  watched 
the  process  as  though  life  depended  on  it.  They  saw  a  chassis  start  down 
a  long  pair  of  skids,  moving  at  the  rate  of  1 5  inches  a  minute,  and,  under  the 
skilled  hands  of  operatives  that  worked  deliberately  but  never  made  a 
waste  motion,  accumulate  springs,  wheels,  transmission  shaft,  a  tonneau,  the 
requisite  cushions,  an  engine,  a  top,  a  windshield,  a  gasoline  tank  with  a 
little  gasoline,  and  everything  else  it  needed,  and  then,  under  its  own  power, 
glide  out  into  the  court  where  the  big  Neptune's  Daughter  was  standing  on  a 


Within  four  minutes  after  the  Exposition  opened,  this  plant  sent  out  the 
first  car.  After  that  it  assembled  18  cars  a  working  day  throughout  the 
season,  practically  speaking.  It  may  have  missed  a  few,  or  assembled  a  few 
less  cars  sometimes,  but  it  turned  out  a  total  of  4,338,  all  of  which  were  taken 
immediately  by  the  distributors.  They  were  spoken  for,  weeks  in  advance. 
Some  went  directly  to  China  on  the  steamers  from  San  Francisco.  There 
were  from  40  to  45  men  in  attendance.  The  material  came  into  the  grounds 
in  trucks  after  1 1  o'clock  at  night,  and  the  work  began  at  1 140  in  the  after- 
noon, and  continued  until  4:40. 

The  general  automobile  section  occupied  75,000  square  feet  of  space, 
floored  with  linoleum  and  decorated  overhead  with  the  beautiful  views  of 
scenery  and  transcontinental  highways  we  have  attempted  to  describe  in  a 
preceding  chapter.     Although  the  automobile  was  approaching  a  standard 



design  it  had  not  yet  reached  it,  and  there  was  still  room  for  minor  changes 
in  the  models.  That  had  its  influence  on  the  question  of  exhibiting,  for  a 
manufacturer  could  not  hope  to  sell  a  car  that  had  been  standing  eight 
months  on  the  floor  of  an  exhibit  palace  at  the  Exposition.  It 
Business  would  not  be  the  latest  model.  So,  contrary  to  usage  in  the  case 
of  other  exhibits,  exhibitors  of  automobiles  had  to  be  permitted 
to  sell  and  remove  them  so  they  could  keep  their  stock  turning.  The 
Exposition  opened  with  a  fine  showing  of  19 15  models,  and  in  spite  of  with- 
drawals of  individual  cars  for  sale,  the  exhibits  kept  growing.  In  April 
there  were  41  exhibitors.     In  May  there  were  56  and  in  July  there  were  64. 

The  lines  of  accessories  were  numerous  and  important  to  the  trade,  and 
to  the  investors  in  cars.  From  direct  observation  of  the  articles  themselves 
a  great  deal  could  be  learned  about  self-starters,  magnetos,  radiators,  spark 
plugs,  tires,  car  bodies,  axles,  difl^erentials,  transmission,  storage  batteries, 
all  the  heavy  parts,  the  methods  of  handling  lubrication,  lubricants  them- 
selves, horns,  windshields,  airless  tires,  and  specialities  of  all  sorts. 

It  was  the  age  of  the  medium-priced  car.  Under  pressure  of  competi- 
tion the  factories  were  in  process  of  standardizing  their  practices  and  output. 
The  ordinary  medium  price  in  that  year  for  a  five-seat,  four-cylinder,  30  to 
35  horse-power  car  was  about  $1,200.  You  could  pay  as  much  as  you  liked 
unless  you  liked  to  pay  too  much,  and  you  could  get  some  cars  that  were 
known  to  be  good,  for  the  service  that  was  in  them,  for  very  much  less. 
There  were  cars  from  I420  up  to  1 10,000  in  price.  And  some  people  con- 
tended that  for  the  work  they  had  to  do  the  420-dollar  sort  were  among  the 
best  obtainable. 

Automobile  trucks  and  farm  tractors  were  coming  in.  The  writer  saw 
in  the  Vaca  Valley  that  year  a  farmer  ploughing  an  orchard  with  a  tractor; 
and  their  use  grew  very  rapidly  after  the  Exposition.  When  the  United 
States  entered  the  European  War,  tractors  did  the  work  of  thousands  of 
boys  that  went  to  the  front. 

It  would  be  useless  to  attempt  to  enum.erate  all  the  cars  exhibited,  but 
a  few  may  be  selected  as  notable  for  some  phase  of  development.  There  was 
a  very  beautiful  Packard  in  a  glass  case,  exhibiting  what  the  expensive 
advertisements  of  this  class  of  goods  call  "the  latest  refinements  of  design." 
It  was  painted  in  cream  white,  with  gold  leaf  trimmings,  on  a  black  chassis, 
and  it  had  white  wheels  and  black  upholstering  and  was  altogether 
Arrives  ^  sumptuous  and  handsome  object,  illustrative  of  the  luxury  of 
modern  life.  Here,  too,  was  the  first  car  of  this  make,  a  veritable 
horseless  horse-and-buggy.  In  June  the  first  12-cylinder  motor  car  that 
ever  crossed  the  continent,  a  Packard  twin-six  with  V-shaped  engine,  came 


into  the  grounds  under  its  own  power.  It  was  driven  by  Henry  B.  Joy,  Presi- 
dent of  the  Lincohi  Highway  Association  and  also  of  the  Packard  Company, 
and  he  had  made  the  2,800  miles  from  Detroit  in  about  three  weeks.  The 
car  was  shipped  home. 

Some  other  recent  improvements  of  design  were  exhibited  by  the  Thomas 
B.  Jeffery  Company  in  the  tragic  fashion  of  the  day — armored,  turretted, 
fitted  with  a  Colt  machine  rifle,  and  engined  for  the  four-wheel  drive  so  that 
it  could  go  forward  or  back  at  equal  speed,  or  get  traction  with  one  pair  of 
wheels  if  the  other  happened  to  be  mired.  This  machine  was  a  product  of 
war  conditions  and  was  not  evolved  early  enough  to  go  on  exhibition  until 
about  mid-season. 

The  V-shaped  motor  had  just  arrived  in  the  restless  evolution  of  the  auto- 
mobile, and  the  Cadillac  Company  exhibited  it  in  an  eight-cylinder  car;  four 
cylinders  on  a  side.  This  company  also  entered  as  a  working  exhibit  the  two 
fine  motor  ambulances  connected  with  the  Exposition's  Emergency  Hospital. 

The  Maxwell  Company  showed  a  convertible  sleeping  car  for  camping 

Quite  a  number  of  automobile  trucks  were  shown,  and  they  were  objects 
of  general  interest,  whether  people  had  anything  to  haul  or  not,  for  they  were 
recognized  as  a  certain  coming  development  that  would  in  time  produce 
horseless  streets  and  make  the  conveyance  of  goods  both  cheaper  and  cleaner. 
There  were  the  Packard,  the  Sterling,  the  White,  the  Federal,  the 
Kissel,  the  General  of  Detroit,  the  Bessemer,  the  Bacon  dump  „  Trucks 
wagon,  made  in  San  Francisco,  the  Commerce,  and  the  Moreland, 
the  last  named  being  a  California-built  truck,  made  in  Los  Angeles  and 
burning  distillate.  One  was  a  four-wheel  drive  truck,  the  "T.  W.  D."  made 
in  Clintonville,  Wisconsin.  And  in  addition  there  was  the  Smith  Form-a- 
Truck  made  by  converting  the  engine  and  transmission  of  a  Ford  into  a  one- 
ton  truck,  on  heavier  rear  axle  and  solid  rear  tires;  and  there  were  the 
Electric  trucks  of  the  Automatic  Transportation  Company  of  Buffalo, 
operating  by  means  of  Edison  storage  batteries. 

The  Rolls-Royce,  an  English  car,  attracted  much  attention,  and  so  did 
the  Italian  cars  in  their  section:  the  Isotta  Franschini  and  the  Italia-Bianchi. 
Exhibits  of  foreign  automobiles,  however,  were  almost  entirely  prevented  by 
the  war. 

Among  the  other  exhibitors  in  the  automobile  section  of  the  Palace  of 
Transportation  was  the  Hendee  Manufacturing  Company,  with  a  large  and 
attractive  display  of  motorcycles.  The  Davis  Sewing  Machine  Company 
showed  Dayton  motorcycles  as  well  as  a  complete  line  of  motorcycle  fire 


S.  F.  Bowser  &  Company,  Incorporated,  had  a  large  block  where  there 
were  daily  demonstrations  of  their  line  of  oil  handling  devices.  The  booth 
was  fitted  up  as  a  service  station,  and  included  in  its  equipment  apparatus 
for  the  selling  of  oil  and  gasoline.     There  was  a  complete  filtration  plant. 

The  Splitdorf  Electric  Company,  the  Apple  Electric  Company  and  the 
Sumter  Electric  Company  had  a  joint  display  of  magnetos,  coils,  spark 
plugs,  ammeters,  storage  batteries,  and  starting  and  lighting  systems. 

Thomas  A.  Edison  had  a  large  exhibit  illustrating  the  various  types  of 
storage  battery  and  other  motoring  devices  turned  out  in  the  Edison  plant. 

The  Standard  Oil  Company  had  a  demonstrating  display  of  its  oils, 
polishes,  and  Zeroline.  In  the  demonstrations  a  Ford  and  a  Studebaker 
were  used.  There  was  a  cut-open  differential  to  show  lubrication,  and  other 
parts  were  sectioned. 

The  National  Carbon  Company  and  the  American  Everready  Company 
had  a  joint  display  of  batteries,  lamps  and  the  other  accessories  manu- 
factured by  them. 




IF  you  had  been  searching  the  Palace  of  Transportation  for  the  most 
significant  development  in  that  particular  field  at  the  time  of  the 
completion  of  the  Panama  Canal,  it  is  the  writer's  notion  that  you 
might  have  found  it  not  in  the  exhibits  of  the  great  transcontinental  systems 
of  America,  but  in  the  Chinese  booth.  And  not  in  the  models  of  ships  and 
cars,  and  photographs  of  steel  mills  turning  out  railway  equipment  shown 
there,  remarkable  as  those  things  were,  but  in  a  dull-looking  blue  map  on  the 
wall.  For  if  you  had  interrogated  the  young  Chinese  students  and  engineers 
in  attendance  you  would  have  learned  that  the  map  bore  a 
prophecy  of  one  of  the  greatest  railway  developments  that  had  '''""" 

thus  far  been  dreamed.  It  pointed  to  the  possibility  of  direct  ""  "'"^^ 
and  continuous  rail  transportation  across  China,  from  the  Yellow  Sea  to 
the  Mediterranean— a  connected  system  from  Pekin  to  Constantinople. 

It  may  seem  a  far  stretch  of  the  imagination  westward  across  those  wild 
uplands,  but  progress  teaches  us  to  expect  more  progress.  There  was  a  time 
when  the  Pacific  Railroad  was  a  vision  and  a  dream,  and  another  when  th. 
Trans-Siberian  was  an  even  wilder  one.  At  this  writing  a  Russian  railway 
reaches  eastward  from  the  Caspian  Sea  a  thousand  miles  to  Tashkend, 
pulling  at  the  Chinese  railhead  like  a  huge  electro-magnet. 

When  we  were  little  boys  in  school  we  were  carefully  taught  that  railways 
could  not  be  built  in  China  because  they  would  desecrate  the  graves  and 
annoy  the  dead.  This  gave  us  a  feeling  that  China  was  a  large  Lone  Moun- 
tain Cemetery,  where  the  people  had  to  walk  discreetly  or  they  would  bump 
the  tombstones.  Later,  some  of  us  learned  the  demonstration  that  elec- 
tricity could  never  come  into  general  use  for  dwelling-house  lighting,  and 
the  geological  reasons  why  California  could  never  produce  paying  quantities 
of  petroleum. 

Progress  has  been  made  on  both  sides  of  the  Pacific  since  then.  Belief 
in  the  impracticability  of  railways  in  China  survived  the  other  teachings, 
because  the  electric  lights  and  the  California  petroleum  arrived  "in  our 
midst."     But  if  there  had  been  no  other  intelligence  on  the  subject,  the 




Chinese  exhibit  in  the  Transportation  Palace  would  have  shaken  down  the 
barriers  to  a  belief  in  the  development  of  Chinese  railways. 

For,  there  were  models  of  fine  stations,  and  of  steel  bridges  engineered 

with  scientific  precision  in  hundred-foot  spans  across  the  Yellow  River,  and 

of  the  finest  types  of  locomotive,  drawing  trains  of  day  coaches  and  sleeping 

cars.     There  were  pictures  and  models  of  a  whole  railway  line  built  entirely 

by  Chinese  engineers  and  workmen.     And  all  about  the  walls  of 

Signs  oj       ^j^g  booth  were  photographs  of  scenes  along  the  Canton- Kowloon 

rogress       ^.^^^  ^^  ^^^  Shanghai-Nangking  line,  or  the  Pekin-Moukden  line, 

with  a  freight  train  passing  close  to  the  Great  Wall;  or  the  Tombs  of  the 

Mings,  and  the  temple  of  Confucius  and  the  temple  of  his  first  disciple, 

."featured"  as  tourist  attracdons,  quite  in  the  approved  American  (and 

English  and  French)  fashion. 

Statisdcal  tables  showed  that  China  had  about  3,500  miles  of  govern- 
ment railroad  in  operation  and  about  6,000  miles  building — about,  because 
the  tables  also  showed  that  China  had  got  a  good  start  in  her  engineering 
measurements  on  the  metric  system,  and  more  "progressive"  peoples  could 
translate  those  measurements  into  thirds  of  yards  and  twelfths  of 
Governmeni  ^^^^  ^^  laboriously  and  painfully  as  they  wished  to.  The  con- 
aiways  ^^ggj^j^g  railways  in  operadon  were  about  4,250  kilometers  in 
extent.  The  balance  sheet  for  the  Chinese  government  railways  for  191 5 
showed  a  profit  of  over  $8,000,000  on  receipts  of  a  little  more  than  $56- 


China  had  been  a  republic  about  five  years.  This  was  the  first  inter- 
national exposidon  in  which  she  had  ever  participated  officially.  She  had 
no  experienced  exposition  commission  to  "exploit"  her  resources  and  indus- 
tries for  the  worid  to  see.  Yet  she  showed  these  quite  remarkable  evidences 
of  her  modern  progress,  and  more — rails  rolled  in  Chinese  rolling  mills, 
models  of  fine  steel  ships,  with  every  feature  of  improved  equipment,  built 
in  Chinese  shipyards.  With  her  photographs  and  stadsdcal  tables  and 
pracdcal  young  Chinese  engineers  to  point  out  the  meaning  of  these  things 
to  visitors,  it  was  a  thought-compelling  exhibidon. 

In  the  Palace  of  Transportadon  the  Japanese  again  showed  themselves 
masters  of  the  art  of  display,  for  their  models  of  ships  were  things  of  exquis- 
ite beauty.  A  cruiser  was  shown  in  silver,  perhaps  three  feet  in  length, 
every  detail  as  faithful  as  art  could  make  it.  There  was  a  silver  model  of  a 
locomodve,  the  original  of  which  was  built  for  the  Government  at  the 
Kawasaka  Dock  Yard.  But  rarer  and  richer  and  in  every  way  the  finest 
things  of  their  kind  to  be  found  in  the  whole  Exposition  were  the  large 
bronze  and  lacquer  models  of  old  war  galleys,  intricate  fabrics  of  ebony  and 


vermilion  and  gold,  strange  in  form  like  fairy  barges,  things  never  to  be 
seen  in  the  world  again  except  in  some  such  wonderful  copies.  They  were  of 
generous  dimensions,  not  miniatures  in  any  sense  except  by  com- 
parison with  the  originals;  there  were  two  among  them  each  of  lyar  Boats 
which  was  perhaps  twelve  feet  long.  Some  had  banks  of  oars  like 
the  galleys  of  ancient  Rome.  The  original  of  one  had  taken  part  in  the 
Korean  expedition  of  1592,  that  of  another  had  been  built  in  1630,  and  that 
of  another  had  been  built  in  1823.  All  were  sumptuous  and  beautiful,  as 
much  works  of  art  as  paintings  are.  These  were  exhibited  by  the  Japanese 
Navy  Department. 

Besides  these  rare  objects  there  was  a  large  map  and  mirror,  showing  the 
route  of  the  Toyo  Kisen  Kaisha  steamship  line,  and  there  was  a  model  of  one 
of  its  steamers.  There  was  a  model  of  a  house  erected  by  the  South  Man- 
churia railway,  in  which  were  shown  the  products  forming  the  principal 
exports  of  Dairen,  and  a  topographical  map  showed  the  harbor  of  Dairen 
and  means  of  communication  thereabouts. 

Considerable  attention  was  attracted  by  a  map  of  Japan  made  from  an 
actual  survey  by  Ino  Tadataka  about  125  years  ago.  By  means  of  en- 
larged photographs  the  manners  and  customs  of  the  people,  and  the  aspect 
ot  noted  places  throughout  Japan  were  made  familiar  to  the  visitor.  Japan- 
ese railway  development  from  1893  ^'^  ^9^3  was  exhibited  statistically  on 
charts,  showing  an  increase  in  gross  receipts  of  110,000,000  yen,  or  about 
$55,000,000.  Charts,  relief  maps,  photographs  and  panoramic  views  ex- 
hibited the  different  phases  of  land  and  marine  transportation. 

In  The  Netherlands,  transportation  is  so  far  dependent  on  canals  that 
the  track  walker  of  western  railways  is  represented  by  the  dredge,  which  was 
appropriately  exhibited  in  the  Palace  of  Transportation  by  several  models  of 
rotary,  suction  and  bucket  dredges  of  the  most  advanced  type.  These  were 
shown  by  Werf  Conrad,  Ltd.,  of  Haarlem.  Other  forms  of  floating  machin- 
ery, serviceable  in  transportation,  were  represented  by  models:  a  coal- 
bunkering  vessel,  some  100-ton  floating  cranes,  and,  while  they 
were  about  it,  a  tin  dredger,  to  do  the  work  in  the  Far  East  that  canals 
gold  dredgers  do  in  California.  There  were  all  sorts  of  barges 
equipped  with  every  conceivable  device  for  facilitating  loading  and  discharge. 
The  effect  was  to  make  the  visitor  feel  that  a  good  many  things  about 
dredging  and  spoil-disposal  might  well  be  learned  from  the  Dutch,  but  not 
much  could  be  taught  them  about  it. 

Photographs  showed  Diesel  motors  for  ships,  from  the  great  factory  at 
Werkspoor.  Some  maps  in  this  booth  were  of  much  interest,  Amsterdam 
and  the  North  Sea  Canal  being  shown  in  detail.     The  Netherlands  East 


India  Commission  exhibited  a  model  of  a  lighthouse  as  used  in  the  East 
Indian  colonies,  with  a  map  showing  the  coast  lights  and  other  equipment  for 
lighting  channels  and  harbors  in  The  Netherlands  archipelago. 

Then  there  were  models  of  a  Royal  Dutch  India  mail  steamer,  and  of  a 
steel  bridge  on  a  government  railway  in  Java,  serving  to  remind  you  of  the 
magnitude  of  Holland's  colonial  interests  and  the  efficiency  with  which  her 
colonial  affairs  are  administered.  These  things  were  shown  in  close  prox- 
imity to  the  exhibit  of  the  Holland-American  Line,  which  we  have  mentioned 
above  in  connection  with  the  marine  display. 

There  were  other  British  exhibits  than  that  of  the  Rolls-Royce  auto- 
mobile mentioned  above.  The  Coventry  Chain  Company,  Ltd.,  showed 
automobile  accessories,  and  "noiseless"  drive  chains  for  transmission 
Riordan  &  Company  of  London  exhibited  life-saving  appliances,  and 
Thomas  Cook  &  Son  its  wonderfully  developed  travel  facilities. 

In  spite  of  the  fact  that  the  European  war  had  about  killed  the  tourist 
business  in  those  parts  of  the  world  where  it  mainly  flourished,  Thomas  Cook 
&  Son  made  a  creditable  demonstration  of  the  methods  and  services  it  has 
devised  to  take  the  worst  of  his  or  her  burdens  off  the  traveler.  The  exhibit 
would  have  been  better  had  there  been  no  war,  but  so  would  everything  else. 
It  was  made  mainly  by  pictures,  which  showed  the  steamers  and  dahabeahs 
this  agency  operates  on  the  Nile,  the  railway  up  Vesuvius,  built  and  rebuilt 
by  this  firm,  the  head  office  at  Ludgate  Circus,  London;  from 
TraveUn  which  you  might  get  a  notion  of  the  magnitude  and  ramifications 
of  the  business  of  assisting  travel  through  the  fact  that  this  office 
alone  houses  some  1,300  clerks,  and  that  there  are  159  other  offices  scattered 
throughout  the  world.  The  exhibit  appeared  to  include  every  sort  of  map 
and  guide  book  that  could  be  of  any  use  to  a  tourist;  and  full  descriptions 
were  distributed  of  this  admirable  system  of  conducting  tours  and  supplying 
banking  facilities  for  foreign  journeys.  The  business  was  established  in 
1 841.  A  large  appropriation  was  made  for  an  exhibit  at  San  Francisco,  and 
much  was  done  in  advance  by  this  concern  to  advertise  the  Exposition,  but 
on  account  of  the  war  and  the  havoc  it  played  with  the  volume  of  travel 
for  pleasure  and  culture,  it  was  not  possible  to  make  the  sort  of  exhibit  the 
firm  desired  or  had  planned.  Still,  these  travel  pictures  were  very  alluring, 
not  the  worst  thing  about  them  being  their  demonstration  of  passenger 
transportation  facilities  the  exhibitor  had  been  forced  to  develop  in  order 
to  take  care  of  travelers  properly. 






THE  agricultural  exhibits  at  San  Francisco  showed,  among  the  con- 
spicuous features  of  agriculture  in  1915,  the  application  of  gasoline 
and  electric  energy  to  farm  work,  the  rapidly  growing  use  of  the 
silo,  and  the  advent  of  the  mechanical  milker.  To  say  that  farming  was 
becoming  more  scientific  would  but  emphasize  the  obvious;  but  it  may  be 
observed  that  there  was  a  noticeable  tendency  to  rely  more  on  the 
findings  and  advice  of  agricultural  schools,  and  for  the  farmer  to         ~     ™ 

f^.  °  '  Farmer 

send  his  boy  to  college  to  learn  how   to  farm   better  than  he 

could  be  taught  at  home.     Evidences  of  this  tendency  were  all  about. 

In  such  a  survey  as  we  are  trying  to  present,  mere  exhibits  of  produce 
mean  little.  There  were  large  and  striking  displays  of  that  nature,  interest- 
ing to  those  that  made  them,  and  significant  of  the  farming  superiority  of 
one  district  of  the  country  over  another,  but  such  deductions  are  of  little 
moment  in  the  broad  view  of  an  exposition,  and  we  shall  give  them  short 
shrift  as  far  as  this  narrative  is  concerned. 

The  Chief  of  the  Department  of  Agriculture,  T.  G.  Stallsmith,  was  re- 
sponsible for  two  Palaces,  those  of  Agriculture  and  of  Food  Products. 
And  there  was  this  peculiarity  of  the  classification  under  which  he  worked, 
that  preserved,  dried  and  pickled  fruits  were  classified  under  Horticulture. 
This  bore  out  the  general  plan  of  the  Exposition,  to  tell  the  story  of  service. 
Forestry  was  treated  as  a  part  of  Agriculture;  and  edible  fish,  and  some  that 
were  not,  were  shown  in  the  Food  Palace. 

The  Palace  of  Agriculture  was  the  largest  of  the  exhibit  Palaces  except 
that  of  Machinery;  it  was  574  by  639  feet  in  its  largest  dimensions,  and  cost 
^386,350.  Owing  to  its  relation  to  the  plan  of  the  courts,  the  amount  taken 
out  of  it  was  less  than  the  other  palaces  lost  on  this  account.  The  Palace  of 
Food  Products  was  423  by  579  feet  in  largest  extent,  and  cost  $326,590. 

The  House  of  Hoo  Hoo  with  its  forestry  exhibits,  came  under  the  shelter- 
ing wing  of  the  Department  of  Agriculture.  It  was  built  by  lumber  interests 
in  the  fraternal  Order  of  Hoo  Hoo,  and  occupied  about  46,000  square  feet 
in  the  south  Horticultural  Gardens.     The  redwood  interests  of  California 



put  up  a  handsome  bungalow,  and  the  white  and  sugar  pine  interests  erected 

another  to  show  their  lumber  products.     In  addition  the  Pacific   Coast 

Condensed  Milk  Company,  being  unable  to  secure  the  space  it 

^T^r,;.  desired  in  the  Palace  of  Food  Products,  built  the  artistic  little 
ana  Milk  ■  A  /I- 1 1  J  u 

condensery  where    the    Carnation    Milk    was    made,  near    the 

southern  entrance  to  the  Palace  of  Fine  Arts;  a  gem  of  a  building  that  in 
spite  of  a  commercial  purpose  detracted  not  at  all  from  the  aspect  of  the 
noblest  palace  of  the  Exposition.  There  were  also  some  agricultural  ma- 
chinery exhibits  in  the  Palace  of  Machinery. 

In  addition  to  the  contents  of  the  Palaces  of  Agriculture  and  of  Food 
Products,  parts  of  the  equipment  in  the  Live  Stock  Section  were  entered  in 
the  Department  of  Agriculture — ten  silos,  for  example,  five  of  them  filled, 
demonstrating  the  value  of  corn  ensilage  as  live  stock  fodder;  and  the  equip- 
ment of  stalls,  stanchions,  feed  mangers,  automatic  waterers,  feed  and  litter 
carriers,  and  sanitary  milk  coolers,  which  were  furnished  by  the  James 
Manufacturing  Company  of  Fort  Madison,  Wisconsin,  as  a  working  exhibit, 
free  of  expense.  On  the  exhibit  basis,  different  manufacturers  furnished 
wire  fencing,  galvanized  iron  and  wire  gates,  wire  stock  pens,  poultry  fencing, 
trap  nests,  automatic  poultry  feeders  and  waterers,  and  artistic  lawn  fencing. 
The  Fairbanks  Morse  Scale  Company  put  in  as  exhibits  the  scales  used  in  the 
Live  Stock  Section  and  elsewhere:  railroad  scales,  for  carload  lots  of  live 
stock,  platform  scales  for  live  animals,  and  other  types  in  the  various  palaces. 

Primary  agricultural  products,  with  farming  machinery  and  equipment, 
were  exhibited  in  the  Palace  of  Agriculture.  Agricultural  products  pre- 
pared for  use  as  food  were  shown  in  the  Palace  of  Food  Products;  where 
were  also  exhibited  prepared  things  to  drink;  and  things  to  smoke,  as  pro- 
ducts of  the  soil  made  ready  for  use.  Here  too  were  shown  machinery  and 
many  processes  of  food  preparation  and  of  preservation,  except  those  relat- 
ing to  Horticulture.  It  may  be  said  that  the  aggregate  of  exhibits  in  these 
two  Palaces  illustrated  every  important  phase  ofmodern  intensive  agriculture 
in  the  temperatezones  (and  some  in  the  tropics), includingmany  of  its  engineer- 
ing aspects  such  as  swamp  reclamation,  and  modern  irrigation  and  drainage. 

The  exhibition  of  farm  equipment  was  the  largest  ever  brought  together 
under  one  roof.  The  Palace  was  a  vast  catalogue  of  implements  and  farm 
machinery,  composite  and  comparative,  because  so  many  manufacturers 
were  represented;  a  catalogue  that  put  before  you  not  pictures  and  de- 
scriptions, but  the  things  themselves — implements  for  preparing 
Agricultural  ^  •,  ^^^  seeding,  cultivating,  harvesting  and  threshing,  and 
Machinery  '  .        ^'  ,  -rijjj-urr 

sets  for  generating  power  to  do  the  manitold  odd  jobs  or  tarming. 

And  there  were  farm  wagons  and  carts,  ensilage  cutters,  feed  grinders. 


manure  spreaders,  cider  mills,  cotton  gins,  cotton  and  hay  balers,  horse 
clipping  and  sheep  shearing  machines,  windmills,  tanks,  pumps,  and  all  the 
rest  of  it.  Many  of  the  machines  were  in  motion,  demonstrating  every 
detail  of  operation.  The  International  Harvester  Company  had  93  differ- 
ent machines  or  implements  moving  all  the  time.  The  Holt  Manufacturing 
Company  showed  several  of  its  tractors  in  motion. 

In  fact  the  exhibition  of  internal  combustion  engines  and  tractors  was 
revolutionary.  No  other  industry  has  suffered  so  much  from  the  lack  of 
labor  as  modern  agriculture.  The  internal  combustion  engine,  sometimes 
hooked  up  to  an  electric  generating  set,  took  the  place  of  many  hired  men. 
It  did  not  wander  off  and  get  drunk  when  it  was  needed,  nor  smoke  cigar- 
ettes in  the  hay.  It  had  begun  to  save  not  only  the  labor  of  men  but  of 
horses,  which  meant  that  there  was  to  be  more  in  farming  and  more  out  of 
it.  It  would  pump  the  water  for  the  stock,  milk  the  cow,  separate  the 
cream,  churn  the  butter,  saw  the  wood,  light  the  house  and  barn  with  elec- 
tricity, and  haul  the  crops  to  market.  The  experiences  of  all  four  seasons 
of  the  year  would  be  required  to  bring  to  the  notice  of  the  average  man  the 
manifold  farm  uses  of  the  gasoline  or  distillate  engine  which  he  could  see 
illustrated  here  in  a  few  hours,  and  he  didn't  have  to  take  the  traveling 
salesman's  word  for  it  either.  And  then  there  was  the  wonder  of  the  cater- 
pillar engine,  destined  to  play  so  dramatic  a  part  on  the  battlefields  of 
France  and  Flanders. 

State  and  foreign  exhibits  of  primary  agricultural  products  were  very 
comprehensive,  ranging  from  Manila  hemp  to  tropical  hardwoods.  And  in 
the  Food  Palace,  exhibitions  of  the  manufactured  products  of  tobacco  were 
made  on  the  largest  scale  ever  known  in  this  industry. 

VOL.   IV^I7 


HAD  there  been  no  other  exhibits  of  farm  machinery  and  implements, 
the  Exposition  would  still  have  had  the  greatest  exhibition  of  such 
appliances  ever  made,  in  the  space  occupied  by  the  International 
Harvester  Company  of  America;  some  26,700  square  feet,  where  17  carloads 
of  machinery  was  shown.  It  was  not  merely  a  showing  of  agricultural  im- 
plements either,  but,  like  that  of  the  United  States  Steel  Corporation,  it  was  a 
great  exhibit  of  industrial  organization.  For  here  you  saw  not  only  reapers, 
but  a  twine  factory  to  make  the  material  with  which  the  product  of  the  reap- 
ing was  handled,  illustrating  a  tendency  often  manifested  in  present  day 
industry  to  extend  the  activities  of  a  manufacturing  company 

^"^" '".         to  the  production  of  its  own  supplies.     There  were  pumps,  cream 
iheSinng  ^  ,  1  •  1  •  1     11 

separators,    churns,  washmg    machmes,  corn    shellers,   sprayer 

grinders,  almost  anything  for  farming,  and  internal  combustion  engines  to 

run  them.    And  there  was  a  remarkable  showing  of  tractors  burning  gasoline, 

kerosene,  or  distillate.     It  looked  as  though  the  whole  life  of  the  farm  were 

embraced,  and  as  though  the  only  thing  not  shown  as  a  product  of  the 

company  was  the  soil  on  which  the  crops  were  to  be  grown. 

The  exhibit  came  near  showing  that,  for  its  center  piece  was  a  structure 
containing  four  dioramas  of  a  model  farm,  at  the  four  seasons  of  the  year, 
with  all  buildings  and  equipment  complete,  suggesting  the  operation  of 
different  implements  at  the  different  seasons.  There  was  a  comprehensive 
demonstration  of  the  company's  welfare  work  for  its  employees,  and  an 
exhibit  illustrating  its  agricultural  extension  department,  representing  an 
appropriation  of  a  million  dollars  and  employing  about  twenty  experts  under 
the  direction  of  Prof.  P.  G.  Holden  of  Ames,  Iowa,  to  make  any  tests  or  give 
any  advice  for  which  a  farmer  might  ask. 

This  exhibit  began  at  the  beginning,  with  a  relic  almost  as  deserving  of 
reverence  as  the  Liberty  Bell:  a  reaper  of  1847,  the  invention  of  Cyrus  H. 
McCormick,  the  one  he  exhibited  at  the  first  International  Exposition,  the 
Crystal  Palace,  in  London,  in  1851.     The  judges  then  viewing  it  left  this 






"the  Mccormick  reaper  is  the  most  valuable  article  contributed 
TO  this   exposition,  and  for  its  originality  and  value,  and  for  its 


American  pride  thrilled  to  the  sight  of  it— an  American  invention,  bless- 
ing humanity,  releasing  labor  for  other  things  while  it  cheapened  the  bread 
of  the  people  of  the  world.  This  old  reaper  embodied  all  the  essential  work- 
ing principles  of  the  reaper  of  to-day,  drawing  its  energy  from  the  revolution 
of  the  main  wheel  as  it  traveled,  which  drove  back  and  forward  a  bar  of 
serrated  teeth,  playing  through  guards.  All  the  reapers  since  have  been  but 
refinements  of  this,  retaining  the  fundamental  devices. 

Nearby  was  an  old  print  showing  the  scene  at  Steele's  Tavern  in  Virginia 
in  1831,  twenty  years  before  the  Crystal  Palace  Exposition,  when  the  first 
reaper  was  tested.     A  bill  on  the  fence  announced: 

"In  this  field,  july  25,  1831,  will  be  tried  a  new  patent  grain 

CUTTER,    worked    BY    HORSE    POWER,    INVENTED    BY    C.    H.    McCoRMICK." 

The  shop  where  the  first  reaper  was  made,  and  the  anvil,  a  stone,  were 
depicted.  The  stone  is  now  in  front  of  the  McCormick  factory  in  Chicago; 
one  of  the  world's  best  monuments. 

In  a  series  of  20  glass  cases  surrounding  the  center-piece  appeared  models 
of  the  harvesting  devices  through  which  man  has  sought  to  emancipate  him- 
self from  the  labor  of  his  basic  industry.  First  there  was  the  well-known 
scythe.  Then  there  was  a  grain  stripper  of  ancient  Gaul,  a  cart 
pushed  by  oxen,  with  wooden  teeth  projecting  from  the  upper  rim,  '^'^f/^f 
in  which  the  grain  heads  were  caught.  (The  rim  of  the  cart,  not 
the  oxen.)  An  old  Druid  in  a  brown  bath-robe  walked  alongside  and 
dragged  in  the  heads  with  a  sort  of  croupiers  rake— doubtless  the  original 

The  McCormick  reaper  of  1831  appeared  in  another  case,  and  in  the 
words  of  Eddie  Foy  "the  man  is  walking  yet,"  no  place  having  been  made 
for  him  on  the  machine. 

In  the  model  of  1843  the  man  that  did  the  raking  rode,  but  the  driver 
walked,  like  an  English  carter.  By  1847  the  driver  is  on  the  machine.  In 
the  model  of  1858  an  automatic  raker  has  released  one  man,  and  the  driver 
still  rides. 

The  1 861  models  showed  a  combination  of  reaper  and  mower.  There 
was  an  1867  mower.  In '72  we  get  a  wire  binder.  In '74  appears  the  Marsh 
harvester  which  most  nearly  approaches  the  present-day  binder,  with  two 
men  binding  alternate  bundles  by  hand.  Some  of  the  older  visitors  could 
recall  just  how  it  felt.  This  was  the  forerunner  of  the  present  self-binder. 
The  Gorham  binding  attachment  is  added  on  the  model  of  1875.     I"  i877 


the  mower  is  approaching  the  present  type  and  has  the  cutting  bar  ahead  of 
the  driver.  In  the  perfecting  of  this  machine  the  inventions  of  McCormick, 
Marsh,  and  Osborne  were  all  involved.  These  models  were  a  striking  his- 
toric review  of  a  most  important  development  in  human  affairs. 

There  is  no  space  here  for  mention  of  all  the  inventions  in  farming 
machinery  that  were  on  display.     There  were  said  to  have  been  over  200  of 
them.     Many  companies  were  combined  in  the  International  Harvester 
Company,  and  practically  all  of  them,  throughout  the  years  since  Cyrus, 
McCormick  exhibited  "the  most  valuable  article  contributed' 
Believe  in      ^^  ^^^  Crystal  Palace  Exposition,  have  held  to  the  theory  that 
ExpostHons  ^^^j.^  exhibition  is  a  spur  to  excellence  and  a  legitimate  test  of 
quality.     That  became  a  policy  of  the  combined  concerns.     And  so  the 
Panama-Pacific  International  Exposition  reflected  the  farm  machine  indus- 
try from  its  birth  on  that  old  stone  anvil  in  Virginia  to  its  full  grown 
maturity:  the  most  complete,  comprehensive  and  amazingly  interesting  ex- 
hibition of  agricultural  implements  and  machines  that  had  ever  been  made. 
Yet  we  cannot  forbear  making  record  of  some  of  the  more  significant 
items  of  this  most  significant  display.     We  have  mentioned  the  miniature 
twine  factory.     There  was  a  part  of  a  combined  harvester  that  would  take 
a  loop  of  that  twine  and  tie  a  knot  in  it.     It  never  missed,  never  tangled  a 
strand.     The  writer  tied  about  a  hundred  knots  with  it,  trying  to  rattle  it 
or  embarrass  it,  or  otherwise  get  it  off  its  balance,  but  it  was  fool-proof;  the 
little  steel  fingers  never  tired,  never  slipped,  never  grew  nervous,  never  failed 
to  grip  the  twine  and  twist  it  just  so,  and  turn  it  over  at  the  right  time  and 
pull  it  fast.     It  was  not  new;  to  many  it  was  a  very  old  story,  having  been 
invented  by  a  certain  elementally  patient  George  Appleby  in  1879.     But 
thousands  had  not  yet  seen  or  heard  of  it,  especially  in  California,  land  of  the 
combined  harvester,  and  it  will  never  cease  to  be  a  miracle. 

There  was  a  manure-spreader  with  two  flanged  revolving  discs  that  would 
throw  manure  sidewise  over  a  ten-foot  swath  and  save  a  mile  of  hauling  to 
the  acre.  It  would  go  through  an  orchard  and  pitch  manure  under  the 
trees,  if  that  were  where  you  wanted  it.  r         •  j 

There  was  a  baling  machine  with  a  safety  automatic  force  feed,  instead 
of  the  farm-hand's  feet,  to  push  down  the  hay.  It  was  motor  driven  and  it 
should  have  been  called  a  hay  blocker  instead  of  baler,  for  it  jammed  the 
hay  into  a  block  so  hard  a  rat  would  rather  gnaw  through  a  pine  sill  than 
try  to  get  into  it.  The  bale  came  out  just  17  by  22  inches  m  diameter. 
This  machine  was  about  four  years  old. 

Among  all  imaginable  sorts  of  seeding  implements  there  was  a  corn 
planter  equipped  with  a  marker  that  might  often  save  a  missed  row.     There 


was  a  big  tractor  disc  harrow  that  would  tear  up  a  twelve  foot  swath.  There 
were  spring-tooth  cultivators  and  six  types  of  harvester  and  binder. 
There  were  many  choices  of  gas  engines  and  pumps  for  irrigation.  . 

_,  .    ,  ,  1        1  1       r  •  Husking  by 

There  was  a  corn  picker  and  husker — the  hrst  time  one  was  ever  Machinery 
shown  at  an  international  exposition.  The  ear  was  snapped  from 
the  stalk  by  a  set  of  rollers,  and  carried  to  a  second  set  that  removed  the 
husk,  whence  it  was  delivered  to  a  wagon  box.  With  five  horses  operating 
it  this  machine  could  harvest  and  shuck  the  corn  on  from  seven  to  ten  acres  a 
day.     1 1  attracted  much  attention,  especially  of  visitors  from  the  corn  States. 

Another  exposition  novelty  was  a  corn  binder,  with  an  elevator,  and  a 
cutter  that  cut  the  stalks,  bound  them,  and  elevated  them  to  a  rack  on  a 
wagon,  whence  they  went  to  an  ensilage  cutter  with  an  elevator  35  feet 
high — enough  to  fill  any  ordinary  silo.  Ear,  stalk,  leaves,  and  all  were  cut  to 
lengths  from  three-eighths  of  an  inch  to  an  inch  and  three  quarters.  This 
had  never  been  exhibited  before. 

There  were  push  binders  for  large-scale  harvesting  operations,  there 
were  buskers  and  shredders,  and  mowers  and  dump  rakes  reinforced  by 
loaders.     There  were  side  delivery  rakes,  sweep  rakes,  and  stackers. 

If  these  things  were  significant,  the  exhibit  of  tractors  and  oil  engines  and 
gasoline-driven  trucks  and  farm  wagons  was  tremendous  in  its  importance. 
The  array  was  100  feet  long,  and  the  machines  were  mounted  on  pedestals, 
and  were  in  motion,  pumping  water,  and  running  sprays,  saw  rigs,  and  elec- 
tric lighting  plants  for  the  house  and  barn. 

Here  was  drawbar  pull  for  plowing  and  harvesting,  and  belt  power  for 
air  compressing,  sawing  wood,  or  any  other  purpose  it  could  serve,  and  in 
portable  form  so  that  it  could  be  taken  right  to  the  job.  Some  would  gen- 
erate 30  horse-power  at  the  drawbar  and  60  for  the  belt.  There  were  big 
tractors  for  breaking  up  the  prairie  sod,  and  smaller  ones  for  the  established 
farm  of  medium  requirements.  There  were  motor  trucks  with  capacities 
from  1,000  to  2,000  pounds,  and  speed  controls  limiting  them  to  17  miles  an 
hour,  which  would  discourage  the  hired  man  from  joy-riding  with  them,  and 
so  lengthen  the  life  of  the  machine.  A  small  tractor  for  the  medium  farmer, 
that  would  generate  8  and  16  horse-power,  could  be  had  at  this  time. 
Two  engines  were  sectioned  so  that  you  could  see  how  they  worked. 

The  International  Harvester  exhibit  was  in  charge  of  an  exposition  ex- 
pert, Mr.  W.  H.  Town,  who  before  the  days  of  the  International  Harvester 
Company  had  represented  the  McCormick  Company  at  expositions  in  Mel- 
bourne and  Sydney.  He  understood  installation  and  the  smooth  operation 
of  the  huge  exhibit,  and  the  Harvester  Company's  section  became  a  rendez- 
vous for  agriculturists  of  every  nationality. 


Prophetic  of  a  strange  apparition  on  the  battlefields  of  western  Europe 
in  the  fall  of  1916  was  an  exhibit  of  the  Holt  Manufacturing  Company,  of 
California,  which  had  a  factory  at  Stockton,  Calif.,  and  another  in  Peoria, 
111.  This  was  a  military  wagon  train  of  Holt  Caterpillar  trucks  drawn  by 
a  Holt  Caterpillar  Tractor.  Six  European  armies  were  already 
offheTanks  ^^^ing  these  tractors  for  military  transportation  in  the  year  of  the 
Exposition,  and  had  been  since  the  early  days  of  the  war.  But  the 
following  year  appeared  that  weird  and  nightmare  thing  the  "Tank,"  so- 
called  by  its  English  builders  to  fool  the  ubiquitous  German  spies:  an 
armored  car  lumbering  along  on  its  self-laying  track  like  a  monster  of  the 
Cretaceous  epoch,  a  monster  able  to  cross  shell  craters,  and  wallow  into 
trenches  and  out  again,  and  break  up  machine-gun  nests  so  that  the  Allies 
could  advance  here  and  there.  It  was  said  to  have  saved  at  least  25,000  lives 
for  the  Allies  in  the  September  advance  of  1916;  to  say  nothing  of  the  gains 
of  ground  made  possible  by  it.  Late  in  1917  it  breached  the  Hindenburg 
line  at  Cambrai,  in  one  of  the  grand  assaults  of  the  war,  and  it  led  the  great 
counter-drive  of  the  Allies  in  1918. 

The  Holt  Company  did  not  build  the  "tanks"  used  by  the  Allies  in  the 
German  war,  but  it  did  sell  them  large  numbers  of  Caterpillars,  which  had 
been  in  war  use  as  tractors  about  a  year  and  a  half  when  the  "tanks"  ap- 
peared. They  were  the  most  wonderful  engine  of  offense  the  war  produced, 
and  seem  to  have  been  mainly  the  invention  of  Lieut.  Col.  E.  D.  Swinton, 
C.  B.,  D.  S.  O.,  of  the  Royal  Engineers,  who  built  upon  the  Holt  invention. 

The  characteristic  feature  of  the  device,  the  caterpillar  tread,  originated 
in  California  farming  conditions  through  the  ingenuity  of  a  California  manu- 
facturer. In  the  bottom  lands  of  the  lower  San  Joaquin  Valley  the  farmer 
sometimes  lost  his  harvesting  machinery — had  it  bog  down  so  deep  in  the 
rich  alluvium  he  couldn't  haul  it  out.  This  brought  out  the  first  practical 
and  commercially  successful  machine  of  the  self-laying-track  type,  the  inven- 
tion of  Benjamin  Holt,  of  Stockton,  Calif.  A  broad,  endless  belt  of  linked 
and  corrugated  plates  passing  forward  and  back  over  sprocket  wheels  gave  a 
bearing  that  would  support  on  soft  ground  the  weight  of  heavy  harvesting 
machinery.  The  one  with  the  wagon  train  shown  in  the  Holt  exhibit  space 
in  the  Palace  of  Agriculture  weighed  22,300  pounds  and  would  do  the  work  of 
38  horses.  It  was  adapted  to  large  ranching  operations,  and  to  freighting 
and  highway  work.  This  was  the  largest  model,  the  "75,"  developing  that 
much  brake  horse-power.  Another  "75"  close  at  hand  had  parts  of  the 
motor  and  transmission  cut  away  and  plate  glass  inserted  so  that  its  opera- 
tions could  be  studied.  It  was  run  by  an  electric  motor  every  day  through- 
out the  Exposition. 




There  was  a  Caterpillar  "45  "  driven  by  an  electric  motor,  with  its  steer- 
ing gear  set  so  that  it  turned  continuously  in  a  small  circle  to  show  how  easily 
it  could  be  handled.  There  was  a  small  Caterpillar  tractor  for  the  farmer, 
an  "  18,"  so  mounted  as  to  show  how  it  could  work  between  the  trees  of  an 

And  this  brings  us  to  the  climax  in  harvesting  machinery:  the  motor- 
driven  combined  harvester,  which  propels  itself,  and  in  one  transit  of  the 
field  cuts  the  grain,  threshes  it,  recleans  it,  sacks  it,  and  dumps  the  straw 
either  in  windrows  or  piles.  This  machine  would  enable  four  men  to  cut 
and  thresh  as  much  as  600  could  with  scythes  and  flails  a  century  ago. 
Conditions  peculiar  to  the  West  produced  the  combined  harvester, 
for  its  best  use  was  for  grain  that  would  stand  until  ripe  without  Swaths 
shelling  out  of  the  head,  and  that  could  be  cut  perfectly  dry.  The 
Holt  Company  had  motor  harvesters  that  would  make  36-foot  cuts  through 
a  field  of  grain,  and  one  that  would  cut  54  feet.  In  the  one  exhibited,  sec- 
tions of  the  sides  were  glazed  so  the  visitor  could  look  into  it. 

This  exhibit  included  a  handsome  little  English  cottage  for  the  offices  and 
reception  room,  with  a  moving  picture  theater  in  the  upper  story,  where  you 
could  see  the  operations  of  this  sort  of  machinery  in  the  fields.  In  addition 
to  "caterpillars"  the  company  exhibited  plows,  disc  harrows,  scrapers, 
land  levelers,  and  sage-brush  plows,  and  rakes  for  clearing  tracts  of  still 
unoccupied  sage-brush  land. 

The  C.  L.  Best  Company,  of  Oakland,  California,  exhibited  a  75-horse- 
power  all  steel  track-laying  tractor,  a  smaller  one  of  30  horse-power  for 
orchard  work,  and  a  round-wheel  tractor  for  road  work  and  any  rough  ser- 
vice where  the  ground  was  not  so  soft  as  to  require  the  track-layer. 

Somewhat  similar  to  the  Caterpillars  was  the  Yuba  Ball  Tread  Tractor, 
made  by  the  Yuba  Construction  Company,  of  Marysville  and  San  Francisco. 
This  company  showed  a  tractor  that  was  shorter  coupled,  had  ball-bearing 
treads  independently  reversible,  and  was  a  convenient  thing  to  manoeuver 
around  an  orchard,  as  it  could  turn  in  practically  its  own  length.  The  ball- 
bearing tread  was  a  distinctive  feature  of  this  machine,  which  was  good  for  a 
great  diversity  of  service,  from  pumping  water  to  drawing  a  combined 

The  place  the  farm  tractor  was  beginning  to  take  in  farming  economy 
was  indicated  by  a  testimonial  letter  from  a  California  orchardist  to  one  of 
the  manufacturing  companies: 

"I  have  only  25  acres,  but  find  with  this  little  tractor  that  I  have  no 
need  of  horses  whatever,  as  it  can  be  handled  and  got  around  the  orchard 
as  easy  as  one  horse,  and  I  still  have  the  benefit  of  a  twelve-horse  team.    It 


is  quite  a  relief  not  to  have  a  bunch  of  horses  to  care  for  and  to  lay  in  a 
supply  of  feed  for  every  year.  And  last,  but  not  least,  when  one  takes  his 
vacation  there  are  no  horses  home  in  the  barn  to  worry  over,  or  starving 
for  water  or  feed.  Lately  I  have  used  it  to  haul  my  crop  of  'cots'  to  the 
station  and  I  found  it  far  superior  to  horses  for  hauling  as  well  as  for  field 

Clearly,  in  191 5,  horseless  farming  was  in  sight — for  most  farms;  al- 
though we  still  had  the  old  fly-hatchers  with  us  generally,  and  perhaps  for 
steep  work  in  vineyards  and  hillside  orchards  many  of  them  would  remain 


AMONG   the  exhibit  palaces,   that  of  Agriculture  was  peculiarly  the 
Palace  of  the  States.     Here  they  made  severally  some  of  their  most 
imposing   demonstrations,  and  here  they  dominated  as  units  of 
basic  production. 

Iowa,  Illinois,  Kansas,  and  Missouri  occupied  the  four  corners  made  by 
the  crossing  of  the  central  avenues  under  the  big  dome.  These  are  great 
corn  States,  and  one  of  the  most  striking  objects  in  the  building  was  Iowa's 
Horn  of  Plenty,  forty-five  feet  high,  appearing  to  pour  corn  inexhaustibly 
in  a  huge  pyramid;  golden  ears  and  a  few  crimson  ones,  yield  of  the  great 
grain  and  fodder  plant  that  America  has  given  for  the  enrichment 
of  the  world.  Fruits  were  scattered  over  the  surface  of  the  heap.  of  Com 
Cases  contained  more  corn,  wheat,  oats,  barley,  potatoes,  and 
apples.  Inside  the  pyramid  were  illuminated  pictures  illustrating  the  live- 
stock resources  of  Iowa,  with  typical  landscapes,  and  statistics  showing  the 
State's  commanding  position  in  the  production  of  food. 

Missouri  made  a  grand  exhibition  of  corn,  ten  ears  of  which,  planted, 
ploughed,  and  picked  by  Mrs.  Mabel  Miller  of  Osceola,  were  of  especial  merit. 
The  booth  was  decorated  with  some  extraordinary  designs  worked  out  in 
seeds,  grasses,  and  grains.  There  was  a  good  showing  of  long-staple  cotton 
from  a  half-dozen  counties  in  the  southeast  corner  of  the  State,  which  had 
produced  the  preceding  year  about  54,000  bales.  And  just  to  show  that  old 
Missouri  had  not  forgotten  that  other  long  staple  of  the  South,  there  was  a 
320-pound  twist  of  pipe  tobacco,  about  eleven  feet  long  and  two  feet  thick. 
Other  products  shown  were  cotton-seed  hulls  and  meal,  kaffir  corn,  sorghum, 
wheat,  clover,  alfalfa,  cow  peas,  and  soy  beans.  The  great  eagle  in  grains 
and  seeds  on  the  "battlement  front"  of  the  booth  had  a  wing  spread  of  48 
feet;  and  a  large  variety  of  seeds  and  grains  went  to  the  composition  of  the 
portrait  of  Governor  Major. 

Probably  the  greatest  display  of  sorghum  ever  made  was  in  the  Kansas 
booth.  It  was  in  charge  of  a  sorghum  enthusiast,  John  Ferriter  of  Wichita. 
Ferriter  felt  that  humanity  would  be  wealthier  for  more  of  these  prolific 



and  nutritious  grains;  which  would,  properly  treated,  not  only  produce  the 

hot  cakes  for  a  nation,  but  the  molasses  to  go  on  them.     The  sorghums  do 

well  in  Kansas,  yielding  an  almost  incredible  number  of  bushels 

c     L  to  the   acre,  and  the    stalks  and  leaves  make  good  ensilage:  a 

Sorghums  '  ...  ^  ,  t 

consideration  growing  in  importance  to  farmers  everywhere.  In 
1914,  Kansas  sold  $23,000,000  worth  of  the  sorghum  grains. 

All  in  all,  124  different  kinds  of  grain  were  shown  in  this  booth,  46  varie- 
ties of  grasses  and  several  of  fruit.  The  table  display  of  apples  was  espe- 
cially attractive.  There  were  twenty  varieties  of  corn,  shelled,  in  the  ear, 
and  on  the  stalk.  There  were  some  tall  cornstalks  in  the  Kansas  booth, 
with  the  first  ear  ten  feet  from  the  ground.  Besides  the  Ben  Davis  apples, 
the  Winesaps,  the  Black  Bens  and  Black  Twigs,  the  Missouri  Pippins  and 
Champions  and  Ganos,  there  were  grapes,  and  peaches,  and  cherries,  and 
pears,  there  were  peas  and  beans,  and  there  were  mangoes  in  jars.  The 
place  was  appropriately  decorated  with  the  sunflower;  and  Ceres,  of  course, 
presided  over  the  main  entrance,  with  a  Horn  of  Plenty. 

All  these  States  in  the  center  of  the  Palace  emphasized  the  importance 
and  great  value  of  corn,  but  Illinois  went  a  step  ahead  of  any  in  showing 
what  could  be  done  with  it.  Its  transmutations  were  marvelous.  Oils  and 
other  derivatives  appeared  in  dozens  of  commercially  valuable  forms.  On 
two  20-foot  tables,  beside  pyramids  of  the  grain  appeared  some  40  jars  con- 
taining its  manufactured  products — starches,  sugars,  oils,  syrups,  candy, 
and  various  distillates.  The  composition  of  a  bushel  of  corn  was 
.y,   •  /     shown  in  a  series  of  jars.     The  first  contained  a  bushel  of  kernels, 

Material  ■'  •  1  1     r 

weighing  56  pounds.  The  second  contamed  the  starch  from  a 
similar  bushel,  39.4  pounds  of  it;  the  third  showed  the  protein  contained  in 
gluten  and  horny  starch,  5.8  pounds;  the  fourth  the  water,  6  pounds;  the 
fifth,  oil,  2.8  pounds;  the  sixth  the  fiber,  1.2  pounds;  and  the  seventh  the 
ash,  0.8  of  a  pound.     If  you  will  tot  this  up  you  will  see  that  they  got  it  all. 

The  oil  goes  into  the  manufacture  of  artificial  shortening,  and — shall  we 
betray  it? — of  "olive  oil."  But  worse  things  than  that  have  become  "olive 
oil."  With  the  addition  of  sulphur,  corn  oil  even  became  vulcanized  rubber. 
Other  corn  products  shown  were  hominy,  corn  flakes,  corn  germs,  corn-oil 
cake  rich  in  nitrogen  for  cattle  feed,  ensilage,  cornstarch,  refined  grits  for 
brewing,  dextrine,  corn  sugar  and  corn  candy.  A  box  of  candy  of  the  sort 
used  all  over  this  broad  land  every  Saturday  night  for  the  promotion  of 
matrimony  and  the  mitigation  of  the  "movies,"  a  box  containing  marsh- 
mallows,  candy  figs,  candy  orange  sections,  gum  drops,  caramels  and  jelly 
beans,  turned  out  to  be  nothing  else  than  metamorphosed  Illinois  corn. 

The  hair  of  the  dog,  etc.     There  was  corn  whiskey,  and  right  beside  it 




some  samples  of  succenic  acid,  made  from  corn  and  used  as  a  whiskey- 
habit  cure.  Corn,  with  a  little  juniper,  made  Eureka  gin,  and  it  went  into 
other  kinds  as  well — rye  malt  gin,  dry  gin,  sloe  gin;  and  finally  kuemmel. 
Going  or  coming,  you  can't  beat  corn. 

The  results  often  years  of  corn  breeding  were  demonstrated  by  means  of 
samples  in  jars.  The  original  strain  showed  an  oil  content  of  2.68  pounds  to 
the  bushel,  which  was  raised  to  4.13  pounds  and  then  reduced  to  1.48.  The 
protein  content  was  juggled  in  the  same  way,  from  6.12  up  to  8  and  down  to 
4.83.  Another  set  of  jars  showed  what  corn  takes  out  of  the  soil:  the  nitro- 
gen, phosphorus,  and  potassium  removed  by  the  stalks,  leaves,  and  kernels, 
which  came  to  considerably  less  than  wheat. 

The  Illinois  booth  was  decorated  with  grasses,  corn,  and  grains  and  its 
central  feature  was  a  pyramid  of  corn  contributed  by  the  Illinois  Corn 
Growers'  Association,  with  an  Indian  girl  made  of  corn,  corn  husks  and  corn 
silk,  standing  on  its  summit. 

One  part  of  the  exhibit  that  the  ladies  spent  a  good  deal  of  time  studying 
was  a  life-size  colored  chart,  under  glass,  of  a  side  of  prime  beef.  There 
were  12  enlarged  photographs  showing  the  retail  cuts,  with  the  percentage 
of  lean,  fat,  and  bone  in  each,  and  the  retail  cost  of  the  edible  meat  in  each. 

A  statistical  table  put  Illinois  at  the  head  of  the  corn  States  for  volume 
and  value,  although  its  yield  per  acre  was  exceeded  by  Indiana  and  Ohio. 

There  were  exhaustive  tables  of  figures  showing  results  of  soil  analysis 
in  various  parts  of  the  State,  made  by  the  College  of  Agriculture  of  the  State 
University.  A  table  with  corncribs  and  placards  showed  forcibly  the  effects 
of  growing  corn  on  the  same  land  for  16  years,  compared  with  the  far  more 
profitable  practices  of  fertilizing,  and  of  rotating  crops.  It  was  an  effective 
way  to  teach  the  ever-needed  lesson  that  no  soil  is  permanently  fertile. 

Other  regions  might  show  the  luxurious  pomelo  or  the  tropical  avocado, 
but  Massachusetts  exhibited  in  jars  the  tonic  cranberry  of  Cape  Cod,  Plym- 
outh, Marshfield,  and  Scituate,  garnishment  of  Puritan  feasts  in  nipping 
November.  Massachusetts  showed  some  remarkable  things  in  its  agricul- 
tural exhibit.  There  were  topographical  maps  indicating  a  sur- 
prising area  of  wild  land  for  a  State  that  had  been  so  long  settled,  opportunity 
The  State  Forester's  office  showed  model  fire-fighting  apparatus, 
and  its  equipment  for  handling  the  gypsy  moth,  one  of  the  most  serious  tree 
pests  on  the  continent,  and  one  from  which  Massachusetts  is  defending  the 
rest  of  the  country  by  her  efforts  to  exterminate  it  at  home,  or  at  least  in  the 
home  it  had  preempted. 

Posters  advertised  the  attractions  of  loo-doUar  land  in  a  State  three 
quarters  of  which  was  within  five  miles  of  railroad,  trolley  or  canal.      Educa- 


tional  advantages  were  impressively  presented.  The  information  was 
posted  that  between  1900  and  1910  the  people  had  increased  561,070,  or 
20  per  cent,  of  which  the  urban  population  showed  a  gain  of  17.8  per  cent 
and  the  rural  of  but  1.17,  while  the  farms  had  actually  decreased  2.10  per 
cent  in  number,  and  9.90  in  improved  acreage.  The  whole  argument  seemed 
to  say:  "Come  East,  young  man,  come  East." 

One  of  the  most  interesting  exhibits  in  the  whole  Palace,  because  it  con- 
tained such  intimate  relics  of  our  colonial  history,  was  in  this  booth,  and 
consisted  of  old  utensils  from  the  Manning  Manse  at  Billerica,  Massachu- 
setts. There  was  a  "  tin  kitchen,"  much  the  sort  of  thing  campers  have  for 
baking  biscuits  before  the  camp  fire,  which  was  used  with  those  great  open 
fireplaces  that  were  the  pride  and  comfort  of  our  ancestors.  There  was  a 
spit  on  which  to  roast  the  meat,  a  hetchell  or  rippling  comb,  some  candle 
molds,  an  iron  cooking  pot,  and  a  spider  that  told  at  a  glance  why  a  thing 
so  unlike  a  spider  ever  should  have  been  called  one — for  this  spider  still  had 
its  legs,  so  that  it  could  stand  up  in  the  ashes  with  embers  under  it,  and 
hence  looked  the  part.  There  was  a  grub-hoe  worse  than  the  one  Markham 
wrote  his  poem  about,  a  wooden  hay  fork  made  from  three  branching  limbs 
and  polished  with  much  use,  a  flail,  a  froh  for  riving  shakes,  a  leather  water 
bucket,  and  a  number  of  articles  for  spinning,  including  an  old  wooden  reel 
with  a  hand-cut  worm  gear.  Finally  there  was  a  plow  used  on  the  farm  of 
Daniel  Webster  at  Marshfield,  with  the  share  built  up  of  strips  of  metal 
riveted  to  a  wooden  back. 

Louisiana  had  no  State  building  at  the  Exposition.  Under  the  hard 
conditions  of  the  times  and  especially  of  the  cotton  market  it  was  not  pos- 
sible for  her  to  raise  the  money  for  an  exhibit  and  a  building  too;  and  follow- 
ing the  lead  of  her  commissioners,  J.  E.  Edmonds,  Justin  F.  Denechaud  and 
Louis  N.  Brueggerhoff,  she  decided  it  would  be  better  to  present  a  picture 
without  a  frame  than  a  frame  without  a  picture,  and  so  she  set  up  in  the 
Palace  of  Agriculture  a  magnificent  exemplification  of  her  resources 
SouthiZY  ^"'^  abilities.  The  arrangement,  by  Robert  Glenk,  experienced 
in  displaying  just  such  products,  was  impressive.  There  was  a 
rest  room  in  the  center  of  the  space  where  you  could  see  any  of  the  Louisiana 
papers.  W.  D.  Clayton  was  in  charge  as  Superintendent,  but  should  have 
been  called  host  for  his  State,  with  so  genial  and  inviting  an  air  of  hospital- 
ity did  he  invest  this  section  of  the  Palace. 

The  exhibits  here  were  most  interesting  to  persons  unfamiliar  with  the 
semi-tropical  climate  of  Louisiana.  They  showed  products  almost  antipo- 
dean to  those  Massachusetts  cranberries.  Cotton  was  shown  growing. 
Sugar,  rice,  pecans,  pralines,  and  perique  awaken  in  the  mind  no  shuddering 


visions  of  frozen  wintry  wastes  with  Indians  and  Puritans  hunting  each  other 
for  Thanksgiving.  Here  you  thought  of  the  tawny  river  drawing  slowly 
past  the  Picayune  Tier  like  some  Creole  beauty  that  languorously  stretches 
her  limbs  and  decides  to  have  her  breakfast  on  a  tray;  of  the  old  French  city 
under  the  levee,  where  the  streets  are  named  from  the  poetry  of  life,  where 
there  is  always  plenty  of  time  to  live,  and  where  the  negro  servants  speak 
soft  French  instead  of  an  American  stage  dialect;  and  of  plantations  of  wav- 
ing cane,  and  river  packets  whose  white  and  gilded  staterooms  and  hollow 
cabins  recall  the  charm  of  days  long  gone. 

Yet  it  was  commercial  enough  to  suit  the  most  matter-of-fact  individual, 
and  demonstrated  immense  reserves  of  potential  wealth.  Here  was  sea- 
island  cotton,  long  and  fine  in  fiber,  and  a  striking  exhibit  of  huge  slabs  of 
long-leaf  yellow-pine  lumber,  representing  a  great  and  growing  industry. 
There  were  cypress  panels  30  inches  wide.  There  were  fine  grape  fruit, 
equal  to  those  of  the  Isle  of  Pines.  Louisiana  was  going  in  for  citrus-fruit 
culture  more  and  more  those  days.  Dr.  Wiley  had  offered  a  cup  to  the  per- 
son that  propagated  the  best  fruit,  and  it  was  won  by  Mr.  Gordeau  with  a 
little  sweet  seedless  orange  of  very  fine  flavor. 

The  cottonseed  products  were  instructive  in  range.  Here  was  a  lard 
from  the  soil — in  the  form  of  cottolene.  There  was  meal,  oil  cake.  Wesson 
oil,  and  hnters  and  hulls  with  a  wide  range  of  usefulness.  There  was  salt 
from  the  largest  salt  mines  in  the  country,  and  very  pure — 99.84  per  cent 
sodium  chloride. 

There  was  much  of  interest  in  the  way  of  hay.  One  of  the  best  types  was 
the  lespedeza,  or  Japan  clover,  prolific  and  nutritious;  and  it  came  from  a 
parish  of  the  delectable  name  of  West  Feleciana.  You  were  continually 
reminded  here  that  the  people  of  Louisiana  live  and  bring  forth  the  products 
of  Louisiana  in  parishes  and  not  in  counties.  Rice  breeding  has 
gone  great  lengths  in  the  State  of  Creoles.  Among  the  latest  and  Tuhacco 
best  species  were  the  Blue  Rose,  and  La  Pearl.  Sol  Wright  of 
Crowley  was  the  Burbank  of  rice  in  his  State.  There  was  a  good  display 
of  spirits  of  turpentine,  and  of  resins.  A  recent  industry  consisted  in  re- 
torting the  pine-forest  waste  for  pyroligneous  acids;  and  getting  tar  oil, 
turpentine,  and  pine  tar,  and  other  things  that  go  into  disinfectants  and  into 
naval  stores.  Great  things  were  being  done  through  the  utilization  of  saw- 
mill waste. 

In  Louisiana  they  take  the  Spanish  moss  that  hangs  in  such  abundance 
from  the  trees,  ret  it  and  decorticate  it,  and  get  a  wiry,  springy  core  that 
makes  good  mattresses.  There  were  bales  of  it  on  exhibition.  There  was  a 
good  showing  of  syrups.     And  there  was  the  rich,  black  tobacco  a  little  of 


whichso  flavors  a  pipe-load  that  smokers  hunger  and  thirst  for  it:theLouisi- 
ana  Perique,  which  grows  nowhere  else  in  the  world  and  which  nobody  in 
any  other  part  of  the  world  would  know  how  to  cure  if  they  could  grow  it. 
And  there  was  our  old  friend  Tobasco,  the  little  red  bottle  of  red-hot  sauce 
that  tastes  so  interesting  and  feels  like  a  spoonful  of  fresh-cooked  lava. 

Here,  then,  was  Louisiana.  The  whole  exhibit  was  typical  and  meant 
just  that,  unmistakably.  The  cotton  was  growing  in  Louisiana  soil.  There 
were  orrvamental  boxes  of  that  soil,  black,  friable,  rich  in  humus,  standing  at 
the  corners  of  the  space  so  that  you  could  take  it  up  and  feel  it  and  smell  it — 
and  possibly  believe  it,  but  that  was  hard,  it  was  so  incredibly  rich  and  good. 

There  were  perfumes,  candies,  vegetables,  cordials,  liqueurs, 
r     li"      There  were  minerals,  birds,  game,  oysters,  and  the  live  terrapin 

unconscious  of  their  steep  values  and  approaching  death.  Well- 
placed  verbal  statements  drove  home  such  facts  as  that  "New  Orleans  is  the 
largest  sugar  market  in  the  United  States";  "New  Orleans  has  fifteen  miles 
of  water  front,  on  which  are  situated  the  public  docks,  lined  with  steel  sheds. 
Direct  communication  with  public  belt  railroad  serving  all  the  great  rail- 
roads and  the  steamship  lines."  The  Board  of  Dock  Commissioners  coji- 
tributed  maps,  photographs,  and  literature.  The  Sewerage  and  Water 
Board  demonstrated  the  purity  of  New  Orleans  water.  The  Board  of  Trade, 
the  Cotton  Exchange,  and  the  Association  of  Commerce  sent  exhibits  and 
printed  matter.  There  was  broom  corn,  road  metal,  building  brick,  sugar 
cane,  and  prize  corn  in  the  ear  from  the  Boys'  Corn  Club.  There  were  forty 
big  jars  of  oranges,  and  fine  specimens  of  hickory  nuts,  walnuts,  and  Spanish 
peanuts  besides  the  finest  pecans  you  ever  saw.  The  diversity  of  soil  prod- 
uct was  wonderful.  The  exhibit  covered  two  entire  blocks  in  the  Palace 
of  Agriculture,  two  blocks  of  Louisiana  territory.  More  than  in  any  other 
booth  in  the  Palace  you  felt  in  this  one  that  you  had  been  taken  out  of  time 
and  space  and  transported  to  the  scenes  where  these  things  had  originated. 
The  most  conspicuous  and  imposing  feature  of  New  York's  exhibit  in 
Agriculture  succumbed  to  its  own  popularity.  When  warm  weather  came 
it  so  filled  the  Palace  with  odors  so  far  superior  to  any  ever  heard  of  in  Araby 

the  Blest  that  it  had  to  be  divided  up  and  distributed  among  the 
T   ^"ch  es     ravenous  throngs.     It  was  the  biggest  single,  solid,  homogeneous, 

and  self-supporting  cheese  ever  built  in  the  world,  at  that  time. 
This  hill  of  nutriment  was  78>^  inches  in  diameter  and  stood  four  feet 
seven  inches  high  from  a  pedestal  of  smaller  cheeses.  It  weighed  15,000 
pounds  and  contained  the  casein  from  150,000  pounds  of  milk,  the  yield  of 
10,000  cows,  the  output  of  25  factories  for  a  morning.  It  contained  375 
pounds  of  salt,  and  a  gallon  and  a  half  of  carrot  coloring  matter,  and  took  five 




thicknesses  of  cheesecloth  to  hold  it  together.  Speeches  were  made  from 
the  top  of  it.  It  was  a  rendezvous,  of  popularity.  When  the  crowd  couldn't 
stand  it  any  more  but  stood  hungrily  glaring  at  it  and  wondering  why  it 
was  made,  and  with  watering  mouths  looked  ready  to  mob  it,  the  people 
in  charge  of  the  booth  started  to  cut  it  up  with  piano  wire  and  sell  it 
to  the  cheese-hungry  at  25  cents  a  pound,  and  in  a  few  brief  days  it  was 

The  cheese  was  made  in  Lewis  County  for  the  State  of  New  York  by  H. 
A.  Rees,  instructor  in  cheesemaking  at  one  of  the  State's  agricultural  schools. 
New  York  has  had  a  big  one  in  every  exposition  in  which  she  has  participated 
but  this  was  the  first  one  over  1,000  pounds  in  weight  that  could  stand  with- 
out hoops  or  bands.  And  it  ripened  better  in  the  California  climate  than 
any  cheese  of  the  sort  ever  had  ripened  before;  indicating  that  a  combination 
of  New  York  and  California  would  be  some  State. 

It  was  a  lesson  in  the  importance  of  the  industry  in  New  York.  Water- 
town  is  said  to  be  the  largest  cheese  center  in  the  world.  Other  centers  of 
the  industry  were  indicated  on  a  large  model  of  the  State,  showing  cheese  and 
butter  factories;  and  sawmills,  wood-pulp  mills,  railroads,  and  highways. 
There  was  a  large  exhibition  refrigerator  in  this  booth  in  which  were  dis- 
played New  York  butter  and  certified-milk  products.  Thirty  different 
kinds  of  cheese  and  25  distinct  varieties  of  potato  were  shown. 

A  large  electric  sign  of  30  movable  leaves  indicated  the  preeminence  of 
New  York  in  fields  where  its  preeminence  had  been  forgotten  by  some 
people.  One  of  these  legends  declared  that  the  Empire  State  produced  more 
apples  than  22  States  west  of  the  Mississippi  River  combined.  Only  Cali- 
fornia among  the  States  produces  more  grapes  than  New  York.  Corn, 
beans,  peas,  wheat,  rye,  oats,  barley,  buckwheat,  and  hops  were  displayed  in 
miniature  railroad  cars  with  glass  tops  and  fronts.  There  was  a  big  pyramid 
of  maple  sugar.  There  was  a  great  display  of  honey  and  of  preserved  fruits 
and  vegetables.  The  New  York  State  College  of  Agriculture  at  Cornell 
made  an  instructive  exhibit  of  alfalfa  roots,  showing  the  remarkable  depth 
to  which  they  penetrate  the  soil.  The  College  of  Forestry  at  Syracuse  super- 
vised the  making  of  models  illustrating  forestry  work,  and  1 4  large  transpar- 
encies showed  forestry  and  reforestation  scenes.  There  was 
a  motion-picture  theater  in  the  center  of  the  booth,  where  the         ^''"""fi 

.....  .  Empire 

most  practical  pictures  imaginable  were  shown  several  times  a 
day:  "Everyday  Farming  in  the  Empire  State,"  "Fruit  Scenes   in   New 
York,"  "The  Summer  School  for  Students  of  Forestry  in  the  Catskills," 
"The  Origin  of  Asphalt,  and  New  York  State  Improved  Highways,"  "The 
Production  of  Milk,"  "The  Grape  Industry." 


It  was  said  that  about  50,000  copies  of  publications  of  the  New  York 
State  Department  of  Agriculture  were  distributed  at  this  booth.  There 
were  maps  of  soil  surveys,  and  about  400  still  pictures  of  State  agricultural 
conditions.  An  accurate  account  was  kept  of  the  number  of  persons  that 
visited  the  booth — not  merely  the  passers-by,  but  people  that  stopped  and 
examined  it.     The  total  came  to  270,500. 

Wisconsin,  land  of  lakes  and  streams  and  broad  pastures  and  rich  farming 
land,  and  high  grass  and  prize  cattle,  where  progressive  politics  and  progres- 
sive farming  go  hand  in  hand,  was  represented  in  the  Palace  of  Agriculture 
by  an  exhibit  that  was  nothing  less  than  an  epitome  of  the  State's  agri- 
cultural life.  Wisconsin  has  an  active  Agricultural  Experiment  Association 
of  over  2,000  members,  largely  resulting  from  the  activity  of  Prof.  R.  A. 
Moore,  State  Agronomist,  and  under  the  patronage  of  this  Association  it  had 
become  the  leading  seed-selling  State  of  the  Union.  The  Association  col- 
lected the  exhibits  that  went  into  Wisconsin's  space  in  the  Palace  of  Agricul- 
ture. These  things  are  the  State's  pride,  for  over  50  per  cent  of  her 
population  lives  on  farms  or  in  small  farm-supported  communities. 

The  great  work  of  the  Wisconsin  College  of  Agriculture  was  exemplified 
in  a  remarkably  thorough  way,  especially  in  seed  breeding.  There  were 
pedigreed  seeds  of  many  varieties,  but  perhaps  as  striking  as  any  for  pur- 
poses of  illustration  was  the  Oderbrucker  barley,  six  rows  to  the  head  and 
51  bushels  to  the  acre.  It  began  with  8)4  per  cent  of  protein  and  was  bred 
up  on  the  University  farm  for  16  years  until  the  protein  content  had  reached 
15  per  cent,  before  the  seed  was  given  to  the  farmer. 

Wisconsin  cans  40  per  cent  of  all  the  peas  canned  in  the  United  States, 
and  also  produces  great  crops  of  field  peas.  Corn  had  been  bred  for  16 
years,  and  through  the  development  of  early  and  hardy  varieties  the  corn 
belt  had  been  extended  to  the  northern  boundary  of  the  State. 
New  Grains  There  was  a  sample  of  60-day  oats.  There  was  a  white-flint  corn 
that  matured  like  a  promissory  note,  in  90  days  of  growing  weather 
and  was  pest-resistant  to  a  higher  degree  than  most  of  the  tender  species. 
There  were  in  191 5  over  48,000  silos  in  Wisconsin,  and  40  per  cent  of  the 
corn  went  into  ensilage.  There  was  ginseng  from  Wausau,  and  there  was  a 
galvanized-iron  tub  of  living  cranberry  sod  with  cranberries  ripening  in  it. 
They  do  say  that  a  good  deal  of  "Havana"  tobacco  comes  from  Wisconsin, 
and  that  New  York  buys  large  quantities  of  cheese  there;  though  we  cannot 
certify  to  the  truth  of  these  statements. 

The  largest  creamery  in  the  world  is  situated  in  Richland  County,  Wis- 
consin, and  has  an  intake  of  over  200,000  pounds  of  milk  a  day  in  Summer; 
while  Green  County  turns  out  Swiss  and  Limburger  cheese  in  large  lots. 


When  it  came  to  clover,  alfalfa,  and  timothy,  the  specimens  looked  almost 
good  enough  for  human  food  direct. 

Mrs.  Adda  F.  Howie  was  in  charge  of  this  booth  and  she  was  a  conta- 
giously enthusiastic  farmer.  She  had  built  the  Underwood  barns  at  Wau- 
watosa  for  F.  D.  Underwood,  President  of  the  Erie  Railway,  barns  that  had 
procelain  feed  boxes,  enameled  walls  and  stalls,  bronze  hardware,  a  bath- 
room for  the  men,  pictures  on  the  walls  and  lace  curtains  and  flowers  at  the 
barn  windows.  She  was  a  successful  cattle  breeder  herself,  having  begun 
with  two  cows  and  a  heifer  and  built  up  a  herd  of  a  hundred  head.  She  had 
their  portraits  and  talked  about  them  as  though  they  were  folks. 

James  Bellwood  and  his  three  sons,  of  South  Richmond,  put  in  the  Vir- 
ginia exhibit  in  this  Palace.  It  was  a  one-farm  exhibition  and  was  a  remark- 
able showing  of  diversified  agriculture.  The  farm  illustrated  embraced 
about  1,500  acres,  a  thousand  of  which  were  cultivated.  The  produce 
ranged  from  giant  peanuts  to  lumber.  There  were  rice,  giant 
red-top,  soy  beans,  spike  grass,  Hungarian  and  German  millet,  q^^  p^^^ 
beardless  barley;  and  corn,  both  eating  and  pop.  Ten  ears  that 
had  taken  the  championship  at  the  Richmond  State  Fair  in  19I4  were  ex- 
hibited. There  was  an  instructive  showing  of  hardwoods:  sassafras,  walnut, 
yellow  locust,  dogwood,  bitter  hickory,  beach,  holly,  and  black  oak. 

With  these  objects,  pertinent  to  peace,  went  a  table  display  of  relics  of 
war,  for  the  Battle  of  Drewry's  Bluff  was  fought  on  the  farm,  and  the  plow 
had  been  turning  up  its  scattered  and  buried  souvenirs  for  almost  two  gen- 
erations. There  were  sabers,  there  was  a  shell  embedded  in  a  tree  where  it 
reposed  until  the  saw  struck  it,  and  then  the  mill  ordered  another  saw;  there 
were  rifle  and  revolver  balls,  bits  of  shrapnel  and  other  missiles.  The  Bell- 
wood  farm  booth  was  a  very  attractive  place  and  made  a  fine  showing  of  the 
climatic  and  soil  resources  of  the  Old  Dominion. 

Idaho  exhibited  as  her  most  conspicuous  feature  a  maddening  image  of  a 
gigantic  baked  potato,  broken  open  across  the  center,  with  a  slab  of  golden 
butter  the  size  of  a  tombstone  melting  down  into  its  warm,  soft,  starchy 
bosom;  calling  attention  to  the  fact  that  the  State  shipped  out  8,000  cars  of 
potatoes  in  1914.  She  also  advertised  the  fact  that  she  had  plenty  of  fine 
land  on  which  to  grow  more,  by  showing  a  panorama  of  the  great  Arrow- 
rock  dam,  26  miles  above  Boise,  the  highest  concrete  dam  in  the  world,  and 
the  area  it  would  water.  This  dam  is  351  feet  high  and  1,060  feet  long  on 
the  crest,  cost  ^5, 500,000,  took  the  United  States  Reclamation 
Service  four  years  to  build,  and  was  to  irrigate  243,000  acres.  It  ^nd  Pasture 
was  completed  late  in  the  Exposition  season.  The  exhibit  showed 
pasture  and  forage  plants,  and  a  pasture  capacity  under  irrigation  better 

VOL.    IV — 18 


than  three  animals  to  the  acre  for  eight  months  in  the  year.  There  were 
samples  of  seven-headed  wheat,  and  prize  ears  of  corn  with  the  kernels  in 
long  straight  rows  clear  to  the  tip  of  the  cob.  Grain  was  put  in  open  glass 
bins,  where  people  could  gratify  their  natural  desire  to  spade  into  it  with 
their  hands  and  let  it  run  through  their  fingers.  The  psychology  of  that 
was  good — quite  hke  a  Montessori  method  for  infant  farmers.  Another 
panorama  showed  the  famous  Shoshone  Falls,  with  their  great  quantity  of 
water  power;  a  very  beautiful  Rocky  Mountain  scene. 

The  only  exhibit  of  South  Dakota  was  made  in  the  Palarce  of  Agriculture, 
by  the  Immigration  Department  of  that  State.  It  was  an  exceptionally  fine 
showing  of  corn  and  grains,  and  of  great  potatoes.  Placards  advertised  the 
cheapness  of  South  Dakota  lands,  and  also  showed  that  since  1876  the  Black 
Hills  district  had  produced  ^200,000,000  worth  of  gold. 

Montana  prided  herself  upon  her  grain,  as  well  she  might,  and  the  desire 
of  her  Commissioners  was  to  show  a  large  amount  in  a  large  space.  They 
did.  Massiveness  was  the  note  of  the  Montana  booth.  There  was  a  row 
of  huge  pillars  covered  with  grains  of  wheat,  supporting  a  frieze  of  upland 
cereals.  Back  of  these  columns,  on  the  wall  of  the  booth,  were  such  fat 
sheaves  as  Montanans  claim  can  be  grown  only  on  their  soil,  formed  in  huge 
circles  around  intermittently  illuminated  transparencies.  Three  arches 
gave  entrance  to  the  interior,  where  you  were  surrounded  with  typical 
examples  of  all  the  Montana  crops.  At  one  end  was  a  panorama 
of  Montana  showing  what  a  valley  farm  in  this  mountain  State  was  like.  And 
there  was  an  imposing  array  of  cups,  medals,  and  other  trophies 
that  Montana  had  taken  at  agricultural  exhibitions.  The  booth  exhibited 
black-bearded  macaroni  wheat,  and  winter  emmer,  both  of  interest  as  valu- 
able and  somewhat  unusual  farm  products.  In  addition  there  was  nearly 
every  variety  of  wheat  and  oats  grown  anywhere.  Seeds  and  grains  were 
used  in  the  composition  of  decorated  pictures;  and  altogether  the  exhibit  was 
a  very  impressive  one. 

Adjacent  to  the  large  booth  was  a  subsidiary  exhibit  of  powerful  appeal 
to  the  sportsman.  Here  the  wild  life  of  Montana  was  shown  by  the  finest 
skill  of  the  taxidermist.  There  were  Rocky  Mountain  sheep,  there  were 
deer  and  antelope.  Animals  of  the  mountain,  valley,  and  plain,  were  stand- 
ing or  lying  in  life-like  postures,  amid  surroundings  as  natural  as  art  could 
make  them. 

Nevada's  fame  as  a  mining  State  has  been  and  remains  world-wide. 
What  the  world  outside  of  Nevada  does  not  yet  understand  is  that  it  offers 
magnificent  opportunity  to  agriculturists.  Her  boundaries  include  millions 
of  acres  of  the  finest  agricultural  land  in  the  world,  and  the  possibilities  of 




her  diversified  climate  are  magical.  These  propositions  were  demonstrated 
m  Nevada's  exhibit  in  the  Palace  of  Agriculture  with  telling  effect.  She 
showed  85  varieties  of  nutritious    native  grass,  the  support  of 

great  flocks  of  sheep  and  herds  of  cattle  and  roving  bands  of  wild      ^,Z^''f 

ho  1         1  ,   ,-  ■    1        ,  . ,  .  ,  of  Nevada 

orses.  bhe  showed  fine  commercial  exhibits  of  wool,  hay,  mut- 
ton, honey,  potatoes,  dairy  products,  corn,  beans,  pumpkins,  baled  alfalfa, 
cucumbers,  peanuts,  fine  pears  and  apples,  nuts,  garden  truck,  and  beef 
unexcelled  for  quality,  generally  speaking,  by  those  of  any  other  State  or 
any  other  part  of  the  world.  And  the  lands  on  which  these  things  can  be 
duplicated  and  multiplied  to  vast  aggregate  values  are  to-day  virtually 
unsettled,  and  largely  unknown,  for  the  overland  journey  was  mapped  out 
to  get  people  to  California  as  soon  as  possible,  not  to  show  the  best  parts  of 
the  region  it  traversed.  Besides,  Nevada's  great  mineral  wealth  is  hidden 
in  her  desert  country,  not  in  her  broad  and  fertile  valleys  of  artesian  wells 
and  alfalfa  fields,  and  so  vast  numbers  get  their  impressions  of  the  State 
from  mining  scenes  in  the  desert. 

Fourth  in  area  among  the  States,  Nevada  can  count  but  80,000  popula- 
tion. These  80,000  cannot  be  said  to  occupy,  but  they  do  dwell  among, 
some  71,000,000  acres  of  land,  only  2,000,000  of  which  is  under  fence.  There 
is  but  scant  population  to  consume  her  products  as  yet,  but  the  future  such 
conditions  indicate  is  most  inviting. 

The  Nevada  booth  contained  a  large  topographic  map  of  the  State,  in 
order  that  visitors  might  think  of  some  other  parts  of  it  than  they  saw  from 
the  car  windows  coming  to  San  Francisco.  This  map  was  twelve  feet  long 
and  nine  feet  wide,  and  it  showed  the  principal  water  courses,  the  arable 
lands,  watersheds,  highways,  cities,  towns,  railroads,  names  of  the  principal 
crops  for  each  locality  and  a  great  deal  of  similarly  valuable  information. 
It  was  designed  to  give  a  graphic  representation  of  the  State's  agricultural 
resources  and  opportunities,  and  to  any  observant  person  it  did.  This 
exhibit  was  particularly  convincing  of  the  vast  possibilities  of  Nevada  agri- 

The  State  of  Washington  exhibited  in  the  Palace  of  Agriculture  both 
her  agricultural  and  forestry  resources.     In  the  agricultural  part  of  her 
space,  there  was  a  model  of  a  combined  harvester  in  a  field  of 
grain,  showing  the  method  of  operation.     Across  the  way  from  S'T''"'.''^ 

■    ■  111.  Washington 

It  was  a  miniature  hay  baler  turning  out  bales  of  hay.     A  corn 
palace  was  an  interesting  part  of  the  display.     There  was  a  comprehensive 
exhibit  of  grains  and  grasses,  vegetables  and  various  other  agricultural 
products.     The  booth  was  constructed  of  great  Douglas  fir  logs,  the  columns 
being  covered  with  oat  heads. 


The  Washington  forestry  exhibit  took  the  form  of  a  house  in  the  con- 
struction of  which  were  used  various  timbers  and  finishes,  including  some 
very  handsome  Douglas  fir  veneer.  There  were  shingles,  planks  of  fir, 
cedar,  and  hemlock,  photographs  of  big  trees  and  forest  scenes  and  tre- 
mendous sawmills  in  a  region  where  lumbering  is  a  leading  industry,  and 
has  engaged  large  masses  of  labor  and  capital.  And  alongside  the  house 
were  huge  timbers  of  Douglas  fir  tested  to  failure,  in  close  proximity  to  oak 
beams  similarly  tested  to  show  the  relative  strength  of  each. 

As  one  of  the  great  corn  States,  Indiana  emphasized  her  qualifications 
for  the  production  of  that  staple,  and  gave  abundant  evidences  of  the  fine 
quality  of  it  she  could  turn  out.  The  marketing  advantages  of  her  location 
were  shown  by  a  map  on  which  was  described  a  large  circle,  indicating  that 
within  24  hours  ef  Indiana  was  a  market  of  75,000,000  people.  The  pro- 
duction of  milk  and  eggs  was  indicated  statistically  by  means  of  charts  and 
legends,  and  there  were  jars  of  seeds  and  grains.  Colored  slides  in  a  little 
theater  showed  Indiana's  agricultural  industries.  It  was  a  good  showing  of 
the  activities  and  resources  of  a  great  and  typical  agricultural  State. 

The  Arkansas  exhibit  was  largely  individualistic,  the  exhibits  being  sent 
in  by  private  exhibitors,  but  when  they  were  all  together  they  constituted 
an  impressive  showing  of  what  this  State  could  do  in  the  production  of  cot- 
ton, rice,  tobacco,  oats,  rye,  wheat,  and  corn.  An  educational  chart  repre- 
sented her  cotton  by-products  and  they  were  astonishing  in  their  range. 
The  Arkansas  State  Commission  showed  forage  grasses  and  seeds.  The 
main  exhibit  of  Arkansas  however,  was  in  the  Palace  of  Horticulture. 

The  Angora  goat,  Willamette  Valley  flax,  and  the  great  diversity  of 
products  that  could  be  taken  from  a  ten-acre  "dry"  farm,  gave  unusual 
interest  to  the  agricultural  exhibit  of  the  State  of  Oregon.  The  booth  was 
attractively  rustic,  and  "woodsy,"  with  benches  and  columns  made  from 
"Oregon  pine"  logs.  A  stuffed  Angora  with  his  long,  bright,  silken 
GolT"''  fleece,  if  fleece  it  could  be  called,  showed  where  the  mohair  comes 
from  for  the  plush  in  the  Pullman  car;  Oregon  being  almost  the 
sole  source  of  this  handsome  commodity.  There  was  a  grand  showing  of 
sheaf  grains,  including  the  seven-headed  wheat,  and  there  were  pictures  of 
fine  rural  schools.  A  placard  proclaimed  that  of  her  people  80  per  cent  have 
telephones,  75  per  cent  have  access  to  public  libraries,  70  per  cent  have  ac- 
cess to  high  schools,  60  per  cent  receive  a  daily-mail  service,  and  63  per  cent 
of  the  women  belong  to  clubs.  The  whole  exhibit  was  indicative  of  pioneer 
advantages  without  pioneer  privations. 

There  was  a  great  showing  of  Willamette  Valley  flax,  for  the  development 
and  utilization  of  which  a  300,000-dollar  corporation  was  being  organized. 


And  if  there  was  anything  you  were  still  reluctant  to  believe  about  the 
possibilities  of  the  Oregon  soil  and  climate  there  was  the  exhibit  of  F.  M. 
Sherman  of  Lebanon  County,  who  displayed  some  341  specimens  of  produce, 
all  different,  from  a  ten-acre  farm,  just  to  show  what  could  be  done — from 
pumpkins  to  bamboo.  The  eastern  Oregon  section  showed  some  wonderful 
apples  and  other  fruits. 

We  do  not  ordinarily  think  of  the  State  of  Ohio  as  a  promising  locality  for 
the  pursuit  of  tropical  agriculture,  yet  she  showed  sugar-cane  specimens  that 
were  creditable.  Her  exhibit  of  tobacco  was  good,  and  some  of  her  grains 
were  of  a  high  standard  of  excellence.  Her  agricultural  experiment  station 
exhibited  fine  samples  of  wood.  But  the  most  striking  thing  she  showed  was 
her  long-staple  wool,  in  combed  samples  of  the  utmost  fineness  and  silki- 
ness.  One  could  better  understand  Ohio's  position  in  the  ranks  of  the  Re- 
publican party  after  having  seen  this  wool.  In  wall  cases  there  were  samples 
of  cloth  that  contained  bits  of  string  or  hemp  with  which  the  wool  had  been 
tied,  and  which  had  gone  into  the  looms  by  mistake.  This  was  to  educate 
the  farmer  against  carelessness  in  this  regard,  which  might  utterly  ruin  a 
bolt  of  fine  cloth.  The  educational  value  of  the  exhibit  did  not  stop  here, 
but  appeared  in  a  great  array  of  corn,  wheat,  rye,  barley,  potatoes,  grasses, 
beet  sugar,  and  maple  syrup. 

The  California  exhibits  in  the  Palace  of  Agriculture  would  have  brought 
ecstasy  to  the  heart  of  a  vegetarian,  and  doubtless  did  charm  many  a  one, 
with  their  succulent  array  of  ground-grown  edibles,  from  horse-radish  to 
barley.  The  principal  agricultural  products  of  California,  however,  were 
those  shown  in  the  California  Building  by  the  various  counties,  and  those 
in  the  Palace  of  Horticulture,  mentioned  below.  In  the  Palace  of  Agricul- 
ture the  State  made  its  best  impression  with  forestry  products — not  so  much 
for  size  of  timber,  as  for  variety,  quality,  and  beauty,  although  a 
plank  was  shown  that  was  16  feet  wide,  and  puzzled  a  great  many  California 
eastern  visitors  to  detect  the  longitudinal  joint — which  none  did 
detect  because  it  was  not  there.  There  were  about  60  varieties  of  wood. 
Strange  figures  and  pictures  appeared  in  crosscuts  of  knots,  and  a  two- 
minute  lecture  on  the  subject  was  delivered  with  much  impressiveness  by 
Thomas  Hatch,  who  was  in  charge  and  had  his  own  theory  about  it. 

Perhaps  ten  years  before  the  Exposition,  one  Marcus  Weinberger,  being 
in  California  mountain  country  and  needing  a  slab  of  wood  for  some  pur- 
pose, took  a  saw  and  ripped  one  from  the  side  of  a  yellow  maple.  He  sawed 
straight  and  left  a  perfectly  flat  scar.  The  maple  went  on  growing,  its 
bole  increasing  in  girth,  and  new  wood,  covered  with  bark,  formed  about  the 
flat  surace  and  began  to  roll  in  over  its  edges.     Marcus  Weinberger  came 


back  in  a  few  years,  sawed  out  a  section  containing  the  old  scar  and  the  new 
growth,  peeled  the  bark  off  the  roll,  polished  up  the  old  saw  cut,  and  had  a 
unique  and  beautiful  table  top  with  a  rolled  and  convoluted  rim  about  two 
inches  high,  which  could  not  have  been  produced  by  any  ordinary  art. 
Fitted  with  rustic  legs  and  exhibited  in  the  CaHfornia  forestry  booth,  it  was 
not  merely  curious,  but  a  very  instructive  example  of  the  way  trees  grow — 
by  blind  additions,  striving  to  assert  the  tree  form  always. 

The  Eucalyptus  Hardwood  Association  showed  furniture,  veneering, 
tool  handles  and  a  plow  beam  of  eucalyptus.  There  were  some  new  incuba- 
tors. Among  the  other  California  exhibits  were  ginned  and  unginned  cotton, 
cotton  thread,  cotton  bolls,  the  Protean  forms  of  cottonseed  oil;  hemp,  hops, 
alfalfa,  feterrita,  sorghum,  Egyptian  corn;  and  grains,  in  the  sheaf  and 

Near  the  forestry  exhibit  of  California,  the  Pioneer  Varnish  Works  of 
San  Francisco  showed  varnishes,  and  samples  of  the  gum  from  which  they 
are  made — damar,  mombassa  from  Africa,  Congo  Copal,  yellow  benguela, 
red  angola,  and  a  long  list  besides. 

There  were  some  interesting  exhibits  representing  the  city  of  Stockton 
and  its  industries.  There  was  a  diorama  of  the  South  San  Joaquin  County 
irrigation  project,  there  was  a  goodly  showing  of  macaroni,  and  a  large  dis- 
play of  buhach,  or  pyrethrum  powder,  for  insect  destruction.  And  F.  A. 
Gummer,  a  Stockton  furniture  dealer,  put  in  a  comfortable  rest  room,  which 
was  always  a  welcome  thing  to  find  in  any  booth. 

Part  of  the  forestry  exhibits  installed  by  California  interests  were  the 
Redwood  Bungalow,  the  Sugar  Pine  and  White  Pine  Bungalow,  and  the 
House  of  Hoo  Hoo,  which  we  have  mentioned  above.  In  each  of  these 
buildings  Pacific  Coast  lumber  was  shown;  and  especially  in  the  House  of 
Hoo  Hoo  was  exemplified  the  new  method  of  taking  off  veneers  by  the  rotary 
cut.  By  revolving  the  log,  panels  ten  or  twelve  feet  wide  could  be  taken 
from  a  comparatively  small  tree,  and  used  for  wall  covering  without  showing 
a  seam  or  joint.  This  would  yield  superior  results  where  panehng  was 




ANYBODY  who  cherished  the  notion  that  animals  were  immune 
from  disease  because  they  led  the  simple  life,  slept  in  drafts,  and 
li^^ed  on  vegetables,  would  have  been  undeceived  in  two  looks  at 
the  exhibits  of  the  United  States  Bureau  of  Animal  Industry  in  the  Palace 
of  Agriculture.  When  you  had  studied  its  sixty-three  specimens  of  para- 
sites infecting  animals,  you  would  be  glad  of  Government  inspection  of 
meats,  or  any  other  meat  inspection  that  would  inspect.  They  were  very 
disagreeable;  but  like  many  disagreeable  things,  instructive.  The  parasites 
were  mounted  and  shown  in  pieces  of  the  meat  they  ravaged,  and  the  natural 
color  of  the  substances  had  been  faithfully  presented. 

There  were  130  preserved  pathological  specimens.  Pictures  above  the 
cases  wherein  these  things  were  displayed  showed  the  inspection  work  of  the 
Bureau;  with  types  of  insanitary  slaughterhouses,  and  carcasses  of  meat 
showing  inspection  marks.  A  model  of  municipal  slaughterhouse  for 
small  towns  showed  what  the  small  town  can  do  to  get  sanitary  meat.  Other 
models  represented  proper  methods  of  dipping  cattle  and  sheep 

■         ,-  1-1  T'l  J    1      r  •  Sanitary 

to  get  rid  of  mange  and  ticks.  1  here  was  a  model  ot  a  sanitary  production 
dairy  barn,  and  of  concrete  silo  construction,  and  the  latter  was 
supported  by  a  series  of  eighteen  pictures  on  a  screen,  illustrating  every 
necessary  step.  Butter  and  cheese  making  processes  were  represented  on 
transparencies.  Another  series  of  pictures  told  the  story  of  clean  milk; 
and  there  were  samples  of  Farmers'  Bulletins  issued  by  the  Bureau,  with 
directions  for  obtaining  them. 

The  lessons  in  modern  practice  were  equally  succinct  and  definite  in 
regard  to  poultry  raising  and  egg  handling  for  the  market.  This  part  of  the 
exhibit  went  so  far  as  to  display  ostrich  feathers  from  Arizona.  Wool  was 
shown  in  the  pelt,  from  various  parts  of  the  United  States  so  that  compara- 
tive study  could  be  made  of  it.  One  screen  showed  the  Bureau's  work  with 
goats  and  sheep,  and  another  some  of  the  types  of  stud  that  are  relied  on  to 
improve  American  horses. 

The  Forestry  Service  exhibit  was  as  practical  as  an  old  hoe,  and  showed 



exactly  what  was  being  done  by  the  forest  patrols  in  the  reservations  to  keep 
down  the  number  of  forest  fires,  and  how  the  public  could  help.  There  was 
a  model  of  a  typical  National  Forest  on  a  scale  of  an  inch  to  twenty-five  feet, 
showing  a  ranger  station,  a  ranger  nursery,  a  forest  plantation,  a  lookout 
house,  lookout  tower,  fire  tool  boxes,  fire  lines,  roads,  trails,  bridges,  moun- 
tain streams,  a  power  dam,  a  flume,  a  power  house,  and  transmission  lines, 
a  forest  homestead,  a  hotel  under  permit,  sheep  and  cattle  grazing,  a  drift 
fence,  a  corral,  a  timber  sale  area  being  logged,  and  a  mine.  The  right  and 
wrong  kinds  of  logging  were  illustrated.  Here  was  the  whole  scene,  and  all 
the  physical  elements  of  the  problem. 

Besides,  there  was  a  life-size  lookout  house  into  which  you  could  go  and 
where  you  could  see  the  equipment.  The  place  was  very  popular  with  boys. 
A  pair  of  binoculars  stood  at  hand  so  that  you  could  look  out  over  the  Palace 
and  see  just  where  some  careless  camper  had  left  his  embers  and  started  the 
trouble.  There  were  portable  telephone  and  heliograph  outfits,  and  the 
house  was  painted  white  to  serve  as  a  heliograph  target.  Nearby  was  a  fire- 
fighting  tool  box. 

A  working  erosion  model  showed  the  effects  of  deforestation  on  stream 
flow  and  surface  formation.  Two  hills  were  built  up  on  the  rear  of  the  model, 
of  the  ordinary  clay  found  in  parts  of  California.  One  of  the  hills  was 
covered  with  moss  and  foliage  to  represent  the  forest  cover  and  the  humus 
soil  beneath  it;  the  other  hill  was  bare  of  vegetation.  A  sprinkler  arrange- 
ment sent  a  shower  of  water  down  both  slopes.  The  water  flow- 
(md  Floods  '"§  °"  ^^  \i'SiX&  slope  Washed  off  the  surface  directly,  carrying  soil 
with  it,  and  deposited  it  in  the  stream  bed  and  the  lake  at  the  front 
of  the  model.  The  water  flowing  on  the  protected  hill  was  absorbed  by  the 
natural  reservoir  which  the  forest  afforded,  and  seeped  out  regularly  as  clear 
water.  The  stream  on  this  side  of  the  model  and  the  lake  below  were  filled 
with  it.  Farm  land  below  the  forested  slope  was  shown  in  good  condition; 
below  the  deforested  hill  the  river  had  overrun  its  banks  and  flooded  the  farm 
land.  The  model  was  convincing  evidence  of  the  way  erosion  from  defor- 
ested slopes  fills  up  storage  reservoirs,  power  dams,  and  channels  of  rivers. 

In  short,  there  was  a  full  and  impressive  demonstration  of  the  work  the 
Forest  Service  does  both  in  conserving  the  National  Forests  and  making 
their  resources  available  under  proper  regulations.  A  series  of  models 
showed  the  progress  of  lumber  from  its  stand  in  the  forest  to  its  place  in  the 
building,  losing  as  waste  65  per  cent  of  its  bulk  in  the  process.  The  utiliza- 
tion of  this  waste  in  various  manufacturing  lines  was  suggested.  A  relief 
map  of  the  United  States  showed  the  situations  of  the  National  Forests. 

The  illustrations  of  the  equipment  of  the  Weather  Bureau  were  beauti- 


fully  complete.     There  were  examples  of  evaporation  tanks  and  auto-record- 
ing rain  gauges,  and  weather  maps,  and  registers  for  sunshine  duration,  and 
anemometers,  and  barographs,  and  telethermoscopes  forgetting  the  tempera- 
ture of  distant  points.     Of  special  interest  to  California  farmers 
and  hydro-electric  engineers  was  a  snow  density  tube  to  measure    ^^^'^"'""^ 

1  11-1  •         •  •  ,  ...  f''e  S"ow 

the  snow  level  m  the  mountams  m  sprmg  so  that  the  irrigator 
could  ascertain  the  probable  summer  flow.  This  apparatus  did  not  require 
the  melting  of  the  snow  fall,  but  sampled  it,  weighed  it,  and  gave  the  water 
content  direct  from  the  snow  itself,  and  by  it  could  be  told  how  much  snow 
was  on  the  watershed.  This  was  new.  There  was  a  model  of  a  shielded 
seasonal  snow  gauge,  also  new,  which  would  hold  its  share  of  a  month's 
fall  without  permitting  any  of  it  to  blow  out. 

There  were  models  of  tandem  kites  for  getting  an  indication  of  conditions 
in  the  upper  air,  as  high  as  three  miles.  A  hydrogen  balloon,  a  sample  of 
which  was  exhibited,  had  gone  up  as  high  as  20  miles,  where  the  temperature 
was  90  degrees  below  zero.  The  balloons  ascended  until  they  burst  and  the 
recording  instruments  came  down  by  parachute.  Records  so  taken  indi- 
cated that  at  6  miles  from  the  earth  the  air  begins  to  get  a  little  warmer,  the 
temperature  is  steady,  and  there  is  no  humidity,  and  almost  no  wind.  Down 
to  the  outbreak  of  the  war,  these  balloons  came  from  Russia.  The  records 
were  made  on  a  smoked  aluminum  sheet.  An  object  of  some  local  curiosity 
in  this  booth  was  the  Bosch-Omori  seismograph. 

One  of  the  most  effective  agencies  of  public  deception  operative  in 
modern  life  is  the  fake  advertisement — there  is  so  much  money  to  be  made 
out  of  it.  The  United  States  Bureau  of  Chemistry  set  up  signs  and  tokens 
that  should  have  been,  and  probably  were,  of  the  utmost  value  in  unsettling 
the  faith  of  the  public  in  certain  nostrums  and  "treatments"  for  the  cure  of 
this,  that,  and  the  other  real  or  imaginary  ill,  and  in  certain  proprietary 
foods  of  dubious  worth  or  none.  There  were  61  samples  of  "  food"  products 
illustrating  adulteration  and  mis-branding  through  the  use  of  color.  There 
were  no  samples  showing  the  chief  ingredients  of  headache  remedies. 
There  was  a  large  collection  of  medicinal  preparations  found  to  be  adulter- 
ated or  mis-branded  under  the  law,  comprising  headache  powders,  beauty 
foods,  drug-habit  cures,  cancer  cures,  epilepsy,  rheumatism,  asthma,  and 
consumption  cures,  soothing  syrups,  and  many  other  materials  of  the  ancient 
flim-flam  game.  There  were  75  samples  of  crude  drugs  and  their  most  com- 
mon adulterants. 

Thirty  samples  demonstrated  the  difl^erence  between  true  and  imitation 
lemon  and  vanilla  extracts.  There  were  45  samples  of  spices  and  their 
adulterants.     Even  graham  flour  was  imitated  by  some  35  kinds  of  mill 


product.  There  were  56  samples  Ulustrating  the  mis-branding  of  mineral 
and  table  waters.  And  there  were  microscopes  with  movable  stages  on 
each  of  which  were  mounted  20  specimens  of  starches,  fibers,  paper  pulps, 
spices,  fruits,  and  other  substances  in  the  composition  of  which  the 
^^f^*®*^'"  consuming  public  has  an  interest.  In  this  booth  you  felt  that 
life  is  permeated  and  environed  by  lies  and  liars.  It  was  a  revela- 
tion of  the  lie  Industry. 

Then  Uncle  Sam  got  after  the  prairie  dogs,  and  in  the  exhibit  of  the 
Biological  Survey  showed  how  they  destroy  vegetation  and  tear  up  the  land. 
The  economic  value  and  the  destructiveness  of  birds  and  animals  were 
exhibited — how  the  bam  owl  keeps  down  the  pest  of  small  rodents,  and  how 
other  birds  eat  up  the  various  weevils  and  other  destructive  msects.  There 
was  a  very  handsome  family  of  stuffed  elk — father,  mother  and  son — in 
winter  setting,  to  call  attention  to  the  game  preservation  work. 

The  Bureau  of  Plant  Industry  had  some  very  practical  things  to  show. 
How  to  lose  a  cargo  of  com  by  shipping  it  when  it  is  not  sufficiently  dry  was 
illustrated  by  a  section  model  of  a  grain  ship,  with  cargo ^xposed  to  heat 
from  the  boiler  room  and  the  en^e  shafts.  Sbt  drawings  of  sections  of 
ships  exhibited  the  conditions  of  different  cargoes  when  they  arrived  in 
Europe.     Two  showed  com  heating  in  tran^t  and  being  cooled  on  amvaL 

Poisonous  plants  and  harmful  weeds  were  displayed.  There  were  138 
samples  of  tobacco,  and  some  examples  of  American  grown  hemp,  sisal,  and 
flax,  with  the  product.  Fruit  diseases  and  methods  of  combatting  them 
were  illustrated;  and  results  of  horticultural  and  pomolc^cal  investigations. 
At  one  rime  134  varieties  of  grapes  grown  in  California  were  on  exhibition. 

The  agency  of  the  nitrt^en-fixing  bacteria  in  soil  replenishment  was 
demonstrated  by  means  of  root  specimens  in  jars,  showing  the  production  of 
the  nodules.  Other  specimens  showed  the  types  of  swelling  produced  by  the 
nematode  worms.  There  were  pictures  of  an  inoculated  and  an  umnocu- 
lated  field,  and  charts  and  descriptive  matter  relating  to  soil  bacteria. 
Cotton  and  rice  breeding  were  exemplified;  and  there  were  some  pictures 
of  a  few  important  fungus  diseases  of  timber  trees,  with  specimens  showing 
the  role  of  the  lesser  plants  as  hosts  of  such  fungus. 

All  these  things  and  many  more  that  we  have  no  space  to  enumerate  here 
showed  what  sort  of  work  the  Department  of  Agriculture  was  doing  for  the 
public  in  the  year  191 5,  and  showed  it  very  plainly  and  impressively. 





THE  Palace  of  Agriculture  contained  the  largest  exhibition  of  Manila 
hemp  ever  made  outside  the  Philippine  Islands — an  impressive  lesson 
in  the  significance  of  cordage.  The  Philippines  are  the  only  region 
producing  this  commodity  in  commercial  quantities  and  standard  grades,  and 
the  value  of  the  crop  is  about  §24,000,000  every  year.  The  life  and  color  of 
tropical  agriculture  were  depicted  in  their  curious  and  beautiful  variety  in 
the  combined  agriculture  and  forestry  exhibit  of  the  islands.  Filipino 
artisans  were  working  at  typical  handicrafts  in  a  corner  of  the  space,  making 
musical  instruments  of  the  resonant  island  hardwoods,  and  weaving  great 
coils  of  rattan  into  the  large  and  graceful  "peacock"  chairs,  which,  for  all 
their  lightness,  have  somehow  the  dignity  of  native  thrones.  A  nipa  hut 
with  a  caraboa  cart  standing  beside  it,  and  domestic  utensils  scattered  all 
about,  gave  the  vivid  local  aspect  we  call  atmosphere,  for  lack  of  a  better 
term.  Almost  under  its  eaves  were  a  hand-mill  for  cleaning  rice,  a  stone 
corn  mill,  an  old  hand  sugar  mill,  a  cocoanut  husker,  a  model  of  a  tobacco 
press,  a  hemp  cleaner  and  scraper,  a  wooden  plow,  a  bamboo 
harrow  with  natural  joints  for  teeth,  and  a  sled  for  the  rice  fields.  /  ,  _j  o  "*" 
The  whole  exhibit  was  enclosed  in  the  characteristic  and  beautiful  ^^  "^"^ 
frame  of  the  Philippine  exhibits  throughout  the  palaces— smooth,  dark, 
palma  brava  columns  supporting  a  frieze  of  translucent  mollusc  shell  panes, 
between  panels  of  woven  bamboo.  The  whole  space  was  handsomely  floored 
in  Philippine  hard  woods. 

Rice  was  the  central  feature  of  the  picture,  about  which  all  the  other 
commodities  were  grouped;  and  that  was  appropriate  enough,  for  its  value 
leads  them  all,  even  hemp.  The  four  other  main  crops  were  grouped  about 
it:  hemp,  cocoanuts,  sugar,  and  tobacco.  The  object  of  this  large  and  won- 
drously  diversified  exhibit  was  to  give  an  idea  of  the  agricultural  and  forestry 
resources  the  islands  offer  to  development,  and  it  was  thoroughly  impressive 
both  as  to  extent  and  variety.  The  rice  was  present  in  great  quantity  and 
many  kinds.  There  were  about  1,500  samples  of  the  rough  unhulled,  and 
100  sheaf  samples,  illustrating  the  efforts  of  the  Government  experiment 



stations  during  the  past  six  or  seven  years  to  select  and  breed  a  sort  for  any 
condition,  low  land  or  high  land,  wet  or  dry,  and  for  all  possible  exposures. 

The  hemp,  or  abaca  fibre,  Musa  Textilis,  made  an  exhibit  of  great  beauty. 
It  was  used  to  cover  the  walls  of  two  pavilions  connected  by  a  pergola,  in 
which  were  exhibited  coils  of  excellent  cordage.  Various  commercial  houses 
in  Manila  contributed.  About  909,000  acres  are  devoted  to  this  crop  in  the 
Philippines,  and  the  Government  standardizes  and  inspects  the  output,  for 
the  good  of  the  trade.  There  were  samples  here  of  12  different  grades  of 
fiber,  in  bales  and  in  other  forms,  all  of  which  had  been  officially  tagged,  so 
that  the  purchaser  could  buy  without  uncertainty.  Besides  the  cordage, 
there  were  such  products  from  this  material  as  cloth,  handbags,  slippers,  and 
hats  of  Tagal  braid.  Then  there  was  binder  twine,  and  paper  pulp  of  a  high 
grade,  made  from  hemp  waste,  said  to  compare  favorably  with  linen  for 
paper  manufacture. 

There  were  samples  of  palm  sugar  from  Batangas  province,  where  the 
production  of  it  promised  to  grow  into  an  important  industry.  There  was 
crude  cane  sugar  with  small  quantities  of  Philippine  refined.  Some  of  the 
crude  was  exhibited  in  pilones  or  earthen  jars,  and  some  in  mats,  or  bayones. 
There  was  a  pyramid  of  the  latter,  16  feet  in  diameter  at  base  and 
Sugar  and     ^g  ^       j^j  ,  ^     There  was  another  big  pyramid,  of  cocoanuts,  and 

Cocoanuts  &  .  ,-,  ■        r    l    ■  •    i  j  -1 

an  accompanying  exhibit  oi  their  commercial  products — oil,  soap, 
coir  fiber,  and  utensils  made  from  the  shell.  Sun-dried,  steam-dried,  and 
smoke-dried  copra  was  shown  in  jars. 

Of  Philippine  tobacco  there  were  bales,  leaves,  and  manufactured  pro- 
ducts, consisting  of  cigars,  cigarettes,  and  pipe  tobacco,  from  i6  diflPerent 
factories,  all  working  under  sanitary  regulations  enforced  by  the  Govern- 
ment through  inspections  every  few  days.  The  main  display  feature  was  a 
triangular  pavilion  covered  with  tobacco  leaves. 

Some  of  the  displays  under  glass  were  of  great  interest.  There  was  the 
kapok,  or  tree  cotton,  basis  of  a  growing  industry.  The  floss  comes  in  a 
pod,  and  is  used  for  upholstery  and  for  making  life  preservers,  but  perhaps 
it  has  its  greatest  commercial  value  in  mattresses.  There  were  samples  of 
"Para"  rubber.  There  were  chocolate  beans  and  cocoa,  and  pili  nuts,  so 
rich  in  oil  that  they  can  be  burned.  There  were  cotton  and  fiber  cloths  in 
great  variety,  and  glass  cases  of  bamboo  hats,  showing  some  very  fine  weaves. 

Side  by  side  with  the  agricultural  exhibits  were  those  of  forestry,  and  so 
important  were  the  latter  that  an  entire  collection  of  no  six-inch  hardwood 
planks  shown  in  the  Palace  of  Agriculture,  was  purchased  by  the  Smithson- 
ian Institution,  to  go  on  permanent  view  at  Washington.  Of  the  wonderful 
variety  of  hardwoods  in  the  islands,  amounting  to  thousands  of  species,  and 


including  far  more  than  have  yet  been  classified,  there  were  some  433  samples 
exhibited, in  various  forms;  some  in  planks,  some  in  dimension  timbers,  some 
in  great  dug-out  bowls  or  tubs  for  washing  clothes,  some  in  big  table  tops 
cut  from  the  butts  of  huge  tropical  trees,  some  in  cross  and  tangential  sec- 
tion, some  in  the  log,  and  some  shown  by  the  bark,  leaf,  and  fruit. 

The  most  highly  prized  furniture  wood  was  the  narra.  The  batea  was 
worked  up  into  the  large  washbowls.  There  v/evcyacal,  biluang,  and  banawi 
from  Zamboanga,  tiga  and  oranga  from  Tayabas,  lanete  from  Mindoro. 
Products  appeared  in  the  form  of  gun  stocks,  bowling  balls,  and  the  island 
musical  instruments.  There  was  a  handsome  table  top  of  polished  red 
lauan,  a  single  piece  that  measured  nine  feet  seven  inches  in  diameter. 
There  were  exhibits  of  almaciga,  or  gum  copal,  of  which  about 
2,000,000  pounds  a  year  is  exported  to  Europe  and  America  for  Hardwoods 
the  manufacture  of  varnish.  There  was  gutta  percha  from  large 
plantations  in  Mindanao.  Rattan  was  shown  in  a  large  choice  of  diameter. 
There  was  a  big  export  of  this  commodity  to  Germany  before  the  war. 
Among  the  perfumes  exhibited  was  the  essence  of  Ylang  Ylang,  a  product  of 
the  Philippines  only. 

In  the  Palace  of  Agriculture,  Argentina  sought  to  present  the  evidences 
of  her  astounding  agricultural  development  from  a  cultivation  of  5,000,000 
hectares  in  corn,  wheat,  flax,  sugar  cane,  grasses,  and  other  crops  in  1895, 
to  24,000,000  in  1 9 14;  almost  a  five-fold  expansion  in  20  years.  (A  hectare 
comes  to  2.471  acres).  This  growth  was  presented  by  statistical  signs,  and 
the  present  yield  was  illustrated  by  samples.  Grains,  threshed  and  in  the 
head,  were  very  attractively  displayed  in  glazed  metal  drums.  These  were 
in  addition  to  the  good  sheaf  exhibits  all  about.  There  were  some  2,000 
samples  carefully  selected  and  scientifically  classified,  of  grains,  oil  seeds, 
and  seeds  of  fodder  plants.  The  processed  sugar  cane  in  jars  showed  agri- 
cultural experiment  station  work,  by  means  of  some  90  varieties.  Eighty 
varieties  are  grown  in  the  State  of  Tucuman  alone,  and  there  was  a  model  of 
the  sugar  factory  of  the  Tucuman  Saccharitechnic  school.  Some  2,121,559 
tons  of  sugar  were  produced  in  the  Argentine  in  19 13. 

The  Sociedad  Rural  Argentina  made  a  fine  showing,  mainly  by  pictures, 
of  horses,  sheep,  cattle,  and  swine.  Three  hundred  fleeces  carefully  selected 
from  the  clip  of  about  120  of  the  leading  sheep  breeders  showed  the  remark- 
able success  attained  toward  producing  a  type  that  would  yield  at  once 
abundant  good  mutton  and  fine  wool — the  Argentina  Merino. 

The  exhibits  of  cotton  demonstrated  the  success  recently  attained  with 
that  staple  at  Chaco.  There  were  samples  of  ramie  and  hemp,  and  a  few 
plumes  of  the  domesticated  ostrich.     There  were  good  exhibits  of  tobacco. 


The  exhibit  of  hardwoods  was  no  less  than  imposing.  The  hardwood 
forests  cover  nearly  a  third  of  the  territory  of  the  Argentine,  and  out  of 
such  abundance  were  shown  more  than  i,ooo  pieces  belonging  to  over  loo 
varieties.  These  were  not  merely  in  the  form  of  boards  but  in  logs  in  the 
bark,  mitered,  and  with  half  of  the  miter  polished  down  so  that  you  could 
see  how  the  timber  looked  on  a  fresh  cut,  and  how  well  it  would 
Hardwoods  fi"ish.  Among  the  many  specimens  were  some  of  cedro,  very 
fine  for  interiors.  There  were  wheels  with  felloes  of  quebracho 
bianco,  and  spokes  of  incienso;  the  wheel  being  a  hard  test  of  timber.  One  of 
the  most  beautiful  of  the  woods  shown  was  the  quebracho  Colorado,  a  very 
durable  sort,  and  another  was  the  ibirapuyta,  for  furniture,  strong  and  cap- 
able of  a  high  polish.  But  although  there  was  much  lumber  exhibited,  it 
showed  little  of  the  lumber  industry,  which  would  appear  to  be  in  its  infancy. 

The  weather  reporting  service  of  the  Argentine  appeared  from  the 
exhibits  made  in  this  Palace  to  be  a  very  effective  branch  of  the  Govern- 
ment. There  were  photographs  showing  the  equipment  of  the  weather 
stations,  including  that  of  the  ice-bound  South  Orkney  Meteorological 
and  Magnetic  Station,  in  latitude  6i  South. 

Other  models  and  photographs  illustrated  the  work  of  the  Hydrometric 
service  in  gauging  the  flow  of  all  the  principal  streams  and  lake  outlets 
throughout  the  republic,  for  the  determination  of  the  possibilities  of  irri- 
gation and  hydro-electric  development.  And  still  other  models  and  photo- 
graphs showed  the  work  of  the  magnetic  and  solar  observation  service  at 
Pilar,  in  the  province  of  Cordoba  for  keeping  track  of  sun  spots  and  making 
spectroscopic  analyses  of  the  corona  in  times  of  solar  eclipse.  All  these 
exhibits  were  most  effective  in  giving  the  visitor  an  understanding  of  the 
advancement  of  the  Argentine,  and  the  opportunities  still  awaiting  capital 
and  industry  in  that  favored  part  of  the  world. 

The  great  diversity  of  Japan's  agricultural  products  was  shown  in  this 
Palace.  Here  were  exhibited  some  articles  that  might  properly  have  been 
placed  in  the  Palace  of  Liberal  Arts,  but  owing  to  space  limitations  there, 
were  put  with  the  Agricultural  commodities.  The  Japanese  fur  industry 
was  treated  in  several  large  exhibit  cabinets  containing  specimens  of  many 
valuable  and  some  of  the  commoner  fur-bearing  animals  that  are  found  in 
Japanese  waters.  Rice  growing  was  shown  in  all  its  diversity  and  its  wide 
range,  and  the  culture  and  commercial  uses  of  bamboo  were  exhibited. 
The  lumber  industry  of  Nippon  was  illustrated  with  particular  reference 
to  veneered  and  inlaid  woods,  hardwood  manufactures,  ceiling  materials, 
and  ornamentation. 

Attention  was  called  to  the  fruits  of  Japan:  oranges,  persimmons,  apples, 








pears,  prunes,  peaches,  and  grapes.     Of  these  fruits  oranges  led,  persimmons 

came  second,  and  prunes  third.    A  product  of  seaweed,  kanten  or  vegetable 

isinglass,   was    interesting   because   new    to   many   Westerners. 

This   gelatinous  substance   was  coming  into  general   use  as  a        ^^  ,'^?"'^ 

material  for  confectioners,  and  gelatine  and  starch  manufacturers, 

and  as  a  general  pasting  and  coagulating  medium. 

Japan  is  a  land  of  farms  and  fisheries  and  also  of  forests — and  of  the  last 
named  to  a  greater  extent  than  is  generally  supposed  by  people  that  have  not 
seen  it.  In  the  Palace  of  Agriculture  she  endeavored  to  indicate  her  natural 
resources  in  these  lines.  About  78  per  cent  of  the  area  of  old  Japan  is 
covered  with  trees,  and  that  surpasses  in  proportionate  area  even  Sweden, 
the  greatest  forest  country  of  Europe,  where  the  area  of  wooded  lands 
amounts  to  52  per  cent  of  the  whole.  Forests  cover  56  per  cent  of  Hokkaido, 
98  percentof  Karafuto,  and  about  79  per  cent  of  Formosa.  These  facts  were 
represented  by  a  model  and  some  statistical  charts,  indicating  the  distri- 
bution of  the  forests  and  the  annual  output  of  lumber. 

In  Japan,  the  State  owns  20.3  per  cent  of  the  forest  area,  the  Imperial 
Household  2.6  per  cent,  municipalities  23.4  per  cent,  temples  and  shrines  .8 
per  cent,  and  private  individuals  52.9  per  cent.  It  was  natural  that  the 
Japanese  booth  in  the  Palace  of  Agriculture  should  contain  notable  exhibits 
of  lumber,  bamboo  and  other  forest  products.  There  were  beautiful  pieces 
of  veneer  and  inlay  work,  examples  of  marquetry  and  some  fine  speci- 
mens of  large  furniture  bamboo.  Some  of  the  bamboo  plants,  while  passing 
through  the  moist  tropical  climate  of  Hawaii  on  the  way  to  San  Francisco 
sprouted,  and  sent  up  young  shoots  that  grew  to  maturity,  thus  bringing 
the  question  of  their  nationality  into  dispute.  Probably  it  was  American 
bamboo  born  of  Japanese  parents. 

About  60  per  cent  of  the  population  of  Japan,  some  30,000,000  persons, 
are  directly  or  indirectly  involved  in  farming;  and  everybody  eats;  so  a  good 
deal  of  importance  attached  to  the  rice  exhibits,  as  representative  of  the 
principal  food  stuff  of  the  Nation.  Nearly  ^y/2  million  acres  of  land  is 
devoted  to  rice  culture  in  Japan,  producing  some  246,000,000  bushels  annu- 
ally, unhulled.  Both  Government  and  people  naturally  try  to  increase  the 
yield.  Under  the  Department  of  Agriculture  and  Commerce, 
experiment  stations  have  been  established  throughout  the  country, .   ^      ''^'^ 

J...  --Ill  Improvement 

m  addition  to  many  instituted  by  the  prefectures  and  by  guilds  of 
rice  growers   and   merchants.     On  screens  there  were  systematic  displays 
of  the   many  varieties    produced,  and    the    changes    and    improvements 
made  by  the  scientific  methods  applied.     These  were  not  only  of  much 
interest  to  the  rice  growers  of  California,  but  to  the  agriculturists  in  general, 


for  it  was  one  more  indication  of  what  could  be  accomplished  by  seed 
selection  and  plant  breeding. 

Of  inedible  agricultural  products  Japan  exhibited  feathers  and  taro 
hemp.  In  preserved  meat,  fish,  and  vegetables  she  had  cod  liver  oil,  fish 
oil,  and  isinglass.  There  were  many  varieties  of  seaweed,  and  there  were 
specimens  of  the  snake  gourd,  the  fiber  of  which  makes  an  excellent  arti- 
ficial sponge.  There  was  a  large  group  of  vegetable  oils,  and  sorghum 
in  variety. 

To  exhibit  the  agriculture  of  China  is  like  trying  to  exhibit  the  agri- 
culture of  a  world.  Her  diversity  of  soil  and  climate,  her  millions  on  mil- 
lions of  farmers,  the  intensive  character  of  their  efforts,  the  age-old  craft  they 
have  inherited,  go  to  make  up  an  industry  that  seems  all-embracing.  Here 
must  be  products  of  the  tropical  regions  of  the  south,  the  temperate  region 
of  the  center,  and  the  cold  spheres  of  the  north. 

There  were  shown  all  sorts  of  grains  and  beans,  especially  from  the  north- 
ern sections — wheat,  kaoling,  and  yellow  and  black  beans,  with  ground 
nuts,  and  paddy.    The  beans  were  there  in  more  than  200  varie- 

'^/^n''^  ties.    From  central  and  southern  China  came  winter  and  summer 

of  Beans  .  ,  ,  ,      ,  1         1      i-  ■   u 

rice,  sago,  white  and  black  sesamum,  red  and  white  corn,  varnisn 

tree  seeds,  red  and  black  peas,  white  lentils,  and  a  bewildering  variety  of 

green  and  black  teas  from  the  various  tea  provinces.     There  was  a  model 

of  a  tea  garden,  with  puppet  figures  picking,  drying,  sorting,  tasting,  and 

packing  the  delicate  and  comfort-giving  leaves. 

All  sorts  of  cocoons  came  from  the  center  of  the  trade  at  Canton.  With 
them  was  filatured  silk  of  many  grades.  There  were  specimens  of  Chinese 
cotton,  and  all  sorts  of  vegetable  tallow,  seed  oils,  bamboo  shoots,  wool  from 
sheep  and  from  camels,  and  an  abundance  of  flax  and  jute.  There  were 
specimens  of  Chinese  bean  cake  of  many  kinds,  some  for  fertilizer.  Great 
irrigation  systems  were  shown  by  means  of  models,  and  there  were  Chinese 
agricultural  implements  in  variety. 

Among  the  products  that  seemed  curious  to  the  western  mind  were  the 
deer  musks  for  perfumes — Nin  Pee  Kow,  burning-musk,  Mao  and  Nin  Pee 
Mao,  and  much  incense.  Among  the  bean  oils  was  the  well-known  castor, 
which  needs  no  description  here. 

There  were  stuffed  birds  of  great  interest,  and  mounted  insects,  and 
butterflies.  These,  with  dried  mushrooms,  almond  seeds,  ginseng,  bamboo 
shoots,  leaf  tobacco,  bristles,  duck  and  heron  feathers,  seaweeds,  and  medici- 
nal roots,  silk  worm  eggs,  beeswax,  bamboo,  and  photographs  of  forestry 
scenes,  candle  wax  from  the  tallow  tree,  lumber,  charcoal,  and  wood  oil 
helped  make  up  an  astounding  list  of  products.     One  could  hardly  grasp 


their  significance,  so  much  does  China  mean  in  history  and  in  potential 
human  values;  and  these  things  were  of  the  heart  of  China — her  soil. 

NewZealand  made  a  great  showing  of  tinned  refrigerated  meats, and  with 
it  of  butter  and  cheese.  There  were  examples  of  New  Zealand  flax,  For- 
miiim  Tenax,  growing,  and  an  exhibit  of  the  fiber  taken  from  this  plant — 
which  is  not  at  all  like  that  of  ordinary  flax,  but  very  like  hemp  or  sisal. 
There  was  a  good  display  of  cordage  made  from  it.  There  was  a 
fine  showing  of  woolen  shawls  and  robes  from  the  Mosgiel  mills,      _,  J^^"^^^ 

1  r     u      1  r  T^  It      ■  ''""  Cordage 

samples  or  the  best  sort  or  Mermo  wool,  and  pictures  of  Merino 
sheep.  The  Department  of  Tourists  and  Health  Resorts  exhibited  bottled 
mineral  waters,  and  samples  of  radio-active  mud  from  some  of  the  hot 
springs  in  the  island.  There  were  large,  polished  chunks  of  the  beautiful 
kauri  gum,  and  there  were  gold  and  silver  ores,  cinnabar,  and  iron  sand. 
Vessel  models  were  exhibited  by  the  Union  Steamship  Company.  A  curious 
device  for  getting  over  the  snow  was  a  sled  on  skis,  with  a  bladed  wheel  aft 
like  the  stern  wheel  of  a  steamer,  and  a  motor  to  propel  it.  Here  was  a 
large  collection  of  portrait  photography.  The  central  object  in  this  booth 
was  a  stuffed  specimen  of  the  Moa,  the  wingless  bird  of  New  Zealand,  now 
extinct.  This  specimen  was  taller  than  a  man  and  looked  as  though  he  had 
trousers  to  his  knees  and  black  leather  boots  from  there  down.  He  seemed 
very  lonely  and  a  long  way  from  home. 

Uruguay  showed  in  the  Palace  of  Agriculture  interesting  medicinal 
herbs,  fertilizers,  leaf  tobacco,  wool,  cattle  hair,  plumes,  and  bones;  together 
with  agricultural  photographs  and  books  on  various  phases  of  the  subject. 

The  only  Mexican  exhibit  in  any  of  the  Palaces  was  in  that  of  Agri- 
culture, where  the  Mexican  Development  Company  of  Mazatlan  showed  a 
collective  exhibit  of  agricultural  products,  disposed  in  panorama  form  before 
a  background  depicting  a  typical  Mexican  landscape.  The  scene  was  very 
realistic,  and  made  the  visitor  regret  that  there  could  have  been  no  more 
widely  organized  and  official  participation  from  a  country  that  has  so  much 
of  interest  to  exhibit. 

VOL.  IV  — 19 


ONE  of  the  radical  departures  in  farming  during  the  preceding  decade 
was  illustrated  by  the  exhibit  of  the  Calf-Way  Milker.  From  this 
exhibit  it  looked  as  though  mechanical  milking  had  arrived  at  last, 
and  the  milkmaid  would  only  survive  for  very  small  establishments  and 
the  musical  comedy  stage. 

The  exhibit  booth  showed  plaster  models  of  cows  in  sanitary  stalls  and  a 
model  of  the  milker  in  operation,  actuated  by  a  motor.  The  plaster  cows 
were  very  patient,  the  motor  milker  very  busy.  The  squeeze  cups  had 
glass  tops  so  you  could  see  exactly  how  they  operated.  The  peculiarity  of 
this  milker  was  that  no  suction  was  applied  to  the  teat;  it  was  squeezed 
rythmically  by  a  pressure  that  began  at  the  udder  and  progressed  to  the  tip. 
None  of  the  milk  was  exposed  to  the  air  in  the  barn,  but  went  directly  into 
a  covered  container,  just  as  it  does  in  the  calf.  Out  at  the  cow 
^!  f  barns  in  the  Live  Stock  Section,  a  herd  of  ii(,  Holsteins  was 

Nature  •   i      T-      i       •        i         i 

milked  twice  a  day  throughout  the  season  with  this  device  by  the 
Pacific  Coast  Condensed  Milk  Company,  which  owned  the  herd,  for  its 
Carnation  Condensery  near  the  south  entrance  to  the  Fine  Arts  Palace. 

The  milk  having  been  extracted  from  the  cow,  there  remained  the 
problem  of  extracting  the  cream  from  the  milk.  Here  were  centrifugal 
separators  of  the  latest  patterns,  types  of  mechanical  efficiency,  that  you 
could  work  by  hand  or  gasoline  or  electric  motor.  Refinement  of  design 
had  gone  far  in  these  devices  since  the  previous  international  exposition 
in  this  country.  In  the  machine  exhibited  by  the  Iowa  Dairy  Separator 
Company  of  Waterloo,  Iowa,  a  curved  disc  thinned  out  the  strata  of  milk  in 
the  "bowl"  until  the  smallest  globules  of  fat  were  forced  out. 

The  original  make  of  cream  separator,  the  De  Laval,  invented  in  Sweden 
over  a  third  of  a  century  ago,  had  gone  right  on  improving,  and  showed 
progress  since  the  day  of  the  old  spindle  bowl  exhibited  at  St.  Louis.  The 
new  bowl  had  a  split  wing  device  for  delivering  the  milk  without  having  to 
pass  it  through  the  cream  line.  It  could  be  quickly  detached  with  one  twist 
of  the  wrench.     The  whole  machine  was  automatically  oiled. 





These  separators  would  handle  the  milk  from  one  cow  or  from  a  thousand 
according  to  size.  The  largest  De  Laval  would  skim  6,000  pounds  of  milk 
an  hour. 

The  centrifugal  principle  had  been  extended,  and  its  object  had  even 
been  reversed  so  that  the  method  was  made  to  work  backward,  for  the  De 
Laval  mechanical  family  included  a  centrifugal  emulsor  for  the  production 
of  cream  from  the  component  parts  of  milk,  a  process  having  valuable 
application  in  cheese  making  and  ice  cream  production.  There  was  a 
centrifugal  milk  clarifier,  which,  while  leaving  the  milk  whole, 
would  remove  any  possible  disease-breeding  impurities.  Nor  /^^^""« 
was  the  centrifugal  method  confined  to  the  lacteal  fluid  of  the 
domestic  cow.  There  was  a  centrifugal  yeast  separator,  and  a  centrifugal 
clarifier  and  filter  for  clarifying  varnishes,  oils,  certain  medicines,  fruit 
syrups  and  other  liquid  commodities. 

The  De  Laval  exhibit  contained  an  old-faithful  specimen  that  had  been 
in  use  17  years,  during  which  the  wooden  handle  of  the  crank  had  stuck,  so 
that  instead  of  turning  on  its  spindle  it  turned  in  the  farmer's  horny  hand, 
and  had  thus  been  rubbed  away  in  service  until  there  was  little  left  of  it 
but  the  ridges  between  the  grooves  in  which  his  fingers  traveled.  The  old 
veteran  was  in  good  condition  still,  and  although  hardly  contemporaneous 
could  almost  have  held  its  own  with  those  that  were. 

For  as  long  as  man  has  fussed  with  that  embodiment  of  primordial 
stupidity,  the  domesticated  hen,  for  as  long  as  he  has  hatched  her,  and 
brooded  her,  and  kept  her  warm  nights,  and  fed  her  fancy  chicken  feed,  and 
given  her  a  good  roost  and  a  soft  nest,  and  cured  her  of  the  pip,  and  kept 
the  coyotes  and  skunks  away  from  her,  there  has  been  no  improvement 
whatever  in  the  shape  of  the  hen's  egg.  It  still  comes  without  handles  and 
of  a  form  that  will  fit  nothing  else  in  the  world,  nor  stack  nor  pack  economi- 
cally with  others  of  its  kind;  and  the  hen  doesn't  care  one  scratch  of  her  lett 
foot.     The  eggs  suit  her  and  she  is  neither  grateful  nor  ambitious. 

Columbus  had  to  break  an  egg  to  make  it  stand  on  end.  He  knew  the 
other  persons  present  on  that  occasion  would  not  think  of  so  radical  a 
procedure,  and  he  took  advantage  of  their  guilelessness.  If  any  one  of  them 
had  possessed  a  Wallace  Egg  Carrier  just  then  Columbus  would  have  lost, 
and  it  would  have  served  him  right.  The  Wallace  Carrier  was  an  egg 
container  made  of  two  straw-board  discs  with  perforations  that  admitted 
the  ends  of  the  egg  and  then  fitted  into  slots  in  a  four-sided  straw-board 
envelope,  so  that  the  whole  thing  would  stand  upright  if  necessary,  and 
would  pack  in  a  box  with  its  kind  for  shipment.  It  was  the  invention  of  a 
San  Francisco  man.     The  exhibit  was  interesting  to  farmers  and  egg  con- 


sumers  alike,  and  almost  everybody  is  either  one  or  the  other  or  both.      The 

booth  displayed  a  framed  appeal   to  poultrymen  from  D.  F.    Houston, 

Secretary  of  Agriculture  and  A.  D.  Melvin,  Chief  of  the  Bureau  of  Animal 

Industry,  to  produce  infertile  eggs,  as  equal  to  the  fertilized  and 

^^fr-   >.      better  to  keep.     In  other  words,  eat  the  cockerels  and  get    a 
that  Keep  ,-i,  -i  •  l-lu 

chance  to  sleep  a  little  later  m  the  mornmg — a  practice  which  the 

appeal  declared  would  save  the  farmers  of  the  country  $15,000,000  a  year. 
It  is  interesting  to  note  that  shortly  after  the  Exposition  Mr.  Wallace 
had  his  attention  torn  from  his  favorite  eggs  by  a  great   manufacturing 
concern,  and  began  to  turn  out  a  modification  of  his  egg  carrier  by    the 
miUion  for  the  transportation  of  electric  light  bulbs. 

That  ancient  and  indispensable  commodity,  cooperage,  embodying  the 
principle  of  the  arch  doubled  into  a  circle  and  sustaining  and  being  held  in 
place  by  the  tension  of  the  hoop  and  compression  of  the  staves,  was  repre- 
sented in  the  Palace  of  Agriculture  by  the  exhibit  of  the  California  Barrel 
Company  of  San  Francisco.  During  1914,  some  4,000,000  pounds  of 
California  table  grapes  went  east  in  kegs  of  redwood  sawdust.  Such  kegs 
were  shown  in  the  exhibit.  There  were  hard  fir  barrels  for  oil,  and  oak 
barrels  for  brandy  and  wine,  and  spruce  vinegar  barrels,  and  packing  tierces, 
and  curly-redwood  flower  tubs,  and  wire  bound  sugar  barrels,  and  pork  and 
fish  kegs  and  jelly  pails,  and  pickle  kegs  and  lard  tubs.  The  significance  of 
the  exhibit  was  its  lesson  of  the  vast  diversity  of  uses  we  have  for  the  con- 
tainer made  from  hoops  and  staves. 

The  Victor  Incubator  Company  of  Decoto,  California,  exhibited  a  new 
type  of  incubator  and  brooder  with  a  water-coil  heater.  Eggs  were  hatched 
in  it,  up  to  the  end  of  June. 

Some  of  the  other  significant  exhibits  in  the  Palace  of  Agriculture  were 
the  improved  incubators;  a  beet  topper  from  Idaho  that  would  do  the  work 
of  five  men;  steel  water  tanks,  smoke  houses,  grain  bins,  and  feed  cookers 
for  the  farmer;  a  combined  fertilizer  and  seeder  that  put  the  fertilizing 
material  right  into  the  soil  with  the  seed;  mechanical  potato  diggers  and 
hydraulic  cider  presses,  motor  hay  balers,  improved  metal  silos,  hydraulic 
presses  for  various  farm  uses,  loggers'  tools  and  appliances,  axes  that  would 
cut  nails  without  nicking,  water  elevators,  portable  saw  mills,  all  sorts  of 
pump,  cleaning  compounds  for  dairymen,  all  sorts  of  wire  fencing,  automatic 
stock  waterers,  drainage  machinery  equipment,  stave  pipe,  stave  tanks,  and 
stave  silos,  windmills,  kerosene  engines,  grain  cleaning  machines,  electrically 
heated  incubators,  milk  coolers,  and  a  compound  for  inoculating  alfalfa  seed 
to  stimulate  the  vield. 


BECAUSE  from  the  time  of  the  first  pudding  the  proof  of  that  com- 
modity has  been  the  eating  of  it,  and  because  food  can  hardly  be 
exhibited  in  any  other  way,  the  Palace  of  Food  Products  was  a  very 
popular  place.  Cooking  and  eating  were  going  on  all  about,  from  the  time 
the  doors  were  opened  until  they  closed,  and  odors  filled  the  air  that  seemed 
to  rob  people  of  reason.  Demonstrators  were  continually  handing  out 
samples  of  appetizing  goods,  and  people  were  continually  ingesting  them. 
Probably  there  was  not  a  second  of  the  day  throughout  the 

.   .  ,  ,       ,  .  I.'         •  Loaves 

Exposition  season  when  somebody  was  not  eating  something  in    ^^^  ^^-^^^^ 
this  Palace.     It  was  like  the  unanimity  with  which  the  whole 
Mohammedan  world  falls  to  at  the  sound  of  the  sunset  gun  in  Ramadan — 
only  this  began  in  the  morning  and  lasted  all  day. 

It  made  the  Palace  of  Food  Products  a  very  nutritious  place  and  one  of 
the  most  attractive  resorts  in  the  grounds.  If  the  body  is  the  temple  of  the 
soul  this  Palace  was  full  of  temple  builders,  who  worked  hard  at  it  and  had 
joy  of  their  labor.  It  was  filled  not  merely  with  food  exhibits  but  with 
illustrations  of  processes  used  in  the  preparation  of  foods  for  the  market 
and  the  table,  from  the  making  and  baking  of  flour  to  the  production  of 
limitless  canned  salmon,  and  things  were  so  clean,  and  exemplary  in  every 
respect,  that  Dr.  Wiley  would  have  been  real  pleased.  All  the  known  ways 
of  preparing  food  among  civilized  people  appeared  to  be  represented.  Such 
exhibits  as  those  of  Libby,  McNeill  &  Libby  of  Chicago,  with  their  prodi- 
gious array  of  meats  and  vegetables  that  could  be  taken  anywhere  a  mule 
or  a  ship  could  go,  to  amplify  the  diet  of  the  traveler  or  the  explorer,  the 
whalers  in  the  northern  ice,  or  the  trading  schooner  in  the  southern  seas, 
were  instructive  of  the  arts  Man  has  developed  in  order  to  provide  for  him- 
self and  keep  his  health;  and  eat. 

And  his  beverages  were  there  in  all  varieties,  from  mineral  water  to  the 
finest  wines.  Restaurants  all  about,  at  once  served  and  advertised  the  teas 
and  cofi^ees  of  the  world.  The  Chinese  restaurant  in  this  Palace  really 
exhibited  tea  by  selling  delicious  cups  of  it  with  whatever  else  you  wanted 



from  the  Chinese  cuisine.  As  for  coffee,  there  was  the  booth  of  M.  J. 
Brandenstein  &  Company,  the  Guatemala  Coffee  Parlor,  the  Porto  Rico 
Coffee  Parlor,  Hills  Brothers'  and  many  more. 

After  all  is  said  and  done,  the  menu  is  the  main  aim  of  agriculture.  In 
the  Food  Products  Palace  a  large  booth  was  devoted  to  the  exhibition  of  a 
collection  of  menus,  a  collection  known  as  "Lehner's  Universal  Transport- 
able Menu  Gallery."  It  was  an  apotheosis  of  feasting,  whether  feasting 
needed  it  or  not.  Among  these  gastronomic  reminiscenes  was  the  menu  of  a 
dinner  "by  Past  and  Present  Officers  of  the  Egyptian  Army  in 
Feasts^  Honor  of  General  Viscount  Kitchener  of  Khartoum,  G.  C.  B, 
G.  C.  M.  G."  There  was  a  menu  of  a  "dinner  of  the  Royal  Navy 
Club  of  1765  and  1785,  at  Whitehall  rooms.  Hotel  Metropole,  London,  to 
Commemorate  the  Battle  of  the  Nile  and  the  Bombardment  of  Algiers,  and 
to  celebrate  the  birthday  of  H.  R.  H.  the  Prince  of  Wales."  One  even 
looked,  from  the  cover  decoration,  like  the  menu  of  a  banquet  in  honor  of 
Adam  and  Eve. 

Without  doubt  the  most  striking  exhibit  in  the  Palace  was  the  mill  built 
in  it  by  the  Sperry  Flour  Company,  and  the  cooks  of  many  nations  that  took 
the  flour  it  made  and  baked  it  at  electric  stoves  into  the  forms  of  bread  pecu- 
liar to  their  respective  countries. 

This  was  not  a  model  nor  a  toy,  but  a  working  mill  with  a  capacity  of  100 
barrels  a  miller's  day,  and  it  actually  milled  an  average  of  about  50  sacks 
daily  through  the  Exposition  season,  under  conditions  that  enabled  you  to 
see  almost  the  whole  process — as  much  as  could  be  seen  for  the  covered 
chutes  and  bins,  for  everything  had  to  be  dust-proof. 

Good  and  reliable  flour  is  largely  a  matter  of  proper  blending.  A 
complete  chemical  laboratory  was  installed  to  test  the  wheat  before  buying, 
and  after,  in  order  to  keep  the  blend  right.  The  chemist  discovered  the 
gluten  content  of  different  wheats,  and  prescribed  the  dose  of  each,  like  a 
doctor.  The  wheat  was  drawn  from  covered  tanks  and  scoured,  and  the 
defective  kernels  were  removed.  The  dust  was  drawn  off  by  suction.  An 
experimental  loaf  was  made  from  the  previous  day's  flour  to  test  the  tests 
of  the  chemist.  When  that  final  test  was  satisfactory  the  flour  was  ready 
for  the  bakers. 

The  bakers  in  the  booth  attracted  much  attention.  You  could  hardly 
pass  them  casually.  There  was  a  Chinaman  making  sesmum,  yuksum,  olive 
and  almond  cakes,  and  a  Mexican  woman  making  tortillas,  and  an  old 
southern  Mammy  of  the  broadest  and  most  unmistakable  type  making 
southern  hoe  cake  from  corn  meal,  and  a  "sourdough"  from  Alaska  bak- 
ing himself  the  comestible  from  which  he  took  his  nickname.     India  was 



represented.     You  could  get  matzos  and  noodles  and  Japanese  sen  pet,  and 

Russian  peroskey.     Some  new  uses  for  cereals  were  "demonstrated" — bread 

from  oermea,  cakes  of  rolled  oats,  for  example.     Through  having  . 

•         1       ^1  •  1-1  •        •  •  11  J         National 

to  use  It,  the  Chinese  chet  became  m  time  convinced  that  good  castronomy 
noodles  could  really  be  made  from  fine  white  California  flour 
instead  of  the  dark  stuff  from  which  Chinese  noodles  had  been  made 
for  so  many  years,  and  he  so  convinced  his  astonished  countrymen.  It 
widened  the  use  of  California  flour,  and  new  orders  came  from  Hong  Kong 
on  this  account. 

The  Sperry  mills  are  an  old  California  institution;  and  sunk  in  the  floor 
of  the  entrance  to  the  booth  were  some  old  mill  stones  that  had  done  duty  in 
Stockton  in  early  days.  It  took  about  26  people  to  conduct  the  exhibit.  It 
was  a  fine  enterprise  and  well  deserved  the  attention  it  received. 

An  exempHfication  of  mechanical  bread  making  and  baking  was  supplied 
by  a  model  of  the  automatic  bakery  of  Joseph  Baker  &  Sons,  Ltd.,  of  Willes- 
den  Junction,  England.  All  the  operations  were  mechanical,  and  neither 
dough  nor  bread  was  touched  with  the  hands.  Mechanically  the  flour  was 
blended,  sifted,  and  weighed.  Mechanically  it  went  through  a  hopper  and 
into  a  mixing  machine,  where  it  was  mechanically  kneaded,  emerging  as 
dough  from  which  50  to  80  loaves  a  minute  could  be  mechanically  weighed 
and  cut.  Mechanically  this  dough  was  fed  into  tins  and  put  on  shelves  and 
pushed  into  ovens  on  a  traveling  conveyor;  and  it  came  out  thoroughly  done, 
and  then  went  to  the  bread  room  to  be  mechanically  wrapped.  The  process 
had  been  in  use  in  the  United  States  for  about  nine  years.  The  model  cost 
?io,ooo  to  construct,  was  very  complete  in  detail,  and  not  only  furnished  a 
convincing  demonstration  of  the  superiority  of  the  mechanical  handling  of 
food,  but  must  have  helped  a  good  many  people  understand  that  mechanical 
processes  almost  always  give  better  result  than  hand  work.  For,  in  the 
"traveling  oven,"  the  baking  was  perfectly  uniform — the  first  loaf  in  was 
always  the  first  loaf  out.  Moreover,  as  the  speed  of  the  conveyor  and  the 
temperature  of  the  oven  were  both  under  control  the  baking  could  be  gradu- 
ated to  perfection. 

The  Marshall  Continuous  Oven,  of  the  Middleby-Marshall  line  of  ovens, 
was  in  use  at  the  Sperry  Flour  Mill,  and  the  Double  Oven  of  this  concern 
was  used  at  the  Fisher  Flouring  Mill  exhibit,  where  it  did  great  service 
baking  scones  for  the  hungry. 

The  original  animal  foods  of  man,  fish  and  game,  as  they  still  exist  in 
plenty  in  California,  were  displayed  by  the  California  Fish  and  Game  Com- 
mission and  the  Academy  of  Sciences  in  a  sort  of  composite  jungle  scene  that 
grouped  so  many  beautiful  specimens  together  it  was  enough  to  drive  a 


sportsman  entirely  out  of  his  head.     They  were  not  merely  displayed  on 
boards  and  hung  on  the  wall,  and  set  in  glass  cases;  the  habitat  was  repro- 
duced, and  the  hunters'  camp.     The  taxidermist,  the  landscape 

Natural  .  l  ■  j     1  1  1  , 

Pgg^  engmeer,  the  artist,  and  the  veteran  hunter  and  woodsman  com- 

bined their  science  to  produce  a  sceneof  striking  realism.  And  it 
was  real  as  the  soot  on  a  frying  pan;  There  was  a  tent,  and  a  fir-bough 
bed,  and  the  camp  fire  had  just  died  down.  A  few  empty  cans,  some 
vagrant  cigarette  papers,  and  a  tobacco  pouch  were  scattered  about.  Tall 
pines,  underbrush,  and  rocks  surrounded  the  place,  and  a  mountain  stream 
plunged  over  boulders  in  the  background.  Game  hung  all  about — quail, 
grouse,  tree  squirrels,  and  ducks.  The  hunter  approached,  leading  his 
horse,  with  a  buck  lashed  across  the  saddle.  There  was  a  cougar's  den, 
where  two  kittens  were  devouring  a  fawn.  There  was  a  bear  cave,  with  a 
big  black  bear  and  two  cubs.  In  a  little  open  was  a  herd  of  deer,  and  on 
some  crags  were  posed  some  desert  big  horn  sheep,  a  sub-species  of  the 
Rocky  Mountain  sheep,  from  the  San  Jacinto  Mountains.  A  placard 
announced  that  it  was  false  that  these  sheep  are  in  the  habit  of  leaping  from 
the  crags  and  landing  on  their  horns — in  fact,  the  females  have  no  horns, 
an  excellent  reason  for  their  not  doing  it. 

One  of  the  most  beautiful  parts  of  this  exhibit  was  the  little  aquarium 
tank  containing  from  time  to  time  living  specimens  of  the  Golden  Trout  of 
Volcano  Creek,  in  the  Mt.  Whitney  region.  This  is  probably  the  most 
beautiful  fish  on  the  continent  of  North  America,  and  only  to  be  matched  in 
the  blended  brilliance  of  its  hues  by  some  of  the  painted  beauties  of  Hawai- 
ian waters.  It  lives  at  an  altitude  of  10,000  to  11,000  feet,  and  it  was 
necessary  to  renew  the  representatives  of  the  family  quite  frequently,  as 
they  did  not  find  the  surroundings  at  sea  level  altogether  to  their  liking. 

Work  and  happiness  depend  on  health,  and  health  depends  on  digestion, 
and  the  pundits  are  telling  us  nowadays  that  digestion  depends  on  good 
cooking  (those  that  are  not  busy  trying  to  make  us  believe  it  depends  on 
bran)  and  so  we  get  around  to  flavoring  extracts,  and  the  man  that  benefited 
his  kind  by  putting  them  into  lo-cent  bottles  so  they  could  be 
Taste  ^'-'^'-^  over  the  counter  cheaply  and  conveniently,  and  the  housewife 

could  get  them  promptly  and  depend  on  what  she  got,  even  when 
she  sent  the  baby  to  the  store  for  it.  That  was  an  important  invention 
commercially,  economically,  gastronomically. 

When  C.  F.  Sauer,  of  Richmond,  Va.,  was  young,  people  that  were  of 
sufficiently  resolute  character  to  have  flavoring  extracts  bought  them  in 
bulk  at  the  drug  store,  which  involved  an  investment  and  made  quite  an 
event  of  it.     In  too  many  cases  it  was  easier  to  do  without.     Sauer  began  to 


put  up  the  little  ten-cent  bottles,  and  the  business  in  extracts  for  the  pantry 
expanded  rapidly.  A  company  was  organized  to  sell  the  new  commodity, 
and  had  to  take  larger  quarters  four  times  within  a  few  years.  Its  latest 
home  was  a  brick-and-concrete  building  with  6o,oco  square  feet  of  floor 
space,  rest  and  recreation  rooms  for  its  employees,  and  a  large  garden.  And 
the  Sauer  Company  makes  its  own  bottles,  boxes,  and  display  cases,  and 
keeps  50  salesmen  on  the  road. 

It  had  a  mahogany  booth  in  the  Palace  of  Food  Products,  with  a  diorama 
showing  the  growth  of  the  business,  the  different  factories  it  had  occupied 
and  outgrown,  the  bottle  factory  and  other  parts  of  the  plant.  The  36 
flavors,  and  some  of  the  Mexican  "beans"  used  in  making  vanilla  extract, 
were  exhibited  as  well  as  such  things  can  be  exhibited  in  glass.  In  addition, 
this  firm  had  another  booth  in  the  exhibit  of  the  Westfield  Products. 

At  the  central  crossways  of  the  Palace  of  Food  Products  was  a  pyramid 
of  canned  and  bottled  condiments,  reaching,  like  the  Tower  of  Babel, 
towards  heaven.  There  were  sauces  and  pickles  and  vinegar  and  catsups 
for  a  nation  of  boarding  houses,  mounting  in  separate  stages;  each  stage  a 
condiment,  each  condiment  one  of  57  varieties.  Need  we  say  they  repre- 
sented the  product  of  Mr.  Heinz  of  Pittsburgh,  Purveyor  to  His  Majesty  the 
American  Citizen?     Within  the  tower  you  saw  in  moving  pictures 

_  r  J         •  J  1  •  ■  r  ■  The  Tower 

processes  or  production,  and  somethmg  suggestive  or  its  scope —      „(  Bottles 
saw  men  planting  tomato  plants  in  vast  fields  by  machinery,  and 
saw  great  sheds  of  bottled  catsup  that  looked  like  the  output  of  a  British 
shell  factory.     Cleanliness  and  wholesomeness  were  apparent  in  every  stage 
of  that  progress. 

Close  by  was  the  display  of  the  Albers  Milling  Company,  with  a  stained 
glass  picture  aloft  of  the  well  known  prospector  flipping  his  buckwheats. 
In  the  booth  was  a  huge  mush  bowl  surrounded  by  four  large  Kewpies  pour- 
ing in  endless  streams  of  cream. 

The  manufacturers  of  Shredded  Wheat  biscuits  installed  machinery  to 
illustrate  the  method  of  making  their  product.  Into  this  apparatus  went 
the  steamed  wheat,  and  it  came  out  in  long  fine  strips  which  wove  back  and 
forth  the  length  of  a  tray,  and  were  finally  cross  cut  into  the  familiar  break- 
fast dish. 

It  was  in  the  Palace  of  Food  Products  that  P.  S.  Luttrell  exhibited  his 
Reminder  Timer,  or  One  Hand  Automatic  Clock,  whereby  you  could  set  an 
alarm  that  would  remind  you  when  time  was  up  for  any  small  interval  down 
to  half  a  minute.  We  have  given  a  sufficient  account  elsewhere  of  the  mani- 
fold uses  Luttrell  discovered  for  his  invention  by  exhibiting  it  at 
the  Exposition. 


Many  very  fine  brands  of  food  product  were  collected  into  one  exhibit 
under  the  banner  of  the  Westfield  Standard,  indicating  that  they  conformed 
to  high  tests.  Here,  among  others,  was  a  booth  of  Sauer's  Extracts,  another 
of  Lowney's  Chocolates,  another  of  Pompeian  Olive  Oil,  another  of  Minute 
Tapioca,  another  of  G.  Washington  Coffee,  and  there  were  exhibits  of 
Dromedary  Dates  and  Cocoanut,  White  Frost  Refrigerators,  and  Carna- 
tion Milk.  Perhaps  the  most  attractive  booth  here  was  that  in  which  were 
made  the  Golden  State  Butter  flowers,  by  the  California  Central  Creamer- 
ies. Here  were  baskets  and  bouquets  of  California  blossoms  moulded  in  the 
most  appetizing  yellow  butter,  and  when  the  flowers  happened  to  be  butter- 
colored  one  could  hardly  distinguish  them  from  the  real  but  far  less  nutri- 
tious thing. 

One  of  the  memorable  features  of  this  Palace  was  the  booth  where  the 
Quaker  Oats  Company  made  puffed  rice.  It  will  not  be,  however,  for  that 
very  interesting  and  explosive  process  that  the  booth  will  be  longest  remem- 
bered, but  for  the  hot  buttered  scones  with  thick  and  drippy  raspberry  jam 
inside  that  could  be  bought  here  for  a  nickle  each.  The  noon  rush  at  this 
corner  was  dangerous  to  life  and  limb.  The  scone  business  appeared  to 
have  good  possibilities,  for  the  Fisher  Fouring  Mills  Company  also  served 
scones  and  attracted  the  same  sort  of  throng. 




THE  exhibit  of  food  fish  by  the  State  of  Washington  was  little  short 
of  the  marvelous  for  variety  and  interest.  There  were  stuffed  fish, 
varnished  fish,  fish  in  glass  jars,  fish  alive  in  tanks,  and  still  livlier  fish 
climbing  fish  ladders.  All  the  tanks  were  filled  with  flowing  water  at  just 
the  right  temperature,  and  to  prevent  its  getting  too  warm  there  was  refriger- 
ating machinery  close  at  hand.  There  were  12  large  aquarium  tanks  with 
varieties  of  grown  salmon,  and  over  200  jars  of  commercial  and  game  fish, 
oysters,  clams,  crabs,  and  other  varieties. 

Without  entirely  wearing  out  this  typewriter  the  historian  could  not 
begin  to  list  all  the  curious  fish  shown  here,  under  one  condition  or  another. 
There  were,  to  mention  a  few,  sculpins,  lumpsuckers,  goeducks  or  giant 
clams  a  foot  and  a  half  long,  herring,  grunt  fish,  Dungeness  crabs, 
surf  smelt,  lampreys,  cuttle-fish,  pink  shrimps,  young  sting-rays,  octopus 
and  a  sample  of  the  abhorrent  Octopus  Punctalus,  or  devil  fish, 
lent  by  L.  H.  Darwin,  State  Fish  Commissioner  and  Chief  Game  Warden. 
The  State  put  in  and  operated  a  small  hatchery. 

There  was  no  more  instructive  exhibit  in  natural  history  in  the  whole 
Exposition  than  the  early  life  story  of  the  salmon,  as  told  in  the  Washington 
Section  by  means  of  bottled  specimens  of  eggs  and  young  fish.  These 
were  shown  on  the  plan  of  a  bottle  a  day.  The  eggs  in  the  43rd  bottle, 
representing  the  43rd  day,  showed  a  white  streak,  on  the  60th  day  the  eye 
had  appeared  and  the  eggs  could  be  shipped,  at  90  days  the  fish  hatched,  and 
at  150  days  they  were  fit  to  turn  out. 

And  in  four  years  they  had  been  to  their  mysterious  home  in  the  broad 

ocean  and  returned  to  the  place  of  their  birth  fit  to  be  canned,  and  the 

machinery  and  organization  were  ready,  reinforced  by  that  almost  human 

contrivance  the  "Iron  Chink,"  which  in  the  salmon  canneries  took  the  place 

of  many  Chinamen.  This  engine  would  handle  salmon  of  any  size 

from  two  to  20  pounds — would  take  off  the  head,  tail,  fins,  and  ,      „^'^" 
1  11  I       •      •  1  •  .  '™"  Human 

scales,  and  take  out  the  msides  and  blood,  and  do  it  at  the  rate 

of  60  fish  a  minute.     What  was  left  went  to  an  automatic  weighing  machine, 



and  thence  into  the  cans,  at  a  temperature  of  200  degrees.  With  the  air 
forced  out,  the  cans  were  headed  and  soldered  and  the  commodity  was  ready 
for  the  market.  The  whole  process  was  one  of  the  most  remarkable  examples 
of  food  preparation  on  a  wholesale  scale  that  the  Exposition  had  to  show; 
and  one  of  the  cleanliest.  With  this  exhibit  was  a  picture  of  the  largest  fish 
cannery  in  the  world. 

The  "Iron  Chink"  was  a  product  of  the  Smith  Cannery  Machinery  Com- 
pany of  Seattle,  and  just  for  versatility  the  same  concern  turned  out  an 
automatic  candy  making  machine,  a  sample  of  which  was  on  exhibition. 
With  the  right  prescription  of  sugar,  water,  and  flavoring,  the  Electric 
Sanitary  Candy  Maker  would  produce  in  one  operation  five  different  kinds 
of  after-dinner  wafer,  "untouched  by  the  human  hand."  In  fact,  the  dis- 
favor into  which  the  poor  old  human  hand  had  fallen  after  having  prepared 
our  food  for  us  so  many  years  and  done  it  fairly  well  was  noteworthy  and 
somewhat  pathetic  throughout  the  Palace  of  Food  Products. 

The  Alaska  Packers'  Association,  representing  the  Pacific  Coast  fishing 
industry,  made  an  imposing  demonstration  of  this  source  of  the  Nation's 
food  supply.  Among  other  things  connected  with  the  industry  it  exhibited 
a  model  fish  cannery,  fully  equipped,  and  a  great  display  of  fish-taking 
devices.  Dainty  salmon  sandwiches  and  salads  were  dispensed  to  throngs 
of  visitors. 

Entirely  independent  of  the  exhibit  of  the  Alaska  Packers'  Association 
was  the  demonstration  exhibit  of  the  Association  of  Pacific  Fisheries,  but  the 
Alaska  Packers'  took  care  of  it  and  conducted  it.  Here  were  fine  models  of 
the  fishing  craft  and  apparatus  whose  product  was  the  dehcious  canned 
salmon  served  to  visitors  by  the  Association. 

There  were  some  striking  exhibits  of  refrigeration  plants  for  the  preser- 
vation of  foods.  One  was  the  "Penguin,"  a  small  machine  for  household 
use,  which  introduced  the  possibility  of  home-made  artificial  ice.  It  could 
be  attached  to  any  ice  box  or  put  in  the  basement  and  connected  with  the 
ice  chamber  by  pipes.  It  was  operated  by  gas,  and  any  plumber 
U)''order  could  Set  it  up.  It  worked  by  alternately  heating  a  sealed  vessel 
of  ammonia  and  then  cooling  it  by  means  of  water,  and  the 
smallest  machine  had  a  refrigeration  power  equal  to  the  melting  of  150 
pounds  of  ice  a  day.  It  was  estimated  that  it  would  cost,  to  operate,  about 
half  the  cost  of  an  equal  amount  of  ice. 

Another  refrigeration  plant,  but  for  use  on  a  commercial  scale,  was  the 
Larsen  Ice  Machine,  which  was  at  work  in  the  Palace  making  ice  cream. 
This  machine  was  operated  by  ammonia  compression  and  expansion,  at 
about  }4  the  cost  of  brine  freezing,  it  was  claimed.     In  the  dry-hardening 


cabinet  for  ice  cream,  it  was  said  to  have  attained  a  temperature  of  58 
degrees  below  zero,  a  world's  record  for  mechanical  refrigeration  by  the 
ammonia  method.  The  ice  cream  sold  on  the  grounds  was  made  at  this 
plant,  which  was  operated  by  the  National  Ice  Cream  Company. 

During  the  years  just  preceding  the  Exposition,  remarkable  progress  had 
been  made  at  packing  foods  in  glass,  and  some  of  the  latest  steps  of  the 
process  were  shown  by  the  Anchor  Cap  &  Closure  Company  of  Brooklyn, 
N.  Y.  Thousands  of  glass  packages  sealed  under  this  company's  methods 
were  shown,  the  majority  closed  under  vacuum.  Improved 
capping  machines  were  included  in  the  exhibit.  From  3,000  to  p^-lf^ 
6,000  glass  packages  an  hour  could  be  sealed  by  some  of  these 
devices,  and  it  was  estimated  that  the  capacity  of  canneries  had  been 
increased  30  per  cent  by  their  use. 

Of  importance  in  the  domestic  canning  of  fruits,  vegetables,  fish,  and 
meats  was  the  exhibit  of  the  Kerr  Glass  Manufacturing  Company  of  Sand 
Springs,  Oklahoma.  Its  wide-mouthed  economy  jar  was  self-sealing,  air- 
tight, and  sanitary.  In  addition,  this  company  showed  a  new  cap  and 
band  for  use  on  jars  of  a  different  make,  embracing  all  the  desirable  features 
of  the  self-sealing  economy  cap. 

Despite  all  such  devices,  a  Californian  might  have  been  pardoned  some 
skepticism  as  to  the  possibility  of  catching,  and  confining  in  a  tin  can,  the 
subtle  ambrosial  flavor  of  the  tamale,  of  his  native  State,  had  not  the  demon- 
stration been  furnished  by  the  exhibit  of  the  Workman  Packing  Company, 
which  served  this  delectable  viand  and  its  warm-hearted  cousin  the  enchi- 
lada at  a  handsomely  decorated  booth  in  the  Palace.  This  was  a  San 
Francisco  food-packing  concern  with  a  large  model  plant  in  the  city,  and  a 
collection  of  tamale  recipes  second  in  value  only  to  the  burned  library  of 

It  is  easy  to  fall  into  the  habit  of  using  the  word  "comprehensive"  in 
characterizing  an  exhibit.  Most  exhibits  aim  to  be  comprehensive,  and  at 
the  Panama-Pacific  International  Exposition  a  great  many  were,  such  as 
those  of  the  United  States  Steel  Corporation,  the  International  Harvester 
Company  and  those  of  some  of  the  participating  nations  and  States.  But 
there  was  no  exhibit  that  deserved  the  adjective  more  than  that  of  the 
California  Viticultural  Exhibit  Association.  It  epitomized  the  whole  wine 
industry  of  the  State,  as  far  as  that  could  ever  be  done  under  a  roof. 

The  setting  and  framing  were  in  character,  with  an  enclosure  like  a 
trellis  of  vines  supported  by  columns  formed  of  casks  painted  white,  with 
gilt  hoops.  Everywhere  were  garlanded  casks  and  clambering  vines,  and 
famous  old  California  wineries  reproduced  in  miniature,  with  pictures  of  the 


juicy  berry,  and  processed  examples  of  fifty  of  the  leading  varieties  of  grape 
used  in  wine  making  in  California.  There  was  an  information  bureau 
conducted  under  the  auspices  of  the  State  Board  of  Viticultural  Commis- 
sioners, where  visitors  could  obtain  accurate  information  on  every  phase  of 
grape  growing  and  wine  making. 

The  outer  part  of  the  space  was  devoted  to  small  booths  of  contributing 
members  supporting  the  exhibit:  the  California  Wine  Association,  C.  Schil- 
linfT  &  Company,  the  Italian  Vineyard  Company,  A.  Mattel,  Beringer  Broth- 
ers the  C.  Krug  Winery,  F.  Salmina  &  Company,  the  To  Kalon  Vineyard 
Company,  B.  Arnhold  &  Company,  the  Cresta  Blanca  Wine  Company,  the 
Theodore  Gier  Wine  Company,  William  Hoelscher  &  Company, 
The  Dear  ^  Korbel  &  Brothers,  Lachman  &  Jacobi,  the  Gundlach-Bund- 
"■'''  schu  Wine  Company,  A.  Finke's  Widow,  the  French-American 
Wine  Company,  the  Sacramento  Valley  Winery,  the  Italian-Swiss  Colony; 
and  there  were  interesting  exhibits,  along  the  wall  of  the  interior  chamber, 
by  the  A.  Repsold  Company,  P.  F.  Flint,  Louis  Kunde,  Grau  &  Werner,  La 
Questa  Vineyard,  Chauche  &  Bon,  the  J.  L.  da  Rosa  Estate,  William  Weh- 
ner,  the  Mt.  Hamilton  Vineyard,  and  Dresel  &  Company. 

In  the  center  of  the  booth  was  a  moving-picture  theater  in  which  more 
than  100,000  people  during  the  Exposition  saw  the  beautiful  wine  country  of 
California,  with  all  the  scenes  of  cultivation  and  the  vintage.  The  working 
plant  of  every  important  firm  was  shown.  Champagne  making  and  the 
interesting  process  of  "disgorging"  were  depicted.  Scenes  from  the  Vin- 
tage Festival  at  St.  Helena  added  variety.  Champagne  making  was 
illustrated  in  detail.  About  15,000  feet  of  film  was  projected  here.  The 
cost  and  upkeep  of  the  exhibit  ran  over  $75,000.  This  is  history — closed  by 
the  Eighteenth  Amendment. 

Notwithstanding  all  the  opportunities  of  eating,  free  and  pay,  there  was 
hardly  a  more  popular  booth  in  the  Food  Palace  than  that  of  the  Rainier 
Brewery,  and  not  because  of  any  dispensation  of  product.  Here  a  large 
crowd  was  always  watching  the  gyrations  of  a  pretty  girl  in  a  barrel.  By 
pressure  of  her  slippered  toes  on  the  inside  of  the  staves  she 
^^Z^\  revolved  at  will  in  a  vertical  plane,  her  position  changing  through 

all  the  degrees  of  the  azimuth  circle.  She  was  as  much  at  home 
upside  down  as  right  side  up,  which  was  probably  not  meant  to  symbolize 
any  effects  of  the  beverage  she  advertised,  but  which  did  excite  much 
wonder.  The  illusion  was  exposed  on  Closing  Day.  Product  and  girl  are 
but  a  memory  now. 

The  Food  Palace  housed  not  merely  food,  but  some  of  the  finished  prod- 
ucts   of   agriculture,  among   which   was  tobacco  manufactured  for  con- 




sumption.  There  were  extensive  exhibits  of  this  product  by  such  firms  as 
M.  A.  Gunst  &  Company,  and  the  Liggett  &  Myers  Tobacco  Company. 
The  exhibit  of  the  latter  was  especially  large  and  contained  some  of  the  most 
widely  advertised  brands  of  cigarettes,  smoking  and  chewing  tobacco  sold 
in  this  country.  At  least  two  San  Francisco  cigar  factories  put  in  working 
exhibits,  the  Petri  Italian- American  Cigar  Company,  and  Frankel  &  Gerdts, 
producers  of  the  Natividad  brand.  Both  operated  small  plants  where  the 
public  could  have  optical  evidence  of  the  cleanliness  of  the  processes 
employed.  The  Alhambra  Cigar  and  Cigarette  Company  of  Manila,  and 
Cuesta,  Ray  &  Company  of  Tampa,  were  among  the  other  important 
exhibitors  in  this  field. 


CHINA  in  the  Palace  of  Food  Products  will  be  remembered  mainly  for 
the  attractive  Chinese  restaurant  where  many  an  Occidental  visitor 
had  his  first  introduction  to  chop  suey  and  noodles,  and  such  other 
delicacies  as  we  have  enumerated  in  the  chapter  dealing  with  the  restaurants 
of  the  Exposition.  In  addition  there  were  exhibits  of  typical  Chinese  foods, 
such  as  sharks'  fins,  canned  bamboo  shoots,  pumelo  peel,  egg  soy,  duck  egg 
yolks,  sesame  oil,  edible  sea  weeds,  glutinous  rice,  and  quite  a  list  of  flours 
made  from  substances  we  need  to  know  about  but  have  not  yet  grown 
accustomed  to  using  in  that  way — water-chestnut  flour,  soy-bean  flour,  lily- 
root  flour,  green-pea  flour,  and  potato  flour.  Much  of  the  Chinese  food  was 
in  tins  and  bottles,  enough  to  indicate  that  the  art  of  preserving 
Chinese  f^^jg  -^^  ^^ih  manner  was  being  widely  practiced  and  was  growing 
""  ^''^  into  an  important  industry  in  China.  In  Chinese  wines  and 
brandies  there  was  a  large  showing.  In  tea,  of  course,  the  exhibit  was 
particularly  strong,  and  the  soothing  commodity  came  in  tins  and  bottles  as 
well  as  in  the  more  familiar  lacquer  and  wood  packages. 

The  Cuban  booth  in  this  Palace  was  an  attractive  composition  consisting 
of  an  elevated  kiosk  rising  from  a  balustraded  terrace,  to  which  broad  stairs 
mounted.  It  was  very  helpful  to  the  effective  display  of  cigars  and  cigar- 
ettes, and  some  of  the  most  expensive  "smokes"  ever  rolled  were  on  view. 
The  exhibit  however,  did  not  stop  with  cigars,  but  included  chocolates, 
candies,  cakes,  sugar,  preserves,  condiments,  wines  and  cordials,  starch, 
mineral  waters,  pineapple  juice  attractively  bottled,  and  alcohol. 

Argentine  exhibited  in  the  Food  Palace  the  high  quality  of  her  flour,  and 
its  products  in  the  form  of  pastes  and  biscuits.  There  was  a  strong  showing 
of  Argentine  wines  and  brandies,  of  peach  wines  and  of  unfermented  grape 
juice.  Vermouth  and  aperatives  figured  largely.  Cheese,  condensed  milk, 
and  Pasteurized  milk  showed  the  development  of  dairying  in  the  Argentine. 
The  fine  quality  of  Argentine  preserved  fruits  was  much  in  evidence,  and 
there  were  good  displays  of  tobacco,  manufactured  into  cigars  and  cigarettes. 

Exhibits  from  Great  Britain,  in  the  Food  Palace,  included  the  automatic 



bakery  we  have  mentioned  above,  Dewar's  whiskey  shown  in  a  copy  of  the 
cottage  of  the  Fair  Maid  of  Perth,  Lipton's  Teas  and  Gordon's  dry  gin, 
Gillon's  whiskey,  and  Burnett's  gin  and  Belfast  aerated  waters,  ginger  ale, 
and  similar  products. 

Greece  had  an  attractive  display  of  Athens  cheeses,  of  canned  vegetables, 
and  of  wines  and  brandies  from  the  Piraeus. 

Holland  showed  not  only  manufactured  products  of  the  mother  country, 
such  as  cigars  and  smoking  tobacco,  chocolates,  canned  goods,  and  biscuits, 
but  a  magnificent  exhibit  of  the  raw  products  of  her  colonies. 

The  foods  of  Japan  were  displayed  in  most  attractive  forms.  The 
principal  exhibits  were  the  products  of  agriculture,  and  showed  a  great 
variety  of  rice  and  other  cereals,  besides  soy  beans,  ginger,  peanuts,  red 
pepper,  sugar,  vermicelli,  buckwheat  noodles,  and  tea. 

The  last  named  commodity  was  presented  as  it  grows,  in  a  pretty  little 
reproduction  of  a  tea  garden  before  a  Japanese  home,  with  Japanese  maidens 
picking  the  tender  leaves  from  the  tea  plants.  The  house  was  of 
bamboo,  the  tea  pickers  were  in  native  silk  costume  and  the  y,  aGa'd^n 
artificial  tea  trees  were  so  real  you  feared  they  might  die  for  lack 
of  water.  This  charming  scene  was  set  in  the  Palace  by  the  Japanese 
Central  Tea  Association. 

Japan  also  showed  the  food  products  of  the  sea  and  the  forest.  There 
were  tinned  salmon,  shrimps,  crabs,  lobsters,  sardines,  cod,  and  fish  paste. 
The  export  business  in  these  commodities  amounts  to  millions  yearly. 
From  the  forests  came  canned  and  dried  mushrooms,  canned  bamboo  shoots, 
and  chestnuts.  Pains  were  taken  to  make  the  display  as  far  as  possible 
educational  to  the  extent  of  showing  the  preparation  of  the  finished  com- 
modity from  the  original  raw  material.  Combined  exhibits  were  encouraged 
like  that  of  the  shoyo  sauce,  in  which  case  the  exhibitors  were  from  widely 
separated  places  so  that  the  exhibits  showed  something  of  the  field  of  pro- 
duction. The  same  was  true  of  the  exhibits  oi  sake,  the  Japanese  national 
beverage  distilled  or  brewed  from  rice,  and  the  green-tea  exhibits,  where 
those  of  the  Japan  Central  Tea  Association  and  of  the  Formosa  Tea  Trading 
Association  were  placed  in  proximity. 

In  the  Italian  section  of  the  Palace  of  Food  Products  there  was  not  much 
that  was  new  to  San  Francisco  with  its  well-established  Italian  colony  and 
its  Italian  groceries  and  restaurants.  One  interesting  display  was  a  case 
of  live  olive  nursery  stock  that  had  been  "inoculated"  at  the  roots  and  had 
made  remarkable  growth  in  a  short  time.  There  were  ventilated  hives,  of 
interest  to  bee-keepers,  and  there  was  a  large  and  appetizing  showing  of 
Lucca   oil,   sausages,   canned    honey,    Roman    cheeses,    mineral    waters. 

VOL.  IV — 20 


Italian  wines  and  brandies,  canned  citron,  pastes,  including  an  antidiabetic 

sort,   chocolates   and   confectionery,   bottled   celery,   snails   and 

OlilTrrees    °^^^^  comestibles.     These  displays  came  from  Genoa,  Florence, 

Milan,  Turin,  Marsala,  Piemonte,  Rome,  Torre  del  Greco  and 

some  of  the  Umbrian  towns. 

Portugal  had  an  exhibit  of  bottled  goods,  and  of  cork;  with  canned 
tunny,  anchovies,  sardines,  and  mackerel  in  olive  oil  and  other  fish  in  pig- 
nut oil.  There  were  cheeses  and  other  relishes,  and  preserved  vegetables, 
and  pickled  swallows.  There  was  real  Port  from  Oporto,  claret  from 
cintra,  white  wines  and  sweet  wines  from  the  vicinity  of  Lisbon,  and  real 
madeira  from  Funchal. 

New  Zealand  exhibited  a  fine  list  of  animal  food  products— cheese,  butter, 
refrigerated  meats,  canned  meats.  Some  confectionery  was  shown  and 
creditable  honey.     There  were  wheat  and  oat  products,  even  to  biscuits. 

Spanish  wines  and  mineral  waters  and  perfumes  were  exhibited  in  this 
Palace,  and  there  was  a  Spanish  candy  kitchen.  Here  pretty  Spanish  girls 
armed  with  atomizers  filled  the  air  with  scent. 

It  is  the  writer's  individual  notion  that  while  the  food  fed  to  the  multi- 
tude was  really  exhibited,  a  large  part  of  the  exhibits  in  this  Palace  were  not 
exhibits  of  food  at  all,  but  of  the  exteriors  of  tins,  tubs,  bottles,  and  other  con- 
tainers, and  the  labels  upon  them.  People  could  not  see  through  a  salmon 
tin  and  examine  the  salmon  inside;  the  tin  might  as  well  have  been  empty; 
and  perhaps  was.  Even  if  it  had  been  glass  they  could  not  have  tasted  nor  even 
smelled  the  contents.  The  only  way  food  can  be  exhibited  is  for  the  exhibi- 
tor to  have  the  exhibitee  eat  it.  Mr.  Workman  did  it,  with  his  tamales, 
and  achieved  a  great  advertising  success,  and  so  did  the  Sperry  Flour  Com- 
pany; but  too  many  exhibitors  showed  the  label  and  stopped  there.  It  may 
be  objected  that  really  to  exhibit  food  costs  money.  It  need  not.  A  small 
price  will  restrain  to  proper  moderation  the  bird-like  propensity  of  the  public 
to  be  fed  by  someone  else,  and  at  the  same  time  will  compensate  the  exhibi- 
tor for  his  outlay.  How  the  charge  should  be  made  is  a  matter  of  detail  for 
individual  ingenuity  to  settle,  but  all  sorts  of  prize  and  coupon  dodges  could 
be  used  as  added  attractions.  When  you  think  of  it,  there  are  few  things 
more  important  than  food,  and  it  is  well  to  spread  all  possible  knowledge  of 
it.  The  next  exposition  could  and  should  improve  on  the  exhibits  of  food 
products  by  inducing  all  the  exhibitors  to  distribute  samples,  at  a  nominal 
price.  The  proof  of  the  pudding  is  not  the  sack  in  which  it  was  boiled,  nor 
even  the  tin  in  which  it  may  be  shipped. 


Argentina's  food  products  exhibit 


HOW  the  United  States  Government  protects  the  public's  fish-food 
Interests  was  illustrated  by  a  large  and  most  interesting  series  of 
exhibits  installed  in  the  Palace  of  Food  Products  by  the  Bureau  of 
Fisheries  of  the  Department  of  Commerce.  This  was  a  very  extensive 
display  with  an  expensive  plant,  for  it  included  an  aquarium  with  thirty  glass- 
front  tanks  in  which  there  were  maintained  about  a  hundred  species  of 
marine  and  freshwater  fish;  besides  which,  there  was  a  salmon  hatchery  in 

There  were  fine  opportunities  here  for  studying  piscatorial  life,  and  also 
for  finding  out  how  to  take  the  various  fish  displayed,  for  there  was  a  grand 
exhibit  of  tackle:  dry  flies,  split-bamboo  rods,  wading  nets,  gaffs,  landing 
nets,  harpoons,  lances,  whale  guns.  And  there  were  models  of  fishing 
schooners,  dories,  and  other  craft  of  all  imaginable  sorts,  back  to  the  old- 
style  Marblehead  cod  schooners.  Here  were  models  of  the 
"Albatross"  and  the  "Fish  Hawk,"  operated  by  the  Bureau  of  pish  Crop 
Fisheries.  The  latter  vessel  showed  a  floating  hatchery.  Both 
were  equipped  with  all  sorts  of  deep-sea-sounding  and  trawling  rigs  for 
research  work  in  oceanography. 

Of  course  the  largest  interest,  or  at  least  the  interest  of  the  largest 
numbers  of  people,  attached  to  the  living  exhibits  in  the  tanks.  The  tanks 
themselves  were  made  of  cobbles  set  in  cement,  and  were  backed  up  with  a 
plant  for  supplying  salt  water  at  just  the  proper  temperatures  for  the  finny 
inhabitants  of  cold  and  of  tropic  seas.  Some  of  the  rocks  used  were  tossil- 
iferous  formations  from  the  Potomac  Valley. 

Many  of  the  exhibits  came  in  a  United  States  fish-distributing  car,  which 
was  hauled  into  the  grounds  over  the  Exposition's  own  railroad  before  Open- 
ing Day.  All  the  important  varieties  of  trout  of  United  States  waters, 
except  the  Golden  Trout  of  Volcano  Creek  in  California,  were  shown.  There 
were  rainbows,  steelhead,  eastern  brook,  Dolly  Vardens,  cut-throat,  gray- 
ling— enough  kinds  in  their  appetizing  beauty  to  excite  the  strongest  passions 
of  the  angler.     Here  you  saw  the  salmon  in  his  majesty  and  in  many  species; 



and  flounders,  sculpins,  the  leopard  shark,  the  horn  shark,  the  shovel-nose, 
the  grouper,  the  sheep's  head,  the  spiny  lobster,  the  blue  crab,  the  skate, 
and  viviparous  perch  which  bear  their  young  already  hatched 
of  the  Deep  instead  of  merely  laying  eggs  like  most  of  the  other  fish.  There 
were  yellow  bass  from  the  Great  Lakes,  crawfish  from  Oregon, 
bullheads,  catfish,  "channel  cats"  and  others  too  numerous  to  mention. 
Some  leopard  sharks  were  born  in  the  Exposition. 

The  fur  and  salmon  industries  of  Alaska  are  under  Government  super- 
vision, and  there  was  an  exhibit  of  Alaska  furs,  seal,  otter,  fox,  and  beaver. 
Some  furs  of  the  blue  and  of  the  silver  fox  exhibited  here  were  worth  from 
$1,000  to  $1,200.  Seal  skins  were  shown  partly  plucked  of  the  long  hairs 
to  get  down  to  the  fine  fur  underneath. 

Models  showed  the  sponge  industry  as  it  is  operated  at  Anclote  Key, 
Florida,  with  the  artificial  propagation  of  sponges  illustrated. 

The  salmon  hatchery  showed  the  methods  of  hatching  the  eggs  and 
caring  for  the  fry  until  they  were  able  to  care  for  themselves. 

The  central  feature  here  was  an  open  and  circular  tank  containing  14 
different  species  of  fish.  There  were  four  kinds  of  sturgeon,  a  valuable  food 
fish  individually,  for  a  full-grown  female  weighing  from  250  to  300  pounds 
will  sometimes  have  a  value  of  $1 25,  the  caviar  alone  selling  at  $1.50  a  pound, 
green.  Here  were  gar  pike,  suckers,  carp,  and  two  lazy  young  alligators 
that  spent  most  of  their  time  on  a  little  raised  table  in  the  center.  Other 
tanks  showed  turtles  and  terrapin. 

One  of  the  valuable  special  industries  of  the  country,  one  that  sprang  up 
over  night  and  enriched  hundreds  of  people,  was  the  mussel-shell  button 
industry,  developed  notably,  we  believe,  on  the  rivers  of  Illinois.  It  was 
long  known  that  the  mussels  yielded  pearls,  and  it  was  suddenly  discovered 
that  their  shells  would  yield  much  wealth  in  another  form.  Special  machin- 
ery was  devised  for  cutting  and  turning  buttons;  and  the  process 
Buttons  ^^^  exemplified  in  connection  with  the  fisheries  exhibit  of  the 
Government.  Examples  were  shown  of  the  trephined  shells,  with 
the  cut-out  button  blanks,  and  the  drilled  and  finished  product. 

The  marine  shell  industry  was  also  illustrated.  A  large  pearl-oyster 
shell  was  diagrammed  for  cutting,  and  the  yield  was  shown  in  buttons, 
marquetry  work,  fan  handles,  a  razor  handle,  a  parasol  handle,  a  table- 
knife  handle,  jewelry,  and  decorations  of  musical  instruments  and  opera 

Oyster  beds  were  represented  as  planted,  so  the  public  could  see  where 
the  oyster  comes  from  and  how  it  is  grown.  The  oyster's  enemies,  other 
than  man,  were  on  view:  starfish  and  sundry  borers. 


There  were  some  interesting  products  of  the  fishing  industry,  such  as  the 
various  oils,  including  that  delicacy  of  our  childhood  days  extracted  from 
the  liver  of  the  cod.  There  was  whale  oil,  sperm  oil,  isinglass  and  commer- 
cial fertihzer,  and  there  was  the  baleen  of  the  bowhead  whale. 

Altogether,  the  fisheries  exhibit  was  one  of  the  most  popular  and  instruc- 
tive of  the  many  United  States  exhibits. 


A  MAN  of  ancient  Athens  once  tried  to  sell  a  house  by  showing  a  brick 
from  it  as  a  sample.  His  "prospects"  looked  on  it  as  a  fair-to- 
middling  brick,  but  it  didn't  tell  them  much  about  the  house.  They 
wanted  to  know  whether  the  atrium  opened  right  into  the  pluvium  or  if  you 
had  to  go  around;  if  there  was  a  good  enameled  bath  tub  or  just  one  of  the  old 
Saturday-night,  zinc-lined  kind;  if  the  hired  girl  could  run  the  furnace  or  if 
she  would  have  to  have  the  help  of  a  colored  brother,  and  a  lot  of  other 
things  no  brick  could  answer.  Some  super-skeptics  said  the  brick  didn't 
prove  he  had  a  house  anyhow — he  might  have  dropped  in  at  the  brick  yard 
on  his  way  up  to  the  Pnyx  that  morning. 

Down  to  the  time  of  the  Panama-Pacific  International  Exposition, 
horticultural  exhibits  had  been  a  good  deal  like  that.  They  had  been 
exhibits  of  fruit,  not  demonstrations  of  the  industries  of  growing  and  market- 
ing fruit;  and  they  had  not  even  been  reliable  examples  of  the  fruit  they 
sought  to  represent.  Five  perfect  apples  on  a  plate  tell  you  little  or  nothing 
at  all  about  the  rest  of  the  apples  in  the  orchard.  If  you  are  a  very  logical 
sort  of  reasoner  they  don't  even  convince  you  of  the  existence  of  an  orchard, 
for  they  might  have  grown  on  a  single  tree  in  a  garden,  amid 

Horticulture  ,  •   ■  ,■   .  ■  -i  ,  r      i  i 

on  a  Plate  extremely  propitious  conditions  impossible  or  unprontable  to 
reproduce  on  a  commercial  scale.  Such  an  exhibit  shows  nothing 
about  horticulture  in  its  economic  aspects,  commercially,  as  the  servant  of 
human  wants,  and  hence  it  is  a  matter  of  very  limited  interest,  and  no  public 

The  Exposition  resolved  to  get  as  far  away  from  the  five-on-a-plate  style 
of  exhibit  as  it  could.  It  was  not  possible  to  avoid  it  altogether,  for  it  had 
in  its  favor  too  much  the  approval  of  time,  and  the  support  of  habit,  and  the 
disposition  of  people  to  imitate  rather  than  innovate.  But  in  spite  of  the 
presence  of  many  five-on-a-plate  exhibits.  Chief  Dennison  made  a  remark- 
able showing  of  the  modern  methods  of  horticulture,  and  of  the  ways  in 
which  its  products  were  made  available  for  consumption. 

Commercially  packed  fruits  were  given  higher  rating  than  the  plate 


^^?^;.::%:^ '-;^. 




■"■"v.  •^^' 

i^..  .^y  s  > V 




specimens,  which  resulted  in  large  exhibits  of  horticultural  products  in 
commercial  form — that  is  to  say,  for  distribution  and  use — maintained 
throughout  the  season;  and  the  Palace  contained  spray  pumps,  refrigeration 
plants,  insect  enemies  of  fruit  pests,  and  a  large  scientific  cannery  in  full 
operation,  which  in  the  course  of  the  season  developed  an  improved  process 
and  thus  contributed  directly  to  the  effectiveness  and  value  of  the  industry. 

This  was  the  first  international  exposition  to  set  up  a  separate  and  an 
independent  Department  of  Horticulture;  whereby  it  not  only  added  a  very 
great  attraction  to  its  many  other  attractions,  but  contributed  to  the  public 
much  solid  instruction  about  a  vital  industry.  There  had  been  other  horti- 
cultural exhibits,  plenty  of  them,  but  this  was  the  first  time  horticulture 
had  received  such  signal  recognition  as  to  be  made  the  field  of  a  whole 

The  classification  was  amplified  and  given  greater  scope  than  had  been 
the  custom,  so  that  it  included  not  only  fruits,  nuts,  and  flowers,  but  the 
tools,  appliances,  and  machinery  necessary  to  exhibit  the  complete  trans- 
formation of  the  product  from  the  tree  or  nursery  to  the  shape  in  which  it  is 
put  into  the  hands  of  the  ultimate  consumer.     Herein  it  was  in  ^^^^^ 

line  with  the  thought  and  life  of  the  day,  for  just  before  the      Cnnslmer 
exposition  there  had   been,  in  connection   with   that  immortelle 
of  American  politics,  the  tariff,  a  great  deal  of  intelligent  discussion  through- 
out the  country  as  to  just  what  it  was  that  the  ultimate  consumer,  in  the 
language  of  the  day,  had  handed  to  him. 

The  groups  of  the  classification  were:  appliances  and  methods  of  pomo- 
logy, floriculture,  and  arboriculture;  appliances,  and  methods  of  viticulture; 
pomology;  preserved,  dried,  and  pickled  fruits;  fruit  culture,  trees,  shrubs, 
ornamental  plants  and  flowers;  and  seeds,  bulbs,  cuttings,  and  plants  for 

The  Department  had  three  distinct  sections:  the  out-door  exhibits  in  the 
Horticultural  Gardens,  occupying  about  93^  acres;  the  Conservatory,  under 
the  great  dome,  and  in  adjoining  rooms;  and  the  Economical  Horticulture 
Section  in  the  rectangular  area  westward  of  the  domed  part  of  the  building. 

The  Palace  was  one  of  the  distinctively  beautiful  features  of  the  grounds, 
a  magnificent  structure  involving  some  clever  engineering,  and  of  an  archi- 
tectural style  that  was  rare  and  delightful.  Its  great  dome  of  steel  and  glass, 
152  feet  in  diameter,  rising  to  a  height  of  185  feet  from  the  ground,  was  pro- 
bably the  only  one  of  the  sort  that  had  ever  been  built  in  the  world,  at  least 
on  any  such  scale.  Extending  toward  the  west  was  a  rectangular  frame 
structure  300  feet  wide  and  340  feet  long,  in  which  the  economic  and  com- 
mercial exhibits  were  installed.     The  cost  of  construction  came  to  1352,600. 


The  exterior  architectural  ornament  was  lavish  and  festive,  taking  the 
form  of  garlanded  columns  and  spires  and  cornices,  with  moulded  fruit  and 
flowers  in  profusion,  and  trellises  that  suggested  illimitable  gardens.  The 
Palace  was  the  composition  of  Bakewell  &  Brown,  architects  of  San  Fran- 
cisco's City  Hall,  and  was  extremely  successful. 

Just  how  to  treat  the  area  under  the  dome  so  that  the  huge  void  should 
not  look  meaningless  and  vacant  was  at  first  a  puzzle,  especially  as  some 
features  designed  by  the  Chief  of  the  Department  for  that  purpose  had  to  be 
pruned  out  of  the  estimates,  for  economy.  But  Cuba,  eager  to  show  her 
appreciation  of  the  aid  of  the  United  States  in  her  difficulties  a  few  years 
back,  applied  for  the  space,  and  came  forward  with  14  carloads  of  trees  and 
plants  that  turned  it  into  an  emerald  jungle  of  strange,  giant 

Cuba  in  1  1      r  •        i  ■  •  ^i 

California  vegetable  forms  never  seen  m  this  region.  There  were  cocoanut 
trees,  and  Royal  and  Cocos  palms,  lifting  tall  shafts  from  which 
they  stretched  their  fronds  over  a  billowy  sea  of  ferns  and  tropical  Hlies. 
There  was  the  curious  mycrocycus,  a  tree-fern  a  thousand  years  old.  There 
were  bamboo  palms,  breadfruit  and  banana  trees,  mangoes,  guanabano, 
dates  in  bearing,  and  the  finest  specimens  of  crotons  with  their  broad, 
variegated  leaves,  ever  shown  in  this  country.  These  strange  and  exotic 
things,  all  living  under  the  huge  glass  bubble,  thriving  vigorously,  and 
exhaling  a  moist,  earthy  tropical  scent,  established  the  sylvan  atmosphere 
of  the  Palace  and  gave  it  a  haunting  and  fairy-like  charm. 

In  this  section  was  what  was  called  a  "  balanced  aquarium,"  one  in  which 
water  plants  replenished  the  oxygen  for  the  rare  gold  fish  it  contained,  so 
that  it  would  take  care  of  itself  automatically  and  keep  the  fish  well  without 
a  change  of  water. 

Under  small  angle  domes  about  the  large  one,  were  housed  exhibits 
equally  striking.  One  was  the  30,000-dollar  collection  of  orchids  put  in  by 
MacRorie  &  McLaren  of  San  Mateo  County.  The  luxuriant  blossoms  were 
in  great  variety,  and  they  proved  a  sad  temptation,  for  they  were  quite 
exposed,  and  according  to  the  watchman  many  of  them  at  first  found  their 
way  into  the  possession  of  ladies  that  probably  had  never  appropriated 
anything  wrongfully  before.  The  pool  was  filled  with  the  finest  and  most 
beautiful  Japanese  gold  fish.  A  corresponding  room  under  one  of  the  small 
domes  was  full  of  ferns,  about  a  broad  pond,  in  which  floated  some  extra- 
ordinary water  lilies — Victoria  Regias  and  Nymphaeas.  Another  of  the 
rooms  under  the  angle  domes  was  devoted  to  the  exploitation,  at  a  small 
charge  for  service,  of  Hawaiian  pineapple  and  Kona  coffee,  and  the  fourth 
was  filled  with  horticultural  machinery. 


THOSE  broad  and  beautiful  gardens  that  were  the  delight  of  flower 
lovers  from  all  parts  of  the  world,  the  outdoor  exhibits  of  the  Depart- 
ment of  Horticulture,  stretched  across  the  southern  expanse  of  the 
Palace  and  beyond,  eastwardly,  including  the  section  where  the  House  of 
Hoo  Hoo  and  the  Redwood  and  White  Pine  Bungalows  stood.  They  con- 
tained growing  exhibits  from  Massachusetts,  from  Japan,  from  Holland,  and 
embraced  the  plats  for  the  International  Rose  Contest.  A  floricultural 
expert  was  in  charge  as  superintendent:  Mr.  Carl  Purdy,  the  California 
authority  on  bulbs.  And  the  system  of  seasonal  judging  in  floriculture  was 
probably  the  best  ever  maintained  by  an  exposition.  From  May  i  until 
Closing  Day,  Mr.  H.  Plath  and  Mr.  E.  James  scored  the  garden  exhibits 
weekly,  having  as  additional  judges  in  that  time  Mr.  J.  R.  Fotheringham, 
Mrs.  Myrtle  Shepherd  Francis  and  Mr.  Charles  W.  Johnson. 

The  Holland  exhibit,  at  the  westerly  end,  not  only  occupied  the  north- 
and-south  depth  of  the  space,  but  ran  along  Administration  Avenue  for  over 
800  feet,  except  for  a  gap  to  give  access  to  the  westerly  entrance  to  the 
Palace.  These  beds  were  said  to  have  contained  at  one  time  some 
60,000  flowering  bulbs.  The  Inside  Inn  overlooked  them  from  e h^,^^^ 
across  the  avenue,  and  to  thousands  of  people  they  were  one  of  the  " 
main  beauty  spots  of  the  Exposition  grounds.  The  exhibit  here  was  made 
by  the  Horticultural  Federation  of  The  Netherlands,  was  planned  by  the 
horticultural  architect,  Versteeg,  of  Holland,  and  was  under  the  supervision 
of  Delegate  Commissioner  P.  M.  Koster,  who  had  for  his  superintendent 
Mr.  A.  van  Vliet. 

The  material  was  collected  by  the  Federation  so  that  it  represented 
the  best  Holland  had  to  ofl^er.  There  were  all  the  famous  Dutch  bulbs  in 
their  seasons,  flowering  shrubs  and  trees,  and  an  excellent  display  of  conifers 
and  trained  boxwoods.  Tulips,  azaleas,  camelias,  and  hyacinths  in  rare 
perfection  made  it  a  field  of  beautiful  color,  and  the  closing  display  of  tuber- 
ous begonias  was  the  largest  and  finest  ever  made  in  America. 

The  Massachusetts  garden  contained  the  exhibits  of  the  growers  of  that 



Commonwealth,  was  designed  by  Mr.  Stephen  A.  Childs  and  Mr.  Carl 
Purdy,  and  was  maintained  by  the  Massachusetts  Commission.  The  exhi- 
bits of  dahlias  and  flowering  perennials  were  especially  noteworthy. 

The  California  garden  was  of  great  beauty,  and  showed,  during  the 
entire  season,  blossoming  exhibits  of  rare  excellence  and  interest.  The 
gladioli  display  of  the  Metzner  Floral  Company  contained  the  finest  speci- 
mens ever  shown;  the  Gill  Nursery  Company's  showing  of  roses  and  the 
conifers  of  the  California  Nursery  Company  were  exceptional,  and  the 
dahlia  display  was  unusually  fine. 

The  exhibits  of  the  eastern  growers  were  excellent,  particularly  the  dis- 
play of  gladioli  by  Mr.  John  L.  Childs,  Mr.  Arthur  Cowee,  and  the  Vaughan 
Seed  Store,  and  the  roses  of  Mr.  Charles  H.  Totty. 

It  was  left  for  a  California  concern  to  carry  off  the  palm,  however,  and  at 
no  exposition  has  one  firm  made  such  a  continuously  beautiful  display, 
covering  such  a  wide  variety  of  bloom,  as  was  made  in  the  C.  C.  Morse  & 
Company's  space.  This  firm  produced  three  gardens  during  the  season, 
each  covering  its  entire  area.  The  Spring  garden  was  devoted  to 
Gardens  ui  ^j^^  flowering  bulbs,  the  Summer  garden  to  flowering  annuals  and 
Succession  ^^^  ^^^^  garden  to  perennials  and  late  flowering  annuals.  From 
Opening  Day  to  Closing  Day  it  was  a  beauty  spot  of  great  credit  to  the 


The  International  Rose  Contest  excited  much  interest  by  reason  ot  the 
$i,ooo  prize  offered.  Entries  of  many  new  seedling  roses,  hitherto  unexhi- 
bited,  were  made  by  Hugh  Dickson,  Ltd.,  of  Belfast,  Ireland;  S.  Bide  and 
Son,  Ltd.,  of  Farnham,  England;  Dobbie  &  Son  of  Edinburgh,  Scotland; 
E.  Pernet-Ducher  of  Lyons,  France;  Peter  Lambert  of  Trier,  Germany; 
E.  G.  Hill  of  Richmond,  Indiana;  the  Brant-Hentz  Company  of  Madison, 
New  Jersey;  Howard  &  Smith  of  Los  Angeles,  California;  and  Samuel 
McGredy  &  Son  of  Portadown,  Ireland. 

The  jury  covered  the  entire  season  in  its  scoring,  making  its  decision  in 
favor  of  Hugh  Dickson  Ltd's  No.  1596,  on  November  27th,  the  week  before 
Closing  Day.  This  was  a  yellow  rose  with  a  long  and  very  perfect  bud.  A 
condition  of  the  contest  was  that  the  winning  rose  should  be  named  by  the 
Directors,  and  Director  Hellman  suggested  the  name  "Lillian  Moore"  in 
honor  of  the  wife  of  the  President  of  the  Exposition,  which  was  directly 

adopted.  . 

In  passing,  it  is  a  pleasure  to  make  mention  of  the  splendid  exhibit  ot 
perennials  and  flowering  annuals  made  by  Sutton  &  Sons,  and  Kelway  & 
Son,  of  England,  and  the  display  of  German  roses  by  Peter  Lambert. 

The  wonders  and  the  beauties  of  the  Horticultural  Gardens  perhaps  did 




not  reach  their  highest  efflorescence  until  about  the  time  of  the  Dahlia 
Show  in  September.  At  this  time  of  year  the  planted  and  growing  dahlias 
made  the  gardens  a  more  wondrous  miracle  of  color  than  they  had  been  at 
any  previous  time. 

A  few  years  before  the  Exposition,  great  interest  had  begun  to  center  in 
the  dahlia,  because  of  the  profitable  tendency  of  the  seedlings  to  vary  from 
the  parent  plants  and  so  yield  new  and  strange  forms.  Wonderful  vari- 
ations from  the  old  hard-boiled  pompoms  of  our  grandmothers  had  been 
produced,  and  there  was  a  bewildering  variety  of  "singles,"  and  "doubles," 
and  "collarettes,"  and  "peony"  and  "cactus"  and  "decoration"  and 
"show"  dahlias,  in  every  imaginable  shade  and  combination;  the 
curious  names  of  the  new  kinds  indicating  the  confusion  of  nomen-       P'aming 

1  ■  r   11  1  r         ■  ,  Dahlias 

clature  certam  to  lollow  when  every  fancier  can  produce  some 
new  form  of  his  own.  Such  experimentation  had  been  carried  to  great 
lengths  in  the  vicinity  of  San  Francisco,  where  soil  and  climate  made  a  com- 
bination peculiarly  suitable  to  this  Mexican  plant.  In  addition  to  the 
local  growers  many  eastern  experts  planted  them,  so  that  it  was  said  by 
competent  observers  that  the  display  of  growing  dahlias  in  the  Horticultural 
Garden  at  the  Exposition  had  never  been  excelled. 

The  exhibits  were  not  confined  to  the  California  beds.  They  were  in 
the  Massachusetts  and  eastern  sections,  for  the  production  of  new  dahlias 
had  been  going  on  all  over  the  country.  R.  &  J.  Farquhar  of  Boston  showed 
102  varieties,  Forbes  &  Keith  of  New  Bedford,  over  214,  E.  F.  Dwyer  & 
Sons  of  East  Lynne,  28,  W.  W.  Wilmore,  Jr.,  of  Wheatridge,  Colorado,  16. 
There  were  82  in  all  from  Denver  growers.  But  the  local  growers  came  out 
in  great  strength  and  made  some  startling  exhibits.  The  Vallance  Nursery 
of  Oakland  put  in  80  varieties,  C.  S.  Quick  of  Berkeley  200.  The  J.  H. 
Willey  Bulb  Company  of  Santa  Cruz,  the  Bessie  Boston  Dahlia  Farm  at  San 
Mateo,  the  Metzner  Company  of  Mountain  View,  and  Ruth  C.  Gleadell,  A. 
Twitchett,  and  Carl  Beckstadt  of  San  Francisco,  were  some  of  the  many 
that  maintained  dahlia  beds  and  grew  therein  such  floral  wonders  as  the 
Sumatra,  a  red  with  ivory  tipped  petals,  the  Gloire  de  Paris,  a  gorgeous  red 
show  flower,  the  great,  pale  lavendar  Seduction  Peony;  or  the  Eckford 
Century,  with  its  curious  white  petals  striped  and  splotched  with  red. 

One  could  wander  for  hours  in  this  thicket  of  gorgeous  bloom,  more 
colorful  than  any  tropical  jungle  ever  found  by  the  foot  of  man,  without 
tiring  of  the  infinite  variety  that  had  been  developed  and  preserved  by  the 
persevermg  fanciers. 

The  Metzner  Floral  Company  of  Mountain  View,  California,  exhibited, 
in  addition  to  its  extraordinary  seedling  dahlias,  seedling  gladioli,  and  seed- 


ling  petunias,  of  types  not  before  publicly  shown.  These  were  in  the 
California  garden.  There  were  also  some  fine  petunias  by  the  Theodosia  B. 
Shepherd  Company  of  Ventura,  California. 

The  California  Nursery  Company  of  Niles,  California,  made  a  wonderful 
exhibit  of  conifers  in  93  varieties.  This  is  one  of  the  great  orchard  stock 
nurseries  of  the  State,  and  its  exhibits  attracted  much  attention. 

Leonard  Coates  of  Morganhill,  California,  exhibited  40  varieties  of 
eucalyptus,  and  26  of  acacia.  A  fine  display  of  iris  was  made  by  the  fore- 
most iris  grower  in  America,  Bertrand  H.  Far,  of  Wyomissing,  Pa.  He  had 
263  varieties.  Prof,  and  Mrs.  Cockerell  of  Boulder,  Colorado,  had  bred 
some  red  sunflowers,  of  which  some  curious  specimens  were  exhibited. 


PROGRESS  is  made  when  the  crude  and  sketchy  methods  of  the  family 
kitchen  have  to  give  way  to  the  precision  of  the  modern  factory. 
But  the  reader's  prompt  disagreement  with  the  writer  on  this  subject 
indicates  how  badly  the  public  needs  education  about  it.  One  of  the  high- 
est points  of  value  in  the  whole  Exposition  was  reached  in  the  working 
cannery  installed  in  the  Palace  of  Horticulture  by  the  National  Canners' 
Association,  and  operated  by  its  food  scientists.  Dr.  and  Mrs.  A.  W.  Bitting, 
practical  chemists,  bacteriologists,  microscopists. 

It  not  only  taught,  it  untaught;  a  most  valuable  educational  process — 
there  is  so  much  known  that  isn't  so.  A  lady  stopped  to  watch  Mrs.  Bitting 
make  jam.  "Now,"  she  remarked  "you're  skimming  off  the  impurities, 
aren't  you.^"'  "No,"  said  the  bacteriologist,  "I  shouldn't  call  it  so.  Call 
it  coagulated  protoplasm.     You'd  eat  it  in  the  whole  fruit." 

The  art  of  canning  food  is  about  loo  years  old,  and  is  one  of  the  greatest 
blessings  mankind  ever  bestowed  on  itself.  That  canned  food  should  be 
under  any  unjust  suspicion  is  a  loss,  direct  or  indirect,  to  everybody  that 

One  of  the  easiest  explanations  of  gastric  or  enteric  trouble  is  "ptomaine 
poisoning."  Sometimes  it  grows  into  a  regular  fashion.  It  used  to  be 
ascribed  in  a  large  number  of  instances  to  canned  fruit  or  vegetables.  Such 
reports  have  been  for  a  number  of  years  followed  up  by  the  National  Can- 
ners' Association,  as  far  as  they  can  be  investigated  by  its  agents,  and  the 
results  of  the  investigations  are  that  only  one  case  of  ptomaine 
poisoning  has  ever  been  discovered  that  might  even  plausibly  have  ^^p^^^*^^ 
been  attributed  to  canned  vegetables,  and  no  authenticated  case 
has  been  found  arising  from  canned  fruit — and  the  solitary  case  ascribed  after 
investigation  to  a  canned  vegetable  was  never  verified,  and  remains  a  mere 
suspicion  with  the  probabilities  against  it.  Sometimes  the  trails  led  into 
queer  places  and  revealed  some  strange  medieval  doings  in  families,  doings 
that  had  often  to  be  brought  to  the  attention  of  the  District  Attorney. 
That  is  a  bit  beyond  our  present  province,  however. 



Lye  peeling  is  supposed  by  some  people  to  be  a  heinous  device  of  greed. 
The  peaches  canned  at  this  model  cannery  were  all  lye  peeled,  and  the 
process  was  demonstrated  to  be,  when  properly  applied,  the  cleanest  and 
most  wholesome  and  effective  method  of  taking  off  the  skin  of  the  peach  yet 

The  National  Canners'  Association,  with  headquarters  at  Washington, 
was  in  191 5  a  comparatively  recent  organization  of  the  progressive  canners 
of  all  kinds  of  food  throughout  the  United  States.  It  represented  the  first 
effort  to  systematize  the  knowledge  of  canning.  It  endeavored  to  maintain 
among  its  members  agreements  on  minimum  standards  of  quality,  to  secure 
uniformity  of  pure  food  laws,  and  uniform  factory  sanitation.  It  main- 
tained at  Washington  a  bacteriological  and  chemical  laboratory,  which  cost 
about  $30,000  to  equip  and  a  similar  amount  yearly  to  run,  where  tests  of 
advanced  processes  are  made  and  all  the  scientific  problems  of  fruit  preserv- 
ing worked  out  as  far  as  they  can  be.  The  results  of  this  research  are  issued 
in  bulletins  from  time  to  time  so  that  the  members  may  have  the  benefit  of 

When  the  Exposition  developed,  the  National  Canners'  Association 
looked  on  it  as  a  good  opportunity  to  show  the  public  through  its  experts 
how  the  best  canneries  are  conducted,  and  what  precautions  are  taken  to 
produce  ready  and  portable  food,  safely  and  economically  and  under  better 
conditions  than  commonly  prevail  in  the  domestic  kitchen.  It  was  a 
departure;  not  a  mere  advertising  stunt,  because  it  was  not  undertaken  by 
any  particular  cannery  with  a  product  to  sell,  but  an  effort  to  educate  the 
public  for  the  mutual  and  the  common  benefit.     The  complete 

T^  1  yi     TT/  7        7 

Process"  "^  process  of  handling  and  canning  fresh  fruit  by  the  most  improved 
sanitary  methods  was  shown  to  the  public  daily.  The  loose  fruit 
was  received  direct  from  the  orchard,  and  the  latest  types  of  machine  were 
employed  in  reducing  it  to  the  canned  commodity,  to  be  nailed  up  in  the 
latest  fashion  of  wire-bound  packing  case — a  style  of  case  that  took  only 
half  the  lumber  in  the  old-fashioned  box  and  so  helped  conserve  the  forests 
and  the  freight. 

The  public  could  advise  here  with  the  foremost  authorities  on  the  sub- 
ject in  the  United  States;  and  it  could  help  itself  to  pubHcations;  bulletins 
with  such  pertinent  titles  as  these:  "Preliminary  Bulletin  on  Canning"; 
"Methods  Followed  in  the  Commercial  Canning  of  Foods";  "A  Revolution 
in  the  Kitchen";  "Some  Safety  Measures  in  Canning  Factories";  "Some 
Hints  on  Factory  Sanitation";  "Tomato  Pulp";  "Principles  of  Cost"; 
"Swells  and  Springers." 

One  or  two  things  were  found  out  by  the  experts  in  charge.     One  was 




that  it  is  not  so  much  the  bruise  on  the  fruit  that  makes  trouble,  but  the  use 
of  infected  lug  boxes  in  the  orchard.  Another  was  the  improvement  in  the 
lye  peeling  process  mentioned  above;  that  promised  to  save  California  can- 
ners  at  least  $15,000  a  year,  only  one  eighth  the  lye  commonly  used  being 

The  American  Can  Company  contributed  the  cans  for  this  exhibit,  and 
the  discerning  visitor  observed  that  the  old  style  hole-and-cap  can  with  a 
soldered  edge  wiped  with  hydrochloric  acid  had  disappeared.  In  its  place 
was  a  can  with  the  entire  top  open  to  admit  the  whole  fruit,  a  can  that  could 
more  easily  be  washed  clean.  The  tops  were  crimped  on  by 
machinery,  to  which  the  cans  were  carried  in  procession  on  long  in  Cans 
conveyor  belts.  This  was  but  one  of  the  machines  at  work  giving 
clean  and  uniform  results  in  the  factory.  There  was  a  machine  for  grading 
the  filled  cans  by  weight,  the  "heavies"  being  thrown  to  one  side,  the 
"lights"  to  the  other,  while  the  "rights"  went  straight;  a  recent  develop- 
ment that  had  not  yet  been  used  for  fruit,  but  was  in  use  for  canned  salmon. 
There  was  a  syruping  machine  that  measured  the  right  quantity  of  sugar 
by  a  sacchyrometer.  There  were  conveyors  to  take  the  filled  but  still  open 
cans  to  the  steam  box  where  the  air  was  driven  out  of  them  by  the  heat. 
After  the  tops  were  crimped  on,  the  cans  went  to  a  big  chest  where  they  were 
cooked,  and  there  was  a  cooler  to  stop  the  cooking  before  the  syrup  should 
go  brown.     These  shifts  were  made  almost  entirely  by  conveyor  belts. 

Organisms  in  the  fruit  were  easy  to  kill,  but  vegetables  and  meats  had  to 
go  above  the  boiling  temperature  in  a  big  retort.  There  was  a  row  of  open, 
pressure,  and  vacuum  kettles  for  determining  exactly  the  best  temperature 
for  jams  and  jellies.  Everything  was  reduced  to  definite  time  and  quantity; 
tasting  and  guessing  and  doing  things  by  handfuls  had  no  place  here. 

The  Anderson-Barngrover  Company,  of  San  Jose,  California,  installed 
a  most  comprehensive  working  exhibit  of  cannery  machinery,  showing  lye 
peach  peelers,  scalders,  fruit  slicers,  peeled  fruit  graders,  exhaust  boxes  for 
expelling  air  by  heat